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Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 810-33, 2009.

 

 

Exploring the Folk Medicinal Flora of Abbotabad City, Pakistan

 

Maria Sabeenand Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad

 

Dept of Environmental science, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan

drsaeed@fjwu.edu.pk

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Issued July 01, 2009

 

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Abstract

The research work was carried out around the selected areas of Abbotabad city. The study was aimed to document the traditional folk knowledge of local people about use of medicinal plants as ethno medicines. The methodology includes questionnaire survey and personal communications. The ethnomedicnal data on 108 plant species belonging to 52 families were recorded during field expeditions from remote villages around Abbotabad city. The data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use and recipe. The plant species were collected identified, preserved and the voucher specimens deposited in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, and Rawalpindi for future reference.

 

Keywords: Folk use, medicinal plants, Abbotabad city, Pakistan.

 

Introduction

���������� A medicinal plant is one used by people for medicinal purposes and to build or maintain health, stave off diseases or promote recovery from illness or misfortune. Traditions of healthcare must always been features of human societies and from the available evidences it is found that plants are playing a lead role in the therapy (Srivastava, 2000). Even today the traditional medicines (largely herbs) are supporting the primary healthcare of majority of people globally more than the conventional or allopathic medicines (Farnsworth et al., 1985). The plants have been used as medicines since the beginning of human civilizations (Hill, 1952) and have been a source of treatment of the common day ailments. People use their indigenous flora for negotiating their multidimensional requirements. Medicinal herbs make an effective source for the traditional and modern medicine (Abatan et al., 1986).

��������� Even today it is being in use by hundred and thousands of people in the developing world and are deriving a significant part of them for their survival and also for their income generation by gathering the animal and plant products (Iqbal 1993; Walter 2001) This gathering of the valuable products such as mushrooms and medicinal plants like ginseng, black cohosh and goldenseal also takes place in the developed countries for different cultural and economic reasons (Jones et al., 2002).

���������� The usage of plants as medicine still presents a very important phenomenon in the traditional medicine which is imbedded in the culture of people of developing countries (Kloucek et al., 2005; Duraipandiyan et al., 2006). The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. The essential values of some plants have long been published but a large number of them remain unexplored as yet. The traditional systems of the medicine like Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and Biomedicine are very effective particularly in rural areas for the treatment of various aliments. In spite of the advent of the modern medicines, tribal populations are still practicing the art of herbal medicine. Near about 80% of the total human populations still depends upon traditional remedies together with folklore system based mainly on phytotherapy (Azaizeh et al., 2003). The green pharmaceuticals are getting fame and extraordinary importance. The drugs that have been used in the past as safe and effective must be reminded and retagged due to their unexpected adverse effects. The medicinal herbs on the other hand do not have any side effects as they have been formed in combination with many of the essential minerals and vitamins (Hussain et al., 2003 Herbal medicine even today plays an important role in rural areas and various locally produce drugs are still being used as household remedies for various diseases especially in these areas for different ailments (Qureshi & Ghufran, 2005).

���������� There are certain reasons for the popularity of herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are found to be cheaper (Uniyal et al., 2005), though not invariably so (McMillen, 2008) and are generally much more easily handy in the rural areas (Runyoro et al., 2006). Nowadays the use of complementary and alternative medicine is being increasing and plant derived drugs are also growing slowly and gradually (Nayak et al., 2003; Park, 2005; Nuzzi, 2008). Previous ethno botanical studies of medicinal plants confirm the balanced use of recipes by different people, group from different communities for various illnesses ranging from common fever to complex illnesses such as asthma, psychosis and even epilepsy (Oyedepo et al., 1997; Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2005; Gilani et al., 2006; Ogundiya et al., 2006; Sonibare and Gbile, 2008).

��������� Pakistan is blessed with diverse flora and climates. It has been estimated that more than 1000 plant species contain phyto-chemical properties while 350-400 plant species are traded in different local markets by 28 leading manufacturing units of Greco-Arabic, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicines. About 50,000 to 60,000 tabibs (practitioners of Greco-Arabic medicine) and a large number of unregistered practitioners scattered in rural and remote hilly areas of Pakistan utilize more than 200 plants as household remedies for curing several diseases (Shinwari et., al 2003). It has also been estimated that almost 84% population of Pakistan depend upon the traditional medicines for all the medicine to be used for their ailments (Goodman and Ghafoor 1995). According to Haq (1983), Pakistan has about 40,000 registered practitioners of traditional medicine and majority of the population, especially rural people, is getting health care by tabibs. It is estimated that 60% of the population use the herbal prescriptions of traditional practitioners. Ahmad (2007) illustrated the usage of medicinal plants growing along the motorway (M-2) passing through different geographical areas of Punjab, Pakistan. 81 plants from 44 families were documented overall. Similarly Ahmad and Hussain (2008) investigated the use of medicinal plants along the salt range in Kallar Kahar region. They investigated 29 species belonging to 18 families from the local area and documented the use of native plants by the local people medicinally. It was found that common disorders such as fever, cold, cough and diarrhea could be treated by simple herbal teas and herbal powders which are locally available and have no side effects.

������������ Keeping in view the importance of medicinal flora of the Abbotabad area the study was confined to collect and document the indigenous knowledge of local people about medicinal uses of native plants .The present study was aimed to document the traditional knowledge of Abbotabad and preserve it to be used by the future generations.

 

Materials and Methods

�������� The present research study was undertaken to explore the indigenous flora of Abbot Abad which has been used locally for treatment of various diseases. The research included the survey method involving collection of data through questionnaire interviews of men, women, herbalists, teachers and students were taken during transect and guided walks. The present study was confined to the identification and collection of medicinal flora of abbot Abad. The study was conducted in the months of March-May 2009 in different areas of Abbotabad.

Collection of medicinal plants

������� The method adopted for the documentation of the indigenous knowledge was based upon the questionnaire consisting of the semi-structured interviews employing a checklist of questions and direct observations, regular field trips were arranged in order to collect information about the folk knowledge of medicinal plants used by the local people of Abbotabad for curing their ailments.

������� During field trips, the questionnaire was used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, herbalists and pansaries, teachers and students who were familiar with the traditional use of local plants, on random basis. In total 150 respondents. Interviews were conducted in with local people in different villages individually following procedure as described by Ahmad et al., (2004). Repeated queries were also done for the confirmation of the data. Analysis of data was carried out and indigenous knowledge was documented.

Collection and preservation of plants

��������� Plant specimens were brought to the lab and plants were preserved and dried herbarium and voucher specimen were made. Plants were identified with the help of available literature and comparing it with already identified flora of Indo-Pak (Stewart 1972)

Ethno botanical inventory

���������� Ethno botanical inventory was developed consisting of botanical names followed by the vernacular names, family, part used, folk medicinal uses and recipes.

 

Results and Discussion

���������� Check list of medicinal data on 108 plant species belonging to 52 families during March, April and May 2009.Information regarding theirvernacular name, family name, part used, uses and recipes is given in the table 1.�����

 

��������� Medicinal importance of plants has long been known for centuries and various therapies are considerably higher in remote areas than in urban areas and semi-urban areas. The important part of the therapy involves the use of plant extracts or their active compounds (WHO, IUCN and WWF, 1993). The compounds which are important from medicinal property of medicines are the secondary metabolites, alkaloids, glycosides, resins, oleoresins and some of the common active compounds of the medicinal herbs (Singh and Sandhu, 2004).

����������� Medicinal plants used in this field can be easily found in gardens, forests, mountains, valleys and agricultural fields. This traditional healing system is inexpensive and near to nature. In Indo-Pak subcontinents these traditional healing practices are termed as �Unani� or �Ayurvedic system� (Haq, 1993). Many of the different categories of indigenous uses of plants across the sphere includes different types of gastrointestinal disorders, and an ample number of plant species are been found to cure such ailments around the globe by different cultural societies (Ankli et al., 1999; Bennett & Prance, 2000).

 

The present study provides information about some therapeutic uses of 108 plant species belonging to 52 families. The plants are either used individually or in combination with some other plants or plant parts. Some plant species are claimed to be quite effectual remedies for cutaneous affection of head, snakebite, fever, jaundice, backache, stomach ache, cancer, diarrhea, malaria, cough and cold, and stomach troubles, asthma, joints pains and diabetes etc. Since the uses are based on observed knowledge, the scientific study of all these herbal drugs is highly desirable to establish their efficacy for safe use. These plants are also used by the local herbalists and hakims as traditional medicines. Different areas of Abbotabad region are supplemented with useful medicinal plants. However, these areas are facing severe problems of biotic interference and need to be protected and conserved through community participation. Community participation can be set off by giving motivation and creating awareness among the native people about the useful properties of medicinal plants and their commercial values. Different parts of the plant were used in curing different complaints. During this research project it was noted that the medicinal plant wealth of Abbot Abad, were not fully exploited. Some important medicinal plant species are rapidly decreasing, mainly due to anthropogenic activities. So, the area needs proper safeguard for the conservation and survival bio-resources. The medicinal plants can be protected by introducing conservation programs by the help of local people. Chemical screening of medicinal plant and their useful parts collected from the fields in different seasons should be done on regular basis. The oil bearing medicinal plants should be screened for chemical and biological investigation, as well as for averting overgrazing, cutting and to be used as a fuel wood.

 

This study provided a large number of medicinal plants used in different medicines which could be a considerable interest to the developers of modern drugs. In the same way the conservation of these valuable medicinal plants has also become vital (Dhar et al., 2000) owing to the increasing interest in the herbal medicines for health care all across the globe (Franz, 1993).

���������� Advance research works should be sanctified on base line of indigenous studies because there are still some diseases like �Cancer� and �AIDS�, for which there are no acknowledged cures. Ethno directed studies can help in these research works (Ahmad & Ali, 1998). It was concluded from this study that on national scale a survey of medicinal flora should be conducted to investigate and modernize the catalog of existing natural plants� resources of the area specially and generally throughout Pakistan.

 

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Table 1. Checklist of different plants found in the study area.

Family

Botanical name

N.V.

Parts used

Folk Uses

Recipes

Acanthacea

 

 

Justicia adathatoda L.

 

Bhekar

 

Whole Plant

BronBronchitis,fever, cough, abortificant, tumors, diseases of mouth, leucorrhea.

 

The Roots are useful in bronchitis and other chronic coughs especially when used along ginger. Leaves are very effective in the treatment of asthma and rheumatism. The decoction of roots is taken twice a day as a powerful abortificant for seven days.

Adiantaceae

 

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Kak-pai

Whole Plant

Piles and jaundice

Decoction of plant is taken in and dry powder is also taken as a remedy to piles and jaundice.

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.

Lehsan (Urdu), Thoom

Bulb

Enhance conception, weight reduction, dysentery, heat diseases and earache

Usually the paste of bulb is used in the uterus to enhance the conception and fertility. One crushed clove, taken along a glass of water reduces weight and cholesterol level. A clove is fried in Brassica compestris oil and dropped in the ear for the relief of pain.

 

Allium cepa L.

Piaz/ Onion (English)

Underground leaves and bulb.

Stoat�� Stomach, swelling, laxative, wounds diarrhea, wasp sting and snake bite

It is warmed in oil and used as a pultus on acne. It is used with a small amount of vinegar for the cure of diarrhea. Raw onion is very useful to be eaten as well as applied over the wasp or insect sting.���������������������������������

Amaranthaceae/

Chenopodiaceae

Achyranthes aspera L.

 

Poth Kanda

Whole Plant

Tooth ache, dysentery, rheumatism, skin diseases, cough, asthma, and insect bite and bowel complaints.����������

Decoction of both leaves and roots are used��� for the tooth ache and abdominal pains. The juice of the plant is used for dysentery, rheumatism and skin diseases. The paste of fresh leaves is used over the insect bites���������� ��������������

 

����� ssSpinacia oleraca L.

 

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Palak

Whole Plant

Stomach swellings, kidney pain, diuretic, abdominal pains, tuber closis.

Boiled leaves are used for the relief of stomach swelling, thirst relief and abdominal pains. Crushed seeds are effective for abdominal pains, tuber closis and heart pains.

 

Chenopodium album L.

Bathu

Whole Plant

Abdominal problems, laxative, jaundice, urinary diseases, rheumatism, snake bite and antihelmitic

The fruit and roots are used as an antidote for snake poison. Roots are used for jaundice, urinary problems and rheumatism

Apiaceae

 

Foeniculum vulgara Mill.

 

Sonph

Leaves and seeds.

Diuretic, Digestive, aromatic, laxative, aphrodisiac and stimulant

Usually the seeds are eaten up orally and sometimes boiled in water and the syrup is taken in. The syrup is also taken for weight loss and digestion. It is especially recommended for the babies and kids.�����������

 

Coriandrum sativum L.

Dhania

Whole Plant

Mouth swelling, toothache, and tranquilizer, smell reduction, gum bleeding, tooth strength and control birth rate.������������

Its syrup act as a tranquilizer. Coriander leaf extract can reduce the paleness of eyes and also prevent the boils of small pox. Mouth and toothache can be�� reduced by its gurgles. Its paste can reduce gum bleeding. Its seeds are soaked in water for over night and given to males to produce sterility as an effective and cheaper method of population control.������

 

Dacus carota L.

Gajar

Whole Plant

Liver problems, diuretic, abortificant, anti depressant

Its seed-ash is applied over wounds. Decoction of seeds is also helpful in to regularize menstruation and its high dose is effective in abortificant. The juice is very helpful for liver and urinary tract infections(UTI)�������������������������

 

 

 

Trachy spermumammi (L) Sprague ex. Turrill

Jawain/

Ajwain

Seeds

Scanty menstruations, cough gas trouble and stomach tonic

Powdered seed are taken along brown sugar and desi ghee or butter orally once a day for three days to treat the scanty menstruations and it also clears the uterus and regularize menstruations especially after delivery. The seed are fried over the cooking dish for a few seconds are then ground to powder which is quite effective to be used in cough and cold. The seeds are boiled in water and the syrup is taken in for dysmenorrheal pains.

 

Pimpinella diversifolia DC

Chora

Roots

Pain killer, stomach pains

100 mg powdered dry roots are used along water everyday for the relief of pain.

Araliaeae

Hedera nepalensis K.Koch

Albhommar

Leaves

Antidiabetic, increase milk yield in animals

Fresh leaves are eaten up for ten days by using one leaf a day and increasing the number of leaves per day.

Asclepiadaceae

 

Calotropis procera (Willd) R.Br (AC)

Akk

Leaves, roots and latex

Scabies, laxative, ulcers, and purgative, leucoderma, diseases of liver, spleen and abdomen, malaria, asthma and cholera.

The extract is strengthening. The powdered leaves are taken for scabies. Ash acts as n expectorant. The hot leaves are applied on the abdomen to reduce the abdominal pains. Latex is used for the treatment of skin diseases.

Asteraceae

Silybium marianum Gaertn.

Kandiari

Ripe��� Seeds

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Liver problems, cirrhosis (hardening of liver), Jaundice, Hepatitis-C and gall-bladder disorders.

The seeds are ground to powder and taken with water.

 

Vernonia anthelmentica Willd.

Kali zeri

Seeds

Antibiotic, ear ache, cough, toothache, chest infection, pneumonia, anti-diabetic, allergy, acne, dysmenorrheal, and anticancer

Sometimes the seed powder is taken and often the seeds are boiled in water which is taken twice a day.

 

Sonchus asper (Linn.) Hill

Hand (saag)

 

Leaves and roots

Fever, constipation, heart burning, anti diabetic, scabies and heart diseases.

Plant powder is applied over burns. Roots and leaves are boiled in water and this syrup is taken in fever and heart burning. It is cooked as food and eaten up for the cure of scabies, diabetes, constipation and heart diseases

 

Lactuca serriola L.

Kaho

Whole plant

Refrigerant, sedative, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiseptic, expectorant,whooping cough and asthma

It is used in combination with different herbs and also used orally.

 

Arisaema flavum Forssk.

Adbis

Rhizome, fruit

Snake bite, cough and cold

Leaf extract is applied over snake bite to act as an antidote. It also saves milk from being stale when mixed with each other and dried roots of the plant is put in the container to have the milk from being staled.

 

Artemisia fragrans Willd.

Chaho

Leaves

Asthma, earache, toothache, antiseptic, antihelmitic

Leaves extract is given to children once a day to remove the worms. It is applied over wounds. Extract is also used for asthma, earache and tooth ache.

 

Chrysanthemum indicum L

Gul-e-daudi

Flower and stem

Anti-Bacterial and anti diabetic

Flower extract is taken as a remedy for diabetes. The extract of flower and stem is antibacterial in action.

 

Senecio salignus DC.

Chitta hula

Roots, leaves and seeds

Astringent, antihelmitic, back ache, diseases of cattle, antidote

Leaf extract is used as an antiseptic over wounds. Crushed roots are used in constipation and are antihelmintic. Crushed roots are boiled and used in cattle�s backache and swelling of joints. The plant extract is used as an antidote for snake bite.

Berberidaceae

Berberis lycium Royle

Sumblo

Whole plant

Anti-diabetic, antibiotic, anti cancer, acne, dysentery, sore throat, diuretic, dyspepsia, jaundice, liver disorders, mouth swelling, cough and pain killer.

Decoction of leaves is given in jaundice. Roots are febrifuge. Sprinkling of powdered roots with oil acts as an ointment over fractures. Root powder is also used in ulcers and applied on wounds. The bark of root is soaked in water for over night and the water is drunk for the pains. The fruit is laxative.

Brassicaceae

 

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern

Rae

Seeds

Weight loss

Used in combination with herbs to reduce weight.

Boraginaceae

 

Cynoglossum lancoelatum Forssk

Choro

Leaves and branches

Cough

Fresh leaves along branches are chewed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cannabinnaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

Bhang

Leaves, seeds and stem

Sedative, anodyne, ear-ache, malaria, anthrax, sore throat, piles and scabies

Small drops of its essence are used to reduce ear-ache.The seed of Cassia fistula and one gram leaves of Cannabis sativa are taken along a cup of milk purifies blood and prevent scabies. Decoction of leaves is mixed with the excreta of pigeon and then smoked over coal is very effective for piles.

Convolvulaceae

Convulvulus arvensis L.

Lehli

Whole plant

Piles skin disorders, purgative

The herb is boiled in water end used for piles. Roots are purgative.

Cruciferae

 

Raphanus sativum Linn

Mooli

Whole plant���������������������������������������������������������������������

Jaundice

Fruit is cut longitudinally, salted, hung over night and taken to treat jaundice.

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Eruca sativa Lamk

Tara mera

Whole Plant

Anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, piles, ulcers, epilepsy, toothache and vomiting.

In infectious situations the oil is massaged on the skin. Leaves are stomachic, ground fresh leaves are applied to abscesses and seeds are given��� in colic. It is quite effective in piles, ulcers, epilepsy, toothache and stops vomiting.

Cuscutaceae

Cascuta reflexa Roxb.

Akaas bail /aft-e-mone (Tibb)

Whole Plant

Hair treatment, memory booster, pain killer, antihelmintic, carminative, purgative, diuretic and jaundice.

It is boiled in oil and water and then used for the treatment of damaged hair. Mostly used in combination with other herbs for the treatment of complicated diseases.

������������������

Dryoptericaceae

Dryopteris ramose (Hope) C. Chr.

Pakha

Leaves

Ulcers, constipation, immunizer, strengthening��������

Used as a vegetable for stomach ulcers, constipation, provides strength to body

Ebenaceae

Diospyrous lotus Linn

Maloak / Amloak

Fruit

Sedative and purgative

The fruit is sedative and purgative

Euphorbiaceae

 

Riccinus communis L.

Arand

Whole Plant

Cough, paralysis, lockjaw, and asthma, increase milk yield in mothers,bronchitis, and carminative, useful in pains, leprosy, tumors, piles, ringworm, asthma and amenorrhea

The leaves are cooked as food and given to mothers to increase���������������������������������� the quantity of milk. Roots are carminative and useful in pains, fever, bronchitis, leprosy, tumors and diseases of rectum and head. Flowers are useful in glandular tumors, troubles and vaginal pains. Root bark is purgative.

���������

 

Euphorbia royleana Boiss

Dozkhi meva/ zakoom/ cactus

Whole Plant

Earache, paralysis, loose motions, bladder stones.

A piece of main stem is cut and put on fire for a few minutes and the extract is then used for earache. The plant extract added with salt is given to babies drop wise for the cure of lose motions. By removing the bark of plant and eating the jelly like material is useful removal of urinary bladder stones.

 

Euphorbia caducifolia Hains

Danda thor

Roots

Abortificant

Root decoction is used as an effective abortificant at initial stages.

 

Euphorbia helioscopa L.

Gandi booti / chattri dodak

Seeds, roots and latex

abdominal cramps, cholera and eruptions

Powdered plant is taken with water to treat abdominal cramps. Latex is applied over eruptions and the seeds are taken along pepper during cholera. Root is antihelmintic.�������������������������

 

Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f.

Harvi

Latex

Skin diseases, wounds

The stem latex is applied over skin to treat the wounds and the pains are relieved in a single day.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

Fabaceae

Bauhinia verigata

Kulyar/ kachnar

Flowers

Loose motions, expectorant, sedative, diuretic.

The flowers are boiled in water and taken for the cure of loose motions

 

Fumariaceae

 

 

Fumaria indica (Hausskn) Pungsley.

Shahtra / Papra

Whole Plant

Stomach strength, scabies, acnes, fever, blood purifier, antihelmenthic, laxative, diuretic, alternative, diaphoretic and febrifuge, poultice and blood purifier.�������������������������

Mostly taken as boiled syrup (joshanda).The plant extract is very effective for diabetes, fever and bladder infections when taken before breakfast. Ground powder is also taken as a medicine and some times the plant is soaked in water and then used up.

Gentianaceae

Swertia chirata (Roxb ex. Fleming) H.Karst.

Choriata / karaita

Whole Plant

Diabetes, typhoid, anticancer, pneumonia and malaria.���������������

The fresh plant extract is taken along water twice or thrice a day for diabetes etc. Mostly powder is used for treatments. It is used for rheumatic fever and other fever, when boiled in water. It is also good for vomiting during pregnancy.

 

Swertia petiolata Royle

Momiri

Roots

Eye pain

Locally pulverized root is mixed with milk and poured into eyes for the relief of pain in eyes.����������������������������������

 

Gentia kurro Royle

Neil kanth

Roots

Stomach and urinary bladder complaints

Dried roots are boiled in water and the syrup is taken in. Plant decoction is used as a tonic.

Geraniaceae

Geranium wallichium D.Don ex Sweet

Rattan jote

Leaves and roots

Relieves post-delivery pains, weakness, joints and muscles pain especially back ache.����������������������������������������������

Dried roots powder is taken along milk and sugar for the relief of pain. Dried leaves are taken which is efficacious for backache. Decoction of leaves is taken for toothache, jaundice, kidney and spleen problems and irritating eyes.

Hippocastanaceae

Aesculus indica (Wall ex.Canb.)Hook fil.

Ban khore

Fruit and leaves

Diseases of animals (cough and fever), stomach pains, applied over wounds.

Powdered fruit is mixed in the cattle meal and given once a day for the cure of cough, fever and stomach pains. Fruit is also given orally to buffaloes and horses during cold and fever. Seed oil is pain killer and applied over wounds.

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L.

khore/ akhroat

Leaves, bark and fruit

Cooling, tonic, appetizer, heart diseases, bronchitis, piles, watery eyes, hydrophobia, and antihelmenthic

Leaves are astringent and tonic. Decoction of leaves is supposed to be antihelmenthic. Fruit is supposed to be alternative effect in rheumatism. Bark and leaves are used as an alternative, laxative and also used in herpes, eczema, and scrofula and syphilis. Externally infusion is applied to skin eruptions.

Labiateae / Lamiaceae

Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Bth

Ratti booti

Whole Plant

Headache, jaundice, malaria, hypertension, sore throat and earache�����������������������������������������������������������������������

Whole plant is crushed and the extract is taken in for the relief of pains.

 

Isodon rugosus (Wall ex Benth) Codd

Boee

Leaves

Ear ache and scabies

Fresh leaves are crushed and the extract is obtained. This extract is applied over effected skin for immediate effect and for earache 1-2 drops are used.

 

Mentha Longifolia (L.) Hunds

Jungli pudina / safaid pudina

Whole Plant

Vomiting, stomach pain, weight reduction, digestion, rheumatism, diarrhea and dysentery, stimulant, coolant and insect bite�������������������������������������������������������������������� �����

It is mostly taken in as dry powder for stomachic or leaves are boiled in water, cooled and drunk frequently for weight reduction and digestion problems. It is used along the boiled eggs in tonsillitis

 

Mentha piperate L.

Sabaz pudina

Whole Plant

Indigestion, headache, antispasmodic, vomiting, abdominal pains, carminative and purgative.����������������

Dried leaves are taken in abdominal pain, fresh leaves are chewed to reduce headache. It is also used in food stuffs to enhance the digestion; usually dried leaves are mixed in yogurt and taken in for stomach problems.����������������������������������������������

 

Ocimum balsilicum Linn

Niazbo/

khush boi

Leaves, flowers

Mouth sores

Fresh leaves are chewed to treat mouth sore�����������

Leguminoseae

Indigofera heterantha Wall

Kainthi

Leaves

Internal body disorders, warts��������������������������������������

Leaves are crushed and the extract is used in the internal body disorders and used against the warts in the mouth.

Lilliaceae

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Kavar gandal

Whole Plant

Antidiabetic, hair treatment, skin, constipation, fever, menstrual irregularities.

The fleshy leaves are used in diabetes also for skin and hair treatment. Leaves are also used for the treatment of gas troubles and abdominal pains.��������������������

 

Chlorophytum borovillianum Baker.

Moosli safaid

Roots

Pains, weakness, energizer, male potency and natal and post-natal problems.

1 tbs of dry powder is added in 50 ml milk and cooked until the milk evaporates. This solid mixture is then eaten daily before breakfast.

������������

 

Colchicum luteum Baker

Soranjan-e-talkh

Whole Plant

Joints pain, sciatica, blood infections and skin problems and liver and spleen related problems.�����������������

Powdered herb is used orally for joint pains and arthritis. The plant extract is useful in digestive and gastric problems and also efficacious in liver and spleen disorders.���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

 

Merendera persica Bioss

Soranjan-e-shirin

Roots

Pains, rheumatism, sciatic and gout

It is mostly used in combination with other herbs and its powder can be used singly in very small amount.

Malvaceae

Althea rosea L.

Gul-e-khaira

Roots

Jaundice, abdominal pain, liver and urinary bladder complaints

Small pieces of root are soaked in water for 24 hours until it thickens. This thick syrup is taken everyday before breakfast.��

 

Malva sylvestris L.

Sonchal

Leaves

Laxative, aphrodisiacs and demulcent

The leaves are cooked as food and eaten up.

Meliaceae

 

Azadirachta indica (L.) A. Juss

Dharaikh/

Bakain

Leaves

Acne cure

Decoction of leaves is used to prevent acne.The juice of leaves is laxative. It is also used in earache.����������

 

Melia azodirachta L.

Neem

Leaves, root, seeds flowers

Tonic, laxative, earache and liver disorders

Root is useful in bowels, vomiting, blood impurities, heart diseases, ulcers, headache, and uterine pains, laxative. Seed oil is useful for earache and liver disorders. Flowers and leaves are diuretic; relieves headache.

Moraceae

Broussonetia papyrifer (L.) Vent.

Jangli tooth

Fruit

���� Cough�����

Fruit is eaten as a cure for cough.

 

 

Ficus carica L.

Anjir

Stem, milky latex, fruit pulp.�����������������������������������

Birthrate control, insect bite and treating warts.

Decoction of stem is used to check the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of few weeks to control the population growth. Milky latex of leaves and stem is used for treating warts and insect stings and bites. Fruit pulp is applied in face for glow and nourishment.�����������������������������������������������������

 

Ficus palmata Forssk.

Phagware

Fruit and latex�����������������������������������������������������������������������������

Expectorant, kidney stones, laxative and demulcent.

The white milky latex of the plant is applied to cancer wounds for healing which is quite effective.

 

Ficus religiosa L.

Pepal

Leaves and stem bark

Vomiting, astringent, swelling, motions, asthma

The leaves which are being shed from the trees by themselves are boiled in water and drunk for vomiting and sickness. Leaves powder is taken along water for the treatment of asthma.

 

Morus alba L.

Toot sufaid

Fruit

Sore throat

Fruit is taken orally or syrup is made to cure sore throat.

 

Morus nigra L.

shah toot

Fruit

Blood pressure and anti-diabetic

Infusion is used to reduce blood glucoselevel and arterial pressure�������������������������������������������������������������������������

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava L.

Amrud

Leaves and bark

Cancer, bacterial infections, coughs. inflammations and pains

Leaf and bark extract is used against cancer, bacterial infections, inflammations and pains. Leaves and bark are astringent, antimicrobial properties and also used as an antidiabetic. Essential oil from guava leaves have an anticancer property. Leaves are boiled in water and water is taken as a remedy for cough.

 

Syzygium cuminii (L.)Skeels

Jaaman

Fruit, leaves and seeds����������������������������������������������������������������������������

Anti-diabetic, stomachic, liver, strengthening teeth, make hair sprout.

Fruit is used frequently by the diabetic patients. The crushed seed powder is also taken for Diabetes. Leaves of the plant are given to the cattle for treating loose motions on animals. The fruit is good for making the vocal cords strong. Dry powder can avoid the swelling of burns.

Oleaceae

Jasmine officinals L.

Chambeli

Flower and roots�����������������������������������������������������

Headache, toothache, lockjaw, sciatica, diuretic, antihelmenthic,�� scorpion sting, eruption in mouth.

Its syrup reduces the facial acne. Gargles of its syrup reduce toothache. Its oil is very effective in headache.�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata Linn.

Khatmithra/ khati booti

Whole Plant

 

 

 

Fever, laxative, alternative tonic, rheumatism, skin diseases, piles, bleeding of lungs.����������������������������������������

Juice of plant is mixed with onion to remove warts and also remove opacities of cornea. Juice of plant is also used in stomach troubles. Decoction of roots is given for worms, and to clean the rusted vessels and extract of plant is applied over scorpion sting. Crushed plant and sugar are kept over night and taken before breakfast as a cure for fever.

Paeonidceae

Paeonia emodi Wall

Mamekh

Roots

Weakness and pains.

Root powder is used or the relief of pain Roots are crushed and mixed with milk, sugar and roots of Geranium wallichium and this traditional halva (sweet dish) is taken for internal body aches, especially backache. Sometimes cut parts of the dry roots are boiled in milk along roots of Geranium wallichium and this milk is taken twice a day till recovery.������������������������

Papaveraceae

Papaver ssomniforum���

Linn

 

Posht

Flowers

Diarrhea, diabetes, pains and chest infection in kids.

The petals of the flower are removed and the rest of it is boiled in water. This syrup is give to the kids for the cure of bronchitis.

Pinaceae

Pinus roxburghii Sargent

Chirr

Seeds and gums

Stimulant,antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic and anti pathogen.

The gums are mixed with dry fruits and desi ghee (butter) and used by women as a tonic after child birth to relieve the weakness.

Plantaginaceae

Plantago major L.

Ispaghoal

Whole Plant

Constipation and weight loss

Its flower is soaked in water and taken along milk and sugar for intestinal problems and constipation. It also acts as a coolant. To take one table spoon with water before break fast reduces the tummy.

 

Veronica melissaefolia Desf. Ex Poir

Mushkna

Leaves

Abdominal pain

Fresh or dry leaves are boiled in water and syrup is used in the abdominal pains.�������������

 

Cyanodon dactylon (L.)Pers

Khabbal ghass

Whole Plant

Piles, vomiting, dysentery, irritation of urinary tract.

Infusion of grass with milk is used for piles. Juice of plant is used in dysentery. Same infusion is used vomiting and urinary tract irritation.

 

Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf

Lemongrass

Leaves

Astringent, antiseptic, insecticide, fungicide, relaxing, carminative.

Leaves are boiled in water and tea is made which is very effective in releasing fatigue, lessens mental stress, fever, and assists the process of digestion. Its oil is applied over the skin effected from ringworm or any kind if infection on the skin.��

Podophyllaceae

Podophyllm omodi Wall ex. Royle

Ban kakri

Fruit and seeds

Liver disorders, tonic, stomach disorders, joints pains and heart problems

Fruit is used as a tonic. Syrup of fruit provides strength to body. Crushed seeds are taken once a day for the treatment of liver and stomach disorders.

Polygonaceae

Polygonum amplexicaule L.

Masloon

Leaves and roots

Fever

Fresh leaves and roots are boiled in water and the tea is used for fever and flu. It provides heat to the body.��

 

Rumex dentatus L.

Khatimbbal

Leaves and roots

Jaundice, astringent, stomachic and abortificant

The syrup is used as an astringent, diuretic and abortificant.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

 

Rumex nepalensis Spreng

Haula

Leaves

Antiseptic, anti allergic

Crushed leaves syrup is applied on wounds to stop bleeding. Leaves are rubbed over the areas affected from allergy of Acacia nilotica (kikar).�����������������������������������������

Portulaceae

Portulaca oleraceae L.

Qulfa (saag)

Leaves

Low fever, kidney and spleen diseases, stomatitis, piles, scabies and burns, vomiting.��������������������������������������������������

The leaves are refrigerant, seeds are vermifuge, and leaves are applied on swellings. Leaves are also recommended in bilious conditions and allay thirst and headache. It acts as a tonic stops vomiting. It is good for kidney diseases in boiled or cooked form.��������������

Primulaceae

Androsace rotundifolia Hardw

Marcholla

Leaves

Stomach and skin diseases

The leaves are boiled in water and the extract is then used orally

Punicaeae

Punica granatum Linn.

Daruna

Stem,seed Fruit bark, flowers

stomach, astringent, cough, tonic, jaundice, fever, diarrhea and dysentery

Dry powder of fruit bark is mixed with yogurt and taken in for diarrhea and dysentery. Seeds are taken along brown sugar and taken up for jaundice.�����������������������

Rhamanaceae

Zizyphus jujuba Mill.

Unab

Leaves and fruit

Diabetes, acne, anti marks, antiallergic, digestive system disorders

The fruit (10 pcs) is soaked in water and taken orally before breakfast act as antimarks. Decoction of leaves is used for the cure of diabetes.

 

Rosaceae

Cydonia oblonga Mill

Bhae

Fruit

Cough, piles, rectal bleeding and gums bleeding, kidney disorders and abdominal pains

The fruit is used for chronic coughs, piles, gums bleeding and rectal bleeding

 

Fragaria nubicola. Lind.ex Lacaita

Budhi meva / Panjakha

leaves and fruit

Abdominal problems, carminative and antiseptic

Fruit is taken in for abdominal problems and leaves are used as an antiseptic on the wounds. The leaves and fruits are mixed with the leaves of Berberis lycium and used in the cure of stomach ulcers.������������������

 

 

Fragaria vesca L.

Jangali meva

Whole Plant

Digestive, backache ,vomiting, astringent, diuretic

Tea of roots and stem is used in winter. are astringent and diuretic, used in children diarrhea and infection of urinary organs���������������

 

Pyrus communis L.

Naakh / Nashpati

Fruit

Laxative

The edible fruit is laxative.

 

Pyrus pashia Ham.ex D.Don

Batangi

Fruits and leaves

Laxative, febrifuge, sedative and astringent.

Fruit is taken in for the cure of different diseases.

 

Rosa brunonii Lindl.������������������������������

Chahal

Flowers.

Abdominal pain and constipation

Flowers are boiled and syrup is taken till recovery.

 

Rosa indica (Wild) Koehne.

Gulaab

Leaves, flowers

Astringent, tonic, antihelmintic, applied to wounds and injuries, vomiting, diarrhea and nausea.

Flowers are applied to wounds and injuries. Roots are astringent and are used as a tonic and antihelmintic.��������������������

Rubiaceae

Galium aparine L.��������������������

Kachna / Kochin

Whole Plant

Jaundice and over wounds

Whole plant is wrapped over the wound till recovery. The plant extract is used once a day for the cure of jaundice.

Rutaceae

Citrus paradise Macfad

Chakotra / Grape fruit

Fruit and leaves

Diuretic, jaundice

The juice of fruit is effective in high blood-pressure. Dry bark of fruit is ground to powder which is quite effective in jaundice.

 

Skimmia laureola (DC.) Sieb & Zucc. ex Walp.

Neir

Leaves

Chicken pox, measles, stomach and liver problems, fever, headache

Crushed leaves with addition of water are best for stomach and liver problems, fevers and headache. Crushed leaves can also be spread over the effected skin as a cure. Smoke of its leaves is also used in the treatment of skin diseases�������������������

 

Zanthoxylem armatum D.C.

Timmber

Seeds, leaves and fruit

Stomach pain, piles, appetizer, vomiting and weight loss, abortificant and infertility.��������� ���������������

The seeds are used in food stuffs for carmination and stomachic. Seeds are also used as aromatic tonic for fever end dyspepsia. Fruit extract is used to repel roundworm.

Solanaceae

Atropa acumniata Royle(solanaceae)

Chella lubbar

Roots and leaves

Sedative, stimulant, antispasmodic, cough, diuretic,

Decoction of roots is very effectively used in cough and abdominal problems. Leaf extract is diuretic.

 

Datura innoxia Mill

Datura

Leaves, seeds����������������������������������������������������������������������

Snakebite and wounds

 

Leaves are applied to sores, fruits are sedative and intoxicating. Seeds are narcotic and antiseptic.

 

Datura stramonium L.

Datura

Leaves, seeds����������������������������������������������������������������������

Pains, rheumatism, lockjaw and Parkinson�s disease

Leaves are useful as a local application of rheumatism.

 

 

Solanum nigrum L.

Kach mach/ mako

Leaves

Constipation, Sedative, diaphoretic

diuretic, laxative, tonic

The leaves are cooked as a food and used for different purposes�������������������������������������������������������������������������������

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea viscosa (L.)Jacq

Sanatha

Leaves, seeds and Bark

Cure for wounds, blood purifier, stomach disorders, relieves pain, fever and migraine

The leaves are applied internally for the treatment of fever and externally used to treat toothache, sore throat, wounds, skin rash and stings. Leaves are chewed and the juice is swallowed in for as a treatment of toothache. Bark is employed in astringent baths and poultice.

 

Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

Reetha

Seeds and stem

Piles

Seeds and pulp is used in dry form with a combination of other herbs for the treatment of piles and the seeds are also soaked I water and the water is taken up for piles.

Saxifragaceae

Bergenia ligulata (Haw) Sternb

But pewa

Roots

Stomach, diuretic, skin diseases, cardio active.����������������������������������������������������

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

Roots are ground to powder and applied over wounds. For intestinal complaints roots are cut into small pieces and mixed with sugar and milk. This mixture is dried and preserved and used everyday before breakfast.

 

Berginia stracheyi Hook .f. & Thorns

Zakam-e-hayat

Leaves and roots

Anti cancer, ulcers, stomach and intestine complaints.

Crushed leaves are applied over wounds. Root and leaves powder is taken in with water to reduce abdominal complaints. The leaves are boiled in water and the syrup is taken for stomach ulcers.

Tiliaceae

 

Grewia asiatica L.

Dhaman /Phalsa

Stem bark and fruit

Heart and blood disorders, inflammation, fever, constipation, throat troubles, help in removal of dead fetus.

The ripe fruit is used to cure the inflammation, relieves thirst and burning sensation, heart and blood disorders, fever, constipation, throat troubles, help in removal of dead fetus. The bark is used as a cure for biliousness and it removes the troubles and burning of vagina.

Urticaceae

Urtica dioca L.

Bicchu booti /Kharishi booti

Whole plant

Kidney diseases, rashes, skin diseases, diuretic, rheumatism, jaundice, antihelmintic, astringent.����������������������������������������������

Plant extract is used for the temporary relief of pain in rheumatism, nettle rash and skin diseases. The decoction of plant is diuretic, astringent and antihelmintic. Most common household remedy for kidney diseases and jaundice. Nettle tea is given in fever. Seeds are diuretic, astringent and tonic.

Valarianceae

Valeriana jutamansi Jones����������������������� ����������

Mushkbala

Roots and rhizome

Body pains, stomach pain, carminative, cholera, epilepsy, used in dysentery and nourishing����

Dried roots are ground to powder and taken for seven days to avoid malnutrition in kids. Roots are used in habitual constipation and scorpion sting. The volatile oil of roots and rhizomes is used in all cases of merous debility and hysteria.

Violaceae

Viola serpens Wall.Roxb

Banafsha

Leaves, seeds and flowers

Cough chest infection, asthma, headache, and constipation and urinary bladder swellings.

The herb is used in combination for stomach problems and constipation. Flowers are diuretic, laxative andare used as a common household remedy for cough, hoarseness, sore throat, kidney diseases, liver and infantile disorders. Seeds and roots are purgative and diuretic.