Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1337-47, 2009.

 

 

Ethnomedicinal Uses of Leaf Preparations in Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India

 

V. Madhu* and DS Ravindra Naik

 

Plant Systematics Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University,

Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. � 506009

*Corresponding author: madhu_kuc@rediffmail.com

 

Issued November 01, 2009

 

Abstract

 

Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted from June, 2008 through May, 2009 in the Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Information on 67 angiosperms belonging to 38 families was gathered with regard to their ethnomedicinal use in leaf preparations. This paper reports for the first time the uses of leaf preparations by the tribal people in the form of extracts, decoctions, pastes, etc.

 

Keywords: Leaf preparations, Medicinal Plants, Ethnomedicine, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh.

 

Introduction��

��������� India is very rich in ethonobotanical information. About 80% of the Indian population lives in villages and a considerable proportion comprises tribals living in remote forest areas.The population of several districts in central and eastern India is predominantly tribal. The different traditions, beliefs, needs and cultures of various tribes and the diversity of flora in India richly contribute to plant folklore.Ethnomedicine is the study of the beliefs and practices concerning illness in different human populations (Genest, 1978). A number of investigators (Shanker and Henry, 1992; Pullaiah, Prasanna, and Obeulesy, 1998; Madhu, 2009) have published notes on the medicinal plant wealth of Adilabad district and near areas. Ravishankar (1990), in his Ph.D. thesis, reports on "Ethnobotanical studies in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh, India," while Mubeen, Fatima, Khanum, Alikhan and Anwar (2004-2005) studied the medicinally important plants growing in and around Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh. In the present work, we reporttheleaf preparations used by the tribal people to treat various disorders in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

 

Study Area����

���������� Adilabad district lies between 770 47� and 800 0� of the eastern longitudes and 180 40� and 190 56� of northern latitudes.The district is bounded on North by Yeotmal, on the East by Chanda districts of Maharashtra and on the South by Karimnagar and Nizamabad and on the West by Nanded district of Maharashtra State. These harbour mainly dry deciduous forest and aborigines. These forests occupy about 44.5 percent of the total geographical area of the district. The total forest area in the district is 7218.86 sq.km. The total population of the district is 24,88,003 out of which the tribal population is 4,16,511 (Census of India 2001). The main occupation of the people is agriculture. The important rivers in the district are the Godavari, the Penganga, the Wardha, the Pranahitha, the Kadam and the Peddavagu. The Godavari is the largest river in peninsular India.The most important crop in the district is Jowar, followed by cotton. Other crops include Maize, Pulses, dry Paddy, Soybean and Sunflower.

 

Methodology

��������� Field trips were conducted from June 2008 through May 2009 in tribal parts of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Collection data included local name, plant part used and mode of administration. The information was given by tribal medicine people and the local rural informants, who are the Vaidhya or elderly village people in this district, and who have knowledge about folk medicines.

����������� At the time, actual applications were also observed during the field work. Herbarium Voucher specimens are deposited in Department of Botany (KUH) at Kakatiya University, Warangal, Anhra Pradesh, India.The plant species are enumerated alphabetically by family followed by their tribal names and uses.

 

Results & Discussion

���������� In the present account, 67 species of angiosperms belonging to 38 families are reported (Table 1). They are used as ethnomedicines for various severe diseases like jaundice, cancer, etc. by employing the leaf preparations in the form of extracts, pastes, juices, etc. Other common diseases and health complaints like cough, piles, fever, bone fracture, rheumatic pains, stomachache, blood pressure, diabetes, dandruff, gonorrhea, filaria, mumps, skin diseases, ring worm, asthma, sun stroke are cured by using the leaf preparations of various plants found in the Adilabad district region.The leaf is employed in the form of decoctions, extracts, pastes, juice or some times in combination with other parts of same or different plants, viz. Sesamum, Trigonella, Curcuma, Phyllanthus amarus, Zingiber officinalis, Piper nigrum, Terminalia chebula etc. Other substances, such as sugar candy, curd, honey, hair oil, milk andturmeric powder, are also used in various preparations.

 

Table 1 :Ethnomedicinal uses of leaf preparations in Adilabad district.

 

 

 

 

 

Sl. No.

Plant Name / Family

Local Name

Disease Treated

Mode of Administration.

1

Acalypha India L. (Euphorbiaceae)

Muripinda

Jaundice

Leaves crushed with Sugar candy and Curd and taken orally early in the morning for 3 days.

2

Adhatoda Zeylanica Medic. (Acanthaceae)

Adda Saramu

Cough

Leaf extract administered orally in 2 spoonfuls a day for 3-4 days.

3

Alianthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae)

Pedda manu

Post-Partum problem

Leaves boiled with Sugar Candy and administered orally to women for debility after child birth.

4

Aloe Vera (L.) Burm.f. (Agavaceae)

Kalabanda

Piles and fistula

Leaf juice administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 20 days.

5

Ampelocissus Latifolia (Lam.) Planch. (Vitaceae)

Pule-teega

Opthalmia

Leaf juice poured into eyes in 1-2 drops twice a day for 3 days.

6

Andrographis Paniculata(Burm.f.) wall.ex Ness (Acanthaceae)

Nela Vemu

Fever

Leaves grind with Sugar candy and given orally in 1 spoonful twice a day for children for about 3 days.

7

Asparagus racemosus Willd (LiLiaceae)

Pilli teegalu

Rheumatic pains

Leaf paste massaged gently on Painful parts twice a day till relief from suffering.

8

Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae)

Vepa

Worm killing

Leaf extract given orally at bed time for 3-4 days.

Chicken-Pox

Leaf paste applied over the body for 3-4 days.

9

Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd. (Graminae)

Veduru

Abortion

Leaves ground with seeds of Sesamum and Trigeonella and the paste mixed with honey is taken of pregnancy to abort three months twice a day for 3 days.

10

Boerhavia erecta L. (Nyctaginaeae)

Galijery

Jaundice

Leaf extract mixed with Sugar and Curd and administered early in the morning for 3-4 days.

11

Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp. (Leguminosae)

Thogarlu

Stomach ache

Leaf extract administered in 2-3 spoonfuls twice a day for 3 days.

12

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae)

Tella Jilledu

Arthritis

Leaf extract applied externally on painful parts.

13

Cascabela thevetia(L.) Lippold (Apocynaceae)

Pachaganneru

Bone fracture

Leave ground and the paste plastered till cure.

14

Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) Sf: Caesalpiniaceae

Tangedu

Bone fracture

Leaf paste with egg albumen plastered over the parts of human as well as cattle till cure.

Eye infection

Leaf Juice poured in 2-3 drops thrice a day for 3 days.

15

Cassia fistula(L.) (Leguminosae)

Rela

Amenorrhea

Tender leaf juice taken in 2 spoonfuls once in morning for abut 10 days.

16

Cassia Occidentalis(L.) (Leguminosae)

Kasinta

Cough

Leaf juice given in 2 spoonfuls thrice a day for 3 days.

Eye infection

Leaf Juice poured in 3-4 drops once at night for 3-4 days.

17

Catharanthus roseus(L.) Don. (Apocynaceae)

Billa ganneru

Blood pressure

Tender leaves with dall cooked and eaten as vegetable for cure.

Cancer

Leaf paste applied on tumors and the decoction given orally in 30ml twice a day for about 1 month.

18

Centella asiatica(L.) Urban. (Umbelliferae)

Saraswati Aku

Blood Purification

Leaf paste taken in a spoonful once in morning for a month.

Memory power

Leaves ground with jaggery and taken in morning for 30-45 days.

Nervous weakness

Leaf paste administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 40 days.

19

Cleome gynandra(L.)(Capparidaceae)

Vaminta

Ear ache

Leaf juice poured in 2-3 drops thrice a day till cure.

20

Coccinia grandis(L.) Voigt.(Cucurbitaceae)

Kaki donda

Diabetes

Leaf extract administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 10 days.

21

Cocculus hirsutus(L.) Diels. (Menispermaceae)

Dushta teega

Gonorrhea

Leaf juice administered in 2 spoon fuls with a glass of Sugar water twice a day for 10-15 days.

Syphilis

Leaf juice administered in 2 spoon ful with a glass of Sugar water twice a day for 15 days.

22

Cochlospermum religiosum(L.) Alston(Cochlospermaceae)

Konda Gogu

Dandruff

Leaf paste applied to head, 1-hour before bath twice a week for 3-weeks.

23

Crataeva magna(Lour.) DC.(Capparidaceae)

Vulimiri Chettu

Piles and fistula

Leaf extract administered during the bleeding condition in 2 spoon fuls twice a day for 15 days,the paste applied externally as ointment.

24

Datura metal(L.) (Solanaceae)

Erri Ummetta

Muscular pains

Leaves ground into pulte and massaged gently on painful parts.

Sprains

Leaves ground and applied externally till cure.

25

Dodonaea viscosa(L.) Jacq.(Sapindaceae)

Puuli-vairu

Bone fracture

Leaf paste mixed with turmeric and plastered over the broken parts of human beings as well as cattle.

26

Eclipta Prostrata(L.) L.Mant. (Compositae)

Gunta galagra

Filaria

Leaf paste applied externally in initial stages, also administered orally in 2 spoonful once a day for about 30 days.

Jaundice

Leaf juice with curd and sugar given orally early in the morning for 3-4 days.

27

Emilia Sonchifolia(L.) DC. (Compositae)

Pisapatri

Night Blindness

Leaf juice extract poured in 1-2 drops thrice a day till cure.

Ear Sores

Leaf juice poured in 2-3 drops thrice a day for 3-4 days or till cure.

28

Euphorbia hirta(L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

Reddivari Nanubalu

Jaundice

Leaf extract in combination with leaf extract of phyllantus amarus, sugar and curd is administered in 2 spoonful thrice a day for 2-3 days.

29

Evolvulus alsinoides(L.) L.f. (Convolvulaceae)

Vishnu Krantha

Hair growth

Leaf extract mixed with hair oil and used for promoting the growth.

Liver disorders

Leaf extract taken in 2 spoonfuls with a glass of milk once a day for 15-20 days.

30

Gloriosa Superba(L.) (Liliaceae)

Agnisika, Kondanabi

Mumps

Leaf paste applied externally on effected areas till cure.

31

Gymnema Sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br.ex Schutt. (Asclepiadaceae)

Poda Patri

Diabetes

Leaf decoction administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 2 months.

32

Hibiscus cannabinus (L.)(Malvaceae)

Gogu

Purgative

Leaves ground with seeds of Sesamum and log of paste orally taken once at bed time for 3-4 days.

33

Hyptis Suaveolens (L.) Poit(Labiatae)

Sima Tulasi

Eye infection

An infusion of leaves poured in 1-2 drops thrice a day for 3-4 days or till cure.

34

Indigofera tinctoria(L.) (Leguminosae)

Neeli, Konda Neeli

Dog bite

A glassful of leaf juice administered in the morning with milk for 3 days.

Burns

Leaf paste applied on effected areas.

35

Ipomoea Carnea Jacq.����������������� (Convolvulaceae)

Besharam, Tutikada

Blood pressure

Leaf juice with honey administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 3 months.

36

Jatropha curcas(L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

Adivi Amudamu

Piles

Leaf paste applied externally as Ointment in bleeding stages.

Mouth sores and Ulcers

Leaf paste applied with honey on tongue of babies for 3-4 days or till cure.

37

Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. (Acanthaceae)

Nalla Vavili

Hair growth

Leaf paste applied on head 1 hour before the bath for black and dense hair growth weekly once for about 2 months.

Leucoderma

Leaves ground with the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and the paste applied on patches and exposed to morning sun light for 30-45 minutes for about 2 months.

38

Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae)

Maidaku

Alopecia

Leaf paste applied on effected areas till growth of hair.

Dandruff

Leaf paste applied to head, 1-hour before bath twice a week for one month.

39

Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link.����������������� (Labiatae)

Tella Tummi

Pasoriasis

Leaf juice mixed with turmeric powder and applied on effected areas for 2-3 months or till cure.

40

Melia azedarch L.����������������� (Meliaceae)

Turaka Vepa

Anthelmintic

Leaves ground into powder with epicarps of Terminalia Chebula and administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 2-3 days.

41

Mimsa Pudica L.����������������� (Leguminosae); Sf:Mimosoideae

Atti Patti

Filaria

Leaf paste applied on effected parts to prevent pain and swelling.

42

Mullugo Pentaphylla L.����������������� (Molluginaceae)

Verri Chatarasi

Anti Periodic

Leaf juice mixed with turmeric and honey and administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day based on days requirement but not for more than a week.

43

Mukia Maderaspatana (L.) Roem.����������������� (Cucurbitaceae)

Potti budama kai

Dandruff

Leaf paste applied to head 1 hour before the bath twice or thrice a week.

44

Muraya Koenigii (L.) Spreng.����������������� (Rutaceae)

Kare maku, Karivekpaku

Dyspepsia

Leaves dried in shade and ground into powder and take in 1 spoonful twice a day for about week.

45

Nerium oleander(L.)

(Apo cynaceae)

Ganneru

Tuberculosis

Leaves boiled and the extract administered in 2 spoonfuls thrice a day for about a month.

Whooping cough

Boiled leaf extract administered in 2 spoonfuls thrice a day for 10 days.

46

Ocimum tenuiflorm(L.) (Labiatae)

Tulasi

Cold and cough

Leaf juice mixed with juice of Zingiber officinale and honey and administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 3-4 days or till cure.

Fever

Leaves ground with seeds of piper nigrum and the extract administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 3-4 days.

Skin allergy

Leaf juice applied on effected areas till cure.

47

Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth. (Labiatae)

Nela tappidi

Ring worm

Leaf paste applied on effected areas

48

Ottelia alsi noides (L.) Pers. (Hydrocaritaceae)

Edakula Thamara

Fever

Leaf poultice applied and gently massaged on arms and legs for refrigeration.

49

Oxalis corniculata (L.)�� (Oxalidaceae)

Nela Chinta

Jaundice

2-3 spoonfuls of leaf extract given with a glass of butter milk once early in the morning for about one week.

50

Pavonia odorata Willd. ���(Malvaceae)

Teega benda

Gonorrhea

Leaf juice given in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 10 days.

51

Pedalium murex Willd. (L.)�� (Pedaliaceae)

Pedda palleru, Yenugu palleru

Hydrocele

Leaves and fruits ground togetherly into paste and applied on testicles for a week.

52

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.��� (Asclepiadaceae)

Dustapu teega

Asthma

Leaf decoction taken in 2 spoonfuls 2-3 times a day for about 15 days.

Bone fracture

Leaves ground with leaves of Plumbago Zeylanica and the paste is plastered till cure.

53

Plumbago Zeylanica (L.)�� (Plumbaginaceae)

Chitra moolam

Chest Pain

Leaf paste mildly heated and gently massaged.

54

Psidium guajava (L.)�� (Myrtaceae)

Jami, Jama

Dyspepsia

Tender leaf extract taken in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 5 days.

55

Ricinus Communis (L.)���� (Euphorbiaceae)

Amudamu

Sun Stroke

Leaf paste applied on forehead for relief.

Jaundice

Leaf paste administered in 1 spoonful with buttermilk early in the morning for 5-7 days.

56

Stereo Spremum Personatum (Hassk.) Chatterjee�� (Bignoniaceae)

Kod, Kala-goru

Arthritis

Leaf decoction given in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for about 20 days.

57

Strychnos nux - Vomica (L.) (Loganiaceae)

Esha mushti

Blood pressure

Leaves, ground with ginger and make into small pills, administered in 2 pills thrice a day for 10-15 days.

58

Syzygium Cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae)

Alla neredu

Diarrhea

Leaf juice with Sugar water given to children.

59

Tamarindus indica (L.)(Leguminosae) Sf:Caesalpionoideae

Chinta

Fever

Tender leaves ground with leaves of justicia adhatoda and ocimum tenuiflorum and the juice given in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 3 days.

60

Tiliacora acuminata (Lamk.) Miers�������

(Menispermaceae)

Kappa teega

Snake bite

Leaf paste applied on bitten area and also root decoction given in 50ml immediately and thrice a day till relief from suffering.

61

Tragia involurata (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

Durada gondi, Durdha gondi

Contraceptive

Leaf paste dissolved in rice cleaning water is taken by women in 2-3 spoonfuls once in morning for 5 days from 5th day of menses.

62

Tridax procumbens (L.) (Compositae)

Gaddi Chamanti

Hemorrhage

Leaf juice applied externally for cuts, sores, ulcers and wands to arrest the bleeding.

63

Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook.ex.G.Don (Orchidaceae)

Badanika

Ear ache

2-3 into ear leaf juice with Brassica oil is poured for 3 days.

64

Vicoa indica (L.) DC. (Compositae)

Adavi poddu tirugudu

Asthma

Leaf juice administered in 2 spoon fuls twice a day for 15 days.

65

Vitex negundo (L.) (verbenaceae)

Vavili

Post partum problems

It is believed that all kinds of problems such as debility, head ache and body pains will be cured if bath is taken with boiled water containing leaves.

66

Waltheria indica (L.) (Sterculiaceae)

Nalla Benda

Harshness of voice

Leaves and flowers are chewed adns said to be effective.

67

Ziziphus Oenoplia (L.) Mill. (Rhamnaceae)

Pariki

Bone fracture

Leaf paste mixed with gum of sterculia urens and plastered over the effected parts of human and domestic animals till cure, also the decoction with leaf decoction of Acacia chunara given with ghee and applied externally till cure.

 

Conclusions

The data collected from the tribal people of Adilabad district pertaining to the treatment of various ailments by leaf preparations in the form of decoctions, extracts, paste, etc., should prove useful for researchers in the field of medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, etc.

 

Acknowledgements

 

The authors are grateful to the tribal and rural herbalists of Adilabad district who whole heartily co-operated in sharing their knowledge and in helping the collection of the plant material for study.Our thanks also go to the University Grants Commission (UGC) New Delhi for providing the financial assistance in the form of Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship, and to the Head of the Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal for the facilities provided.

 

References

 

1)      Genest, S. 1978. Introduction � l'ethnom�decine. Essais de synth�se. Anthropologie et�� Soci�t�s, 2-3, 5-28.

 

2)      Mubeen, Rizwana, Sadia Fatima, Atiya Khanum, Irfan Ali Khan and S. Y. ��Anwar. 2005. Medicinally important plants growing in and around Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh used in the treatment of different ailments. (Eds.), III, 118--180.

 

3)      Ravishankar, T. 1990. Ethnobotanical studies in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ph.D., Thesis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

 

4)      Ravishankar, T. and A. N. Henry. 1992. Ethnobotany of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India, Ethnobotany 4, 45-52.

 

5)      T. Pullaiah, P.V. Prasanna and G. Obulesu. 1992. Flora of Adilabad District (Andhra Pradesh, India) x, 284 p., map,   Details No. 6962.

 

6)      V. Madhu and C. Suvartha. 2009. EthnobotanicalandEthnomedicinalObservations in Nirmal Division of Adilabad District, Andhrapradesh, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1003-16.