Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 934-37. 2008.
Taxonomic Validation of Crude Drugs used for Poisonous Bites by Adivasis of Rayalaseema Region, Andhra Pradesh
Johnson, Saturas N.A.1, K.Venkata Ratnam2, G. Tirupathi Reddy3 and R.R. Venkata Raju3*
1Department of Botany,
2Department of Botany,
3Department of Botany,
Prof. R.R. Venkata� Raju
E mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
����������� The present report deals with the phytotherapeutic properties of certain potential anti-poisonous crude drugs used by the Adivasis, inhabited in the forests of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The critical taxonomic analysis yielded twenty species belonging to 17 families of angiosperms used for poisonous bites.� The majority of drug formulations (14 spp.) were administered as antidotes for snake bites.
Key words: Crude drugs, Poisonous bites, Rayalaseema region.
Since time immorial plants play an important role in the spiritual as well as physical well being of the mankind. The indigenous people depend either directly or indirectly on the forests for their daily needs and preserve the knowledge about the traditional and cultural uses of plants as family secrets. It is necessary that unwritten folklore uses of plant products must be documented and preserved. In this connection an attempt was made to collect folklore information about poisonous bites from Rayalaseema forests. The critical review of literature (Jain, 1991; Kirtikar and Basu, 1935; Rama Rao and Henry, 1996) revealed that very few and sporadic attempts were made on crude drugs used for poisonous bites (Reddy et al., 1996 and Imam et al., 2003). Hence, the present investigation gains importance.
����������� Rayalaseema is
the southern part of Andhra Pradesh, comprises of Anantapur,
Kadapa, Chittoor and
trips were made to collect first hand information about therapeutic
properties of plants from tribal and rural people, inhabited in and around
the forests. The information about therapeutic properties of plants used in
folk medicine was obtained through direct observations and discussions with
tribal men. Data was recorded on the plant parts used, local name, place of
collection, process of preparation, mode of administration and dosage.� The voucher specimens were prapared for authentication of information and for future
references. The specimens were identified with the help of local/regional
floras (Gamble, 1935; Venkata Raju
and Pullaiah, 1995) and deposited at
The collected drug yielding species were systematically analyzed and enumerated in alphabetical order. The enumeration of taxa includes botanical name with voucher number, common name, family, habit, part used, purpose and mode of administration (Table 1).� The new and hither to not reported crude drugs were indicated with asterisk.
����������� The present study mainly deals with less known crude drugs used against poisonous bites used by Adivasis of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The critical analysis of the data in the light of literature resulted twenty species belonging to 17 families of Angiosperms. Among them five species i.e. Coccinia indica, Habenaria roxburghii, Tribulus terrestris, Pavetta breviflora and Viscum articulatum were hitherto not reported by earlier workers. The results indicate that, snake bite is very common in the tribal habitations than other poisonous bites and about eleven drug formulations have been administered in raw form and three species with ingredients. The formulations need to be screened for their chemical and clinical tests to prove their efficacy, which is being attempted in the laboratory.
The first author is thankful
to the University Grants Commission
Gamble, J.S., 1915-1935. Flora of Presidency of
V.C. Gupta, and S.J. Husain. 2003. Some important
folk-herbal medicines used as antidotes for snake bites from tribal pockets
of Atmakur forest division of Andhra Pradesh.
National Symposium on emerging trends in Indian Medicinal Plants,
Jain, S.K. 1991. Dictionary of Folk medicine and
Ethnobotany. Deep Publications,
K.R. and B.D. Basu. 1935. Indian Medicinal Plants.
Vol. I-IV. International book distributors.
Rama Rao, N. and A.N. Henry. 1996. The Ethnobotany of
Reddy, M.H., K. Vijayalakshmi, �and R.R.Venkata �Raju 1996. Native phytotherapy for snake bite in Nallamalais of Eastern Ghats, India. J.Econ. Tax. Bot. Addl. ser. 12: 214-217.
Venkata Raju, R.R. and T. Pullaiah. 1995.
Table 1. �Medico-botanical enumeration of crude drugs used against poisonous bites.
Ap: Aerial Parts; L: Leaf; Inf: Inflorescence; Rt: Root tuber; R: Root; S: Stem; Sb: Stem bark; Wp: whole plant.