Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 116-22. 2009

 

 

Utilization and Status of Plant Resources in Northern Part of Pokhara valley, Central Nepal

 

Acharya, Kamal Prasad

 

P.O.Box 15142 KPC 676, Kathmandu, Nepal. Email: acharya.kamal@gmail.com

 

Issued 30 January 2009

 

Abstract

            Study on plants and plant products and their present status is helpful for proper management of those resources. Nepal is a multicultural and multilingual country. Present study on utilization of forest plant resources was carried out in Bhurjungkhola, Sardikhola VDC, northern part of Pokhara valley during October and November 2004. Altogether 116 plant species belonging to 61 families and 103 genera along with their vernacular names, their uses and present status of abundance were documented. Out of 116 plant species, 58 plant species are used as medicinal purposes, 2 as a food value, 22 as fruits, 20 as vegetables, 56 as fodder and forages, 19 as timber, 45 as fuelwood, 11 as religious and 5 species as ornamental. The status of 66 plant species are found in medium followed by 36 plant species with low status and 15 plant species with increasing number.

 

Key words: Forest resources, Medicinal plants, Pokhara, Sardikhola VDC.

 

Introduction

            Nepal, a central Himalaya extends from 885 Km east to west along the Himalayan mountain system with a varying width from 145 Km to 241 Km. Within its narrow strip, it includes diverse physiographic structure and wide range of climatic conditions (Manandhar, 1999). As a result of the rugged and extremely diverse topographic structure, it contributed to the formation of isolated localities with unique flora and fauna (Chaudhary, 1998). Because of this Nepal is regarded as the showroom of biodiversity. Nepal falls in the 25th and 11th position in terms of species richness at the global and continental level respectively (MOPE, 2000). So far it is estimated that around 7000 species of flowering plants are present in Nepal, however, only 5,636 species have been reported (DPR 2001). Manandhar (2002) compiled informtations on 1500 plant species and majority of them are medicinal.

            Forest and people have been and still are intimately connected, socially as well as economically. Peoples’ dependance on forest resource is of ancient. Fuelwood is one of major sources of energy accounting about 10% of total energy supply (FAO 2007) and with the ever higher prices of fuels, there will be even more pressure on forests. Not only that at least 80% of the world’s population in the developing countries uses plant materials as their source of primary health care (Farnsworth et al., 1985). The process of exploiting forest resources beyond the sustainable capacity has lead to a number of environmental problems such as loss of habitat and biodiversity. Nepal is not an exception. In Nepal, plant resources have contributed significantly to the social, economical, cultural and environmental development of particular area. Study of such resources has great importance that it brings to light numerous less known or unknown uses of plants, some of which have potential wider uses (Chaudhary, 1998). This paper provides the list of plant species, their uses and their current status in Sardikhola VDC -1, Bhurjungkhola.

 

Materials and Methods

Study site

            Present study was carried out in Bhurjungkhola of Sardikhola VDC-1 is situated in the northern side of Pokhara valley just 15 Km away. It lies between 28020'N latitude and 83058'E longitude. The study area is dominated by Brahmins followed by Kami, Gurung, Damai, Sarki etc. The study area ranges between 990 to 1200 m a.s.l. The people depend upon the forest resources, which is Schima-Castanopsis forest and lies in North facing slope.

 

Methodology

            Present study was conducted in October and November 2004. Information on uses of plant species and their current status were gathered by participatory methods such as Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The documented information was further verified by group discussions and going through the relevant literatures (Joshi and Joshi, 2001 and Manandhar 2002). The voucher specimens were identified with the help of standard literatures (Stainton, 1997; Polunin & Stainton, 2000; Press et al., 2000) and cross-checking with the specimens of Tribhuvan University Central Department of Botany Herbarium (TUCH). The specimens are deposited at TUCH.

 

Results and Discussion

 

Plants used as medicines

            Forests of the study area provide a number of medicinal plant resources used for combating different health problems of human and livestock (Appendix 1). Out of 116 plant species, 58 plant species are used for medicinal purposes. Plants as a whole or its parts in the form of juice, decoction, ash or infusion are prescribed.

 

Plants used as food, Fruits and vegetables

            Underground parts of Dioscorea sagittata and Colocasia antiquorum are used as food value during scarcity. Edible wild fruits are obtained from 22 different plant species (Appendix 1). Fruits of Rubus ellipticus and Citrus medica are sold in the markets of Pokhara valley. Whole plants or different parts of 20 plant species are used as vegetables (Appendix 1). Young shoots of Asparagus racemosus, Dryopteris colcheata and Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Tusa) are collected and sold in Pokhara valley in high amount.

 

Plants used as fodder and forages

            Altogether 56 plant species are used as fodder and forages. Seasonal grazing is allowed in the forest. After the inclusion of some part of the forest in community forest, only the remaining part of the forest is allowed for grazing.

 

Plants used for farming and manure

            Leaves of Artimesia indica, Eupatorium adenophorum are used to prepare green manure. Dried leaves of Schima wallichii are collected to prepare compost as well as to provide bedding to animals during winter season.

Plants used for Timber and fuelwood

            Altogether 19 plants are used for timber. Among them mostly used are Castanopsis indica, Schima wallichii, Engelhardia spicata. 45 plant species are used as fuel wood (Appendix 1).

 

Religious plants

            Altogether 11 plants are used as religious. Cynodon dactylon is used in worshiping god 'Ganesh' and during 'Bhaitika'. Stems of Archyranthes aspera are used by women in 'Teej' (Rishi Panchami). Desmostachya bipinnata leaves are compulsary in Hindu culture i.e. during annual funeral ceremony called 'Sharad' and different 'Pujas'. Plants of Ficus bengalensis and F.  religiosa are worshiped by women on Monday and Saturday. Leaves of Castanopsis indica and  Atrocarpus lakoocha are used to prepare 'Duna' and 'Taparies' which are used as plates during 'Pujas'.

 

Plants used for pickles

            Fruits of Rhus javanica, young stems of Begonia picta, young leaves of Crateva unilocularis, young bud and flower of Bauhinia purpurea are used to prepare pickles.

 

Current Status of Plants

            According to the local people, out of 116 forest plant species, 65 plant species are in their medium state followed by 36 plant species that are decreasing in their population and 15 plant species with high population. (Appendix 1).

 

Conclusion

            The villagers use different forest plant species in their daily life. Documentation of such informations is useful for further generations and well as for their daily lives. Detailed study upon the ethnobotanical studies is necessary to document the traditional knowledge that is at the state of disappearance.

 

Acknowledgment

            The author is thankful to the local people of the study area especially the elders who have provided valuable informations about the use of plant species and helped in the collection of information.

 

References

Chaudhary, R.P. 1998. Biodiversity in Nepal: Status and Conservation. S. Devi, Sharanpur, India and Tecpress Books, Bangkok, Thailand.

 

DPR, 2001. Flowering Plants of Nepal (Phenerogams). His Majesty’s Government, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Department of Plant Resources, Kathmandu, Nepal.

 

Famsworth, N.R., Akerele, O.,Bingel, A.S., Soejarto, D.D., Guo, Z. 1985. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63, 965-981.

 

FAO, 2007. State of the world forest. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

 

Joshi, K.K and S.D. Joshi. 2001. Genetic Heritage of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Nepal Himalayas. Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Kathmandu, Nepal. pp 239.

 

Manandhar, M.S. (1999) Evolution of Himalaya. Nepal Nature's Paradise (eds. T.C. Majupuria and R.K. Majupuria), pp. 13-17. M. Devi, Gwalior, India.

 

Manandhar, N.P. 2002. Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Oregan, USA, pp500.

 

MOPE, 2000. Nepal’s State of Environment. His Majesty’s Government, Ministry of Population and Environment, Kathmandu.

 

Polunin, O. and Stainton, A. 2000. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India.545p.

 

Press, L., Shrestha, K.K. and Sutton, D.A. 2000. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The Natural History Museum, London.

 

Stainton, A. 1997. Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India. 72p+128 plates

 

 

 

Appendix 1 List of Forest Plant species with their different uses in Sardikhola VDC.

S.N.

FAMILY/SPECIES

LOCAL NAME

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Current Status

1

 

ACANTHACEAE

Justicia adhatoda L.

Aasuro

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

Green Manure

Medium

2

 

AMARANTHACEAE

Acyranthes aspera L.

Dattiwan

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

 

Medium

3

 

AMARANTHACEAE

Celosia argentea L.

Sahasrabuti

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

4

 

ANACARDIACEAE

Rhus javanica L.

Bhakamlo

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

Pickles

Low

5

 

ANACARDIACEAE

Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz

Amaro (M & F)

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Low

6

 

APOCYNACEAE

Alstonia sp.

Chhatiwan

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

Low

7

 

APOCYNACEAE

Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham) Wall.ex G.Don

Madhise khirro

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

8

ARACEAE

Acorus calamus L.

Bojo

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

9

 

ARACEAE

Colocasia antiquorum (L.) Schott

Karkalo

-

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

10

 

ASPIDIACEAE

Dryopteris cochleata (D. Don) C. Chr

Pani Niuro

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

 

Low

11

 

ASPIDIACEAE

Tectaria macrodonta (Fee.) C.Chr.

Kalo Niuro

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

12

 

BEGONIACEAE

Begonia picta Smith

Makarkachi

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pickles

Low

13

 

BEGONIACEAE

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz

Tatahalo

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

 

Low

14

 

BERBERIDACEAE

Berberis aristata DC.

Chutro

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

15

 

BIGNONIACEAE

Stereospermum personatum (Hassk.) Chatterjee

Padari

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

16

 

BOMBACACEAE

Bombax ceiba L.

Simal

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

17

 

BORMELIACEAE

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.

Bhuikatar

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

18

 

CAPPARACEAE

Crateva unilocularis Buch.-Ham.

Siplikan

-

-

-

+

-

 -

-

-

-

Pcikles &

 Fertilizer

Medium

19

 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Drymaria diandra Blume

Aavijalo

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

High

20

 

COMBRETACEAE

Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth

Saj

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Mediun

21

 

COMBRETACEAE

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Rosb.

Barro

+

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Mediun

22

 

COMBRETACEAE

Terminalia  sp.

Kahulo

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

23

 

COMMELINACEAE

Floscopa scandens Lour.

Kane

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

24

 

COMPOSITAE

Artemisia dubia Wall ex Besser

Titepati

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Green Manure

High

25

 

COMPOSITAE

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff.

Kurro

-

-

-

+

 

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

26

 

COMPOSITAE

Carpesium nepalensis Less.

Padke

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

High

27

 

COMPOSITAE

Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng

Banmara

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

High

28

 

CONVOLVULACEAE

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Akashbeli

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

29

 

CUCURBITACEAE

Coccinia grandis (L.) Viogot

Golkakri

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

30

 

CYPREACEAE

Cyprerus rotundus L.

Mothe

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

High

31

 

DAVALLIACEAE

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) Presl.

Pani Aamala

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

32

 

DIOSCOREACEAE

Dioscorea sagitta Royle

Tarul

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

 

Low

33

 

ELAEAGNACEAE

Elaeagnus parviflora Wall.ex Royle

Guhelo

-

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

34

 

ERICACEAE

Rhododendron arboreum Smith

Lali Gurans

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

 

Low

35

 

EUPHORBIACEAE

Amtidesma bunius (L.) Spreng

Archal

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

36

 

EUPHORBIACEAE

Macarana indica Wight.

Mallato

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

 

Medium

37

 

EUPHORBIACEAE

Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg.

Sindure

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

38

 

EUPHORBIACEAE

Sapium insigne (Royle) Benth.ex Hook

Khirro

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

 

High

39

 

FAGACEAE

Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq.

Katus

+

-

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

 

High

40

 

FAGACEAE

Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.)A.DC.

Musure Katus

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

41

 

FALCOURTIACEAE

Homalium napaulensis (DC.) Benth.

Phalame

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

42

 

GRAMINEAE

Arundinellia sp.

Kharu

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

43

 

GRAMINEAE

Coix lachryma-jobi L.

Bhirkamle

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

44

 

GRAMINEAE

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Dubo

-

-

-

+

 

-

-

+

-

 

Medium

45

 

GRAMINEAE

Dendrocalamus sp.

Bans

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

+

 

High

46

 

GRAMINEAE

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn.ex Munro

Tame Bans

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

+

 

Medium

47

 

GRAMINEAE

Desnostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf.

Kush

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

+

-

 

Low

48

 

GRAMINEAE

Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubbard

Babiyo

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

 

Medium

49

 

GRAMINEAE

Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Trin.)Munro

Nigalo

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

50

 

GRAMINEAE

Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O.Kuntze

Amriso

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

51

 

HYPERICACEAE

Hypericum cordifolium Choisy

Areli

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

High

52

 

HYPOXIDACEAE

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Musalgandi

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

53

 

JUGLANDACEAE

Engelhardia spicata Lsch ex Bl.

Mauwa

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

54

 

LABIATAE

Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng

Gumpati

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

55

 

LABIATAE

Origanum vulgare L.

Sajiban

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

High

56

 

LABIATAE

Scutellaria discolor Colebr.

Ratpate

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Low

57

 

LAURACEAE

Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meisn.

Sinkauli

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spices

Low

58

 

LAURACEAE

Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.

Kutmero

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

59

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Siris

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

60

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Taaki

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

Pickles

Medium

61

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Bauhinia variegata L.

Koiralo

+

-

-

+

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

62

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Cassia sp.

Tapre

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Manure

Medium

63

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Pangra

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

64

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Erythrina stricta Roxb.

Phaledo

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

65

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Maghania sp.

Chuletro

-

-

-

+

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

66

 

LEGUMINOSAE

Mimosa pudica L.

Lajawati (Buharijhar)

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

67

 

LILIACEAE

Aloe vera (L.) Blume.f.

Gheukumari

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

68

 

LILIACEAE

Asparagus racemosus Wild.

Kurilo

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

69

 

LORANTHACEAE

Viscum sp.

Hadchur

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

70

 

LYTHRACEAE

Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb.

But Dhayero

+

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

71

 

LYTHRACEAE

Woodfordia fructicosa (L.) Kurz

 Dahayaro

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

72

 

MELASTOMACEAE

Osbeckia sp.

Aangeri

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

High

73

 

MELIACEAE

Azadirachta indica A.Juss.

Neem

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

 

Low

74

 

MELIACEAE

Melia azederach L.

Bakaino

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

75

 

MELIACEAE

Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv.

Aakhitare

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

 

High

76

 

MELIACEAE

Toona ciliata M.Roem.

Tuni

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

77

 

MENISPERMACEAE

Cissampelos pareira L.

Batulpate (Gudargano)

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

78

 

MORACEAE

Atrocarpus lakoocha Wall.ex Roxb.

Badahar

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

79

 

MORACEAE

Ficus auriculata Lour.

Niwaro

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

+

-

 

Medium

80

 

MORACEAE

Ficus bengalensis L.

Bar

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

 

Medium

81

 

MORACEAE

Ficus glaberrima Blume

Pakhuri

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

82

 

MORACEAE

Ficus racemosa L.

Dumre (Male & Faemale)

-

-

-

+

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

83

 

MORACEAE

Ficus religiosa L.

Pipal

+

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

 

Medium

84

 

MORACEAE

Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham.ex Sm.

Khaniyo

-

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

85

 

MORACEAE

Streblus asper Lour.

Bedulo

-

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

86

 

MYRICACEAE

Myrica essulenta Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don

Kafal

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

87

 

MYRTACEAE

Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels

Jamun

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

 

Medium

88

 

OLEACEAE

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Parijat

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

 

Medium

89

 

ORCHIDACEAE

Coelogynesp.

Sunakhari

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

 

Low

90

 

OXALIDACEAE

Oxalis corniculata L.

Chariaamili

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

91

 

PAPAVERACEAE

Dicentra macrocapnos Prain.

Jogi Lahara

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

92

 

PIPERACEAE

Piper chaba Hunter

Chabo

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Spices & Marcha

Medium

93

 

PIPERACEAE

Piper longum L.

Pipla

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spices

High

94

 

POLYGONACEAE

Aconogonum molle (D.Don) H. Hara

Thotne

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

95

 

PTERIDACEAE

Cheilanthes sp.

Kalisinki

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

96

 

RHAMNACEAE

Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.

Bayar

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fencing

Low

97

 

ROSACEAE

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham ex D. Don

Mayal

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Low

98

 

ROSACEAE

Rubus ellipticus Smith

Aainselu

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

99

 

RUBIACEAE

Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) A.Rich.ex Walp.

Kadam

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

 

Low

100

 

RUBIACEAE

Mussaenda macrophylla Wall.

Dhobini

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

101

 

RUTACEAE

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.

Bel

-

-

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

 

Low

102

 

RUTACEAE

Citrus sp.

Bhogate

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

103

 

RUTACEAE

Citrus limon (L.) Burm.

Jyamir

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

104

 

RUTACEAE

Citrus medica L.

Bimiro

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

105

 

SOLANACEAE

Solanum sp.

Bihi

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

106

 

SYMPLOCACEAE

Symplocos ramosissima Wall.ex G.Don

Dabdabe

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Medium

107

 

THEACEAE

Eurya acuminata DC.

Jhiyano

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

High

108

 

THEACEAE

Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth.

Chilaune

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

High

109

 

UMBELLIFERAE

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

Ghodtapre

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

110

 

URTICACEAE

Gonostegia sp.

Chiple

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

111

 

VERBENACEAE

Callicarpa arborea Roxb.

Masgedi

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

 

Low

112

 

VERBENACEAE

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Chinne

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

 

Low

113

 

VERBENACEAE

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Khamari

-

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

 

Medium

114

 

VERBENACEAE

Premna barbata Wall.ex Schauer

Gidari

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Low

115

 

VITACEAE

Ampelocissus divaricata (Wall ex M.A. Lawson) Planch.

Pureni

+

-

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

 

Medium

116

 

ZINGIBERACEAE

Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

Haledo

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Spices

Low

 

+ : Used; - :  Not used; 1: Medicinal; 2: Food; 3: Fruits; 4: Vegetables; 5: Fodder and Forages; 6: Timber; 7: Fuelwood; 8: Religious; 9: Ornamental; 10: Miscellaneous