Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 273-80. 2009.

 

 

Medicobotanical Studies in Relation to Veterinary Medicine in Ekiti State, Nigeria: (2) Conservation of Botanicals Species Used for the Treatment of Poultry Diseases

 

J. Kayode, M. K. Olanipekun and P. O. Tedela

 

Department of Plant Science, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: josmodkay@yahoo.com

 

Issued 30 January 2009

 

ABSTRACT

The rare veterinary botanicals in Ekiti State were identified using semi-structured questionnaire matrix. The traditional ecological knowledge defined by the respondents was used to identify the relevant conservation strategies that could guaranteed the continuous supply of the species in the study area.

INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria, recent initiatives had continued to enumerate the importance of botanicals in the livelihood of her citizenry. Apart from the income  and essential products derivable from the botanicals, their roles in health maintenance is now widely recognized. Kayode et al. (2009) had stressed the importance of botanicals in the maintenance of the health of livestock in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

The rapid and massive deforestation that characterized the Nigerian vegetation has now became a permanent feature of the local environment of Ekiti State, Nigeria Attempts to reduce or perhaps eliminate bush burning, the major culprit of deforestation in the state, had failed woefully. The on-going extensive road construction activities further complicates the threat to the environment.

 It is pertinent therefore to examine the abundance of the veterinary botanicals, identify the rare species among them and propose sustainable conservation strategies that would enhance their availability to the present and future generations. These constitute the objectives of the study being reported here.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

            The detail description of the methods used in the enumeration had been provided by Kayode et al (2009). The major source(s) of the species was/were determined. The availability and the relative abundance of the species in the study area were determined using the ease at which any of the species could be found when such is required for use.

            Secondary information was obtained from interviews conducted with botanical vendors in the major market centres in each of the zones of the study area and other key informants stated in Kayode et al. (2009).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

            A total of 38 species were identified as being used for the treatment of pests and diseases in the study area. Kayode et al (2009) had given the description and occurrence of these species, The species (Table 1) could be grouped into two categories: the cultivated and not cultivated species (Table 2). The cultivated species could further be classified into two sub groups, the widely and sparsely cultivated species. The widely cultivated species were those species with edible fruits and species whose leaves were valued for their medicinal usage. These species were also valued as important sources of income most especially during the off-farm seasons. They include C. frutescens, C. papaya, C. aurantifolia, M. paradisiacal and Z.mays, all valued for their fruits, N. tobacum, O. bascilicum and V. amygdalina, valued for their medicinal leaves, as well as S. officinarum valued for its edible stem. The sparsely cultivated species were A.arabica, A. digitata, A. indica, S, alata and S. occidentale valued primarily for the provision of shade and J. gossypifolia used primarily for erosion control and for boundary demarcation. The fact that these species were cultivated in the study area constituted a favourable incentive for the cultivation of these species in large quantities. The production of the edible fruits in large quantities may alleviate the existing poverty as this would constitute a viable source of income especially during the off-farm season. Recently the Ekiti State Government in partnership with some private investors is putting up a multimillion dollar biofuel production plants that would be making use Jatropha species. This could further boost the cultivation of Jatropha in the study area.

            Most of the species that were not cultivated have their wildlings preserved in the study area. The preservation of their seedlings that grow in the wild was borne out of the realization for their usefulness as sources of important products that ranged from medicine (human medicine), shade, boundary demarcation, erosion control and fuel wood. These species include A.melegueta, B. ferruginea, F. exasperate, L. siceraria, P. biglobosa, S. americanum, T. triangulare, T. schionperiana, T. vogelii, V. paradoxa and V. doniana. S. americanum and T. triangulare were herbaceous vegetables that grow abundantly in the study area. The fruits and seeds of P. biglobosa are important delicacy in the study area. It could therefore constitutes an important source of income if cultivated in large quantity in the study area hence they readily availability of market for its seeds could serve as incentive for the large scale cultivation of the species. Previous study by Kayode (2004) had revealed that the lack of silvicultural knowledge of indigenous species had constituted an important disincentive to their cultivation. The dormancy of the seeds of this species had also hindered its adoption for cultivation, by the rural farmers. Field observation during this study also revealed that the respondents lacked the requisite knowledge on the silvicuture of A.melegueta, B. ferruginea, F. exasperate, T. schionperiana, T. vogelii, V. paradoxa and V. doniana. Considerable length of time is taken when sourcing for these species hence they constituted the scarce species among these veterinary species.

A. spinosus, B. diffusa, C. odorata, C. owariensis, D. stramonium, L. camera, M. charanta,

 P. nigrescens and P. daemia were not cultivated also in the study area. They grow naturally as wildlings and they were found abundantly in the study area while A. cepa and A. sativum that were equally not cultivated in commercial quantities in the study area were easily found available for purchase from the retailers who sourced them from the northern parts of Nigeria, about 200 to 1000km from the study area. Thus A.melegueta, B. ferruginea, F. exasperate, L. siceraria, P. biglobosa, S. americanum, T. schionperiana, T. vogelii, V. paradoxa and V. doniana could be regarded as the rare species amongst the identified veterinary botanicals. At present, S. americanum  is not rare but may be included because of its similar features with the other rare species. Field observations revealed that most of the residents possessed considerable indigenous knowledge on the identified rare species (Tables 3-12) which could serve as enabling strategies toward the conservation of the rare species. These include the knowledge on their utilities, elementary reproduction methods, time of flowering and fruiting, type of soil and growth characteristics of some of the species.

            In conclusion, with the increasing conversion of the existing vegetation in the study area into monoculture plantation of exotic species and agriculture, there is the likelihood of continuous erosion of botanical species in the study area. Thus there is the need for public enlightenment campaign on the danger inherent in biodiversity loss; the relative regrowth capabilities of the rare veterinary species should be defined, sustainable harvesting methods should be derived for the species. While the harvesting of seeds and leaves were not supposed to be predatory and annihilative, the harvesting of seeds and leaves in species that were not cultivated could be so described. There is also the need for detailed studies on the biology of these species. Kayode and Ogunleye (2008), Kayode and Omotoyinbo (2008), Omotoyinbo and Kayode (2008) had advocated these positions recently. Botanical gardens, where identified endangered species could be cultivated, should also be established in each zones of the state. Ex situ devices, where important rare species are cultivated and later re-introduced into their natural environment, should also be utilized. All these will guarantee the survival of the identified rare species and make them available with relative ease when required.

REFERENCES

Kayode, J. (2004). Conservation Perception of Endangered Tree Species by Rural Dwellers of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 19(4): 1-9.

 

Kayode, J. and  Ogunleye, T. (2008). Checklist and Status of Plant Species Used as Spices in

            Kaduna State of Nigeria. Research Journal of Botany 3 (1), 35-40.

 

Kayode, J. and Omotoyinbo, M. A. (2008). Conservation of Botanicals Used for Dental and Oral Healthcare in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Ehnobotanical Leaflets 12.

 

Omotoyinbo, M. A. and Kayode, J. (2008). Checklist and conservation status of chewing stick plant species in Ekiti State, Nigeria. In: Research for Development in Forestry, Forest Products and Natural Resources Management (Eds. Onyekwelu, J. C. , Adekunle, V. A. J. and Oke, D. O. ).

 

Proceedings of the First Conference of Forest and Forest Products Society, Federal

            University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 16th � 18th April 2008. pp 27-33.

 

Kayode, J, Olanipekun, M. K. and Tedela, P. O. (2009). Medicobotanical studies in relation to veterinary medicine in Ekiti State, Nigeria: Checklist of botanicals species used for the treatment of poultry diseases.Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 40-46.

 

 

Table 1. Identified botanicals used in the cure of veterinary pests and diseases in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

S/N    Botanical Species               Major Source(s)*     Availability and abundance in the study area

 

                                                      1        2        3                          

1.   Acacia arabica                       CA     HA     FR      Cultivated for the control of wind erosion,

                                                                                    frequently available

2.   Adansonia digitata                 FR     CA     HA      Cultivated for its edible fruit, occasionally

                                                                                    available

3.   Aframomum melagueta         HF     FR     CA       Not cultivated but wildlings are preserved,

                                                                                    abundantly available   

4.   Allium cepa                            PH      -         -         Not cultivated but readily available and in

                                                                                    abundant,       

5.   Allium sativum                       PH      HF      -         Not cultivated but readily available and in

                                                                                    abundant,   

6.   Amarantus spinosus             HF      CA     HA      Not cultivated, grow as weed, abundantly

                                                                                    available  

7.   Azadirachta indica                CA      HA      -         Cultivated for control of wind, provision of shade,

                                                                                    frequently available

8.   Boerhavia diffusa                  HF      CA     HA      Not cultivated, grow as weed, abundantly

                                                                                    available       

9.   Bridelia ferruginea                FR       HF     CA      Not cultivated but widely preserved because of

                                                                                    its medicinal values, frequently available     

10. Capsicum frutescens        HF      PH      -             Cultivated for its edible fruits, abundantly

                                                                                    available           

11. Carica papaya                  HF      HA      PH          Cultivated for its fruits, abundantly available                 

12. Chromoleana odorata      HA      CA      HF          Not cultivated, grow as weed, abundantly

                                                                                    available             

13. Cissampelos owariensis    HF     FR      HA          Not cultivated, grow as weed, abundantly

                                                                                     available    

14. Citrus aurantifolia             HF      HA      PH           Cultivated for its edible fruits, abundantly

                                                                                     available      

15. Datura stramonium           CA     FR       HF          Not cultivated, grow as weed, abundantly

                                                                                    available     

16. Elaeis guineensis             HF     PH      HA           Cultivated for its edible fruits and other economic

                                                                                    products, abundantly available        

17. Ficus exasperate             FR      CA     HF            Not cultivated, wildling preserved, occasionally

                                                                                    available            

18. Jatropha gossypifolia      HA      CA      -               Cultivated for erosion control, hedge plant,

                                                                                    boundary demarcation, frequently available     

19. Lagenaria siceraria         HA       HF     CA           Often cultivated for the control of erosion and for

                                                                                   the demarcation of boundary, occasionally

                                                                                   available   

20. Lantana camera             CA       FR     HF            Not cultivated, frequently available        

21. Momordica charantia      CA      HF     FR            Not cultivated, frequently available      

22. Musa paradisiaca            HF      HA    PH            Cultivated for its edible fruits, abundantly

                                                                                   available        

23. Nicotiana tobacum          HF      HA     PH            Cultivated for its leaves, abundantly available           

24. Ocimum bascilicum         HF      HA     -               Often not cultivated, sometimes cultivated,

                                                                                    abundantly available         

25. Parkia biglobosa             HF      CA      -               Not cultivated but wildling preserved, frequently

                                                                                    available

26. Pergularia daemia          FR      CA      HA           Often not cultivated but wildling preserved,

                                                                                   sometimes cultivated especially in the HA,

                                                                                   occasionally available      

27. Perquetina nigrescens    FR      CA     HA           Not cultivated, occasionally available           

28. Saccharum officinarum   HF      PH      HA          Cultivated for its edible stem, frequently available           

29. Senna alata                     CA      HA      -             Cultivated for shade provision, occasionally

                                                                                   available                                    

30. Senna occidentalis          CA      HA      -             Cultivated for provision of shade, occasionally

                                                                                   available             

31. Solanum americanum      HF     PH       -             Not cultivated but wildlings preserved, abundantly

                                                                                   available    

32. Talinium trangulare          HF     HA      CA           Not cultivated, grow as wildlings that are

                                                                                    preserved, abundantly available            

33. Tephrosia vogelii              FR     CA       -              Not cultivated, occasionally available         

34. Terminalia schimperiana   FR    CA       -              Not cultivated, wildlings preserved, occasionally

                                                                                    available     

35. Vernonia amygdalina        HF    HA       CA          Often not cultivated, sometimes cultivated for its

                                                                                    medicinal leaves abundantly available        

36. Vitex doniana                    FR    CA       -              Not cultivated, occasionally available            

37. Vitellaria paradoxa            FR    CA       -              Not cultivated, occasionally available            

38. Zea mays                          HF    PH       -              Cultivated, abundantly available          

* 1 = Primary source, 2 =Secondary source, 3 =Tertiary source

CA = Common area, FR = Forest, HA = Household area, HF = Household farm, PH = Purchased

 

Table 2. Status of the identified botanicals used for the cure of veterinary pests and diseases in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Status                                                        Botanical Species

(a)     Cultivated Species

 

(i)      Widely cultivated species:  C. frutescens, C. papaya, C. aurantifolia, M. paradisiaca, N.

                                     tobacum, O. bascilicum, S. officinarum and V. amygdalina, and

                                     Z.mays.

 

       (ii) Sparsely cultivated species: A.arabica, A. digitata, A. indica, J. gossypifolia, S, alata and

                                                         S. occidentale.

 

(b)     Uncultivated Species

 

       (ii) Preserved wildling species: A.melegueta, B. ferruginea, F. exasperate, L. siceraria, P.

                                                        biglobosa, S. americanum, T. triangulare, T. schionperiana,

                                                        T. vogelii, V. paradoxa and V. doniana

 

       (ii) Weed species:                     A. spinosus, B. diffusa, C. odorata, C. owariensis, D. stramonium,

                                                         L. camera, M. charanta, P. nigrescens and P. daemia

 

       (iii) Purchased species:           A. cepa and A. sativum

 

Table 3. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of A. meleguata.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its fruits, seeds and leaves are used in the study area         This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                               involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

Its seeds are important ingredients of many traditional         Ready market available for its products

medicine        

 

It is a perennial plant                                                              Its derivable benefits could last for more

                                                                                               than a year

 

It can be cultivated in home garden                                       This could enhance its domestication       

 

Table 4. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of B. ferruginea.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its stem barks, roots and leaves are used in the study area  This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                                involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow on varieties of soil                                                      It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It has short and twisted bole with more or less                      These ideotypic characters could

open canopy                                                                           enhance its incorporation with agricultural

                                                                                                crops

 

It is fire resistance                                                              Suitable in the study area where slash and

                                                                                           burn is the major agricultural system

                                                                                           practiced

 

Its barks is used in curing numerous human diseases      Ready market available for its products

 

Its barks are available in the market for sold                     It could constitutes source of additional

                                                                                           income  

 

Table 5. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of F. exasperate.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its stem barks, roots and seeds are used in the study area  This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                                involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow on well drained soil                                                    It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It grow well in fringing forest areas                                      It could thrive well in most parts of the state

 

It fruits in the dry season                                                       Its seeds could be available for planting at

                                                                                              the onset of the rains

 

Table 6. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of L. siceraria.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

The whole parts of the plant is used in the study area          This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                                involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow on well drained light soil                                             It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It is easy to grow, could be sown directly or in pots             These make it suitable for home garden

and later transplanted                                                           and cultivation in commercial quantities

 

It requires 3 to 4 months to mature                                      This ensures early returns from its

                                                                                              cultivation

 

The wild type (present in the state) is perennial                   Its derivable benefits could last for more

                                                                                              than a year

 

 

Calabash, a product of this species is of cultural value        This attributes could be used to convince

                                                                                              indigenes to cultivate the species and

                                                                                              perhaps domesticate it

 

Its seeds is now known to be reach in oil                             This tend to indicate that large scale

                                                                                              cultivation of the species would be a viable

                                                                                              source of income 

 

Table 7. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of P. biglobosa.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservatione conjecture         

Its stem barks, leaves and fruit pulp are used in the           This could enhance willingness to be

study area                                                                            involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow on loamy and sandy soil                                            It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It grow well in derived savanna areas                                  It could thrive well in most parts of the state

 

It fruits in the dry season                                                       Its seeds could be available for planting at

                                                                                              the onset of the rains

 

Its seeds is a source of local soup ingredient                       Ready market available for seeds from this

called �Iru                                                                             species

 

 

Table 8. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of S. americanum.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

The whole parts of the plant is used in the study area          This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                                involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow in humid areas with various soil types                       It could be cultivated in all the ecological

or near water source in semi arid areas                                zones of the state

 

It grow naturally in disturbed localities,                                 It is suitable for home garden and          

open or lightly shaded areas                                               domestication

 

It could be sown directly or in pots and later                        These make it suitable for home garden

transplanted or by stem cutting                                           and cultivation in commercial quantities

 

It requires 3 to 4 months to mature                                      This ensures early returns from its

                                                                                              Cultivation

 

 

Table 9. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of T. schionperiana.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its stem barks and roots used in the study area                    This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                               involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow well in fringing forest and derived savanna                It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It fruits in the dry season                                                       Its seeds could be available for planting at

                                                                                              the onset of the rains

 

 

 

Table 10. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of T. vogelii.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its leaves and seeds are used in the study area                 This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                             involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow well in derived savanna                                             It could be cultivated in the savanna zone

                                                                                              of the state

 

It is fire resistance                                                                 Suitable in the study area where slash and

                                                                                              burn is the major agricultural system

                                                                                              practiced

 

It fruits in the dry season                                                       Its seeds could be available for planting at

                                                                                              the onset of the rains

 

It could be cultivated as ornamental or wind brake              Suitable for domestication

 

It could be planted as cover crop                                         Suitable for incorporation into the existing

                                                                                             agricultural methods

 

It is now known to have insecticidal properties                    Suitable for cultivation in commercial

                                                                                             proportion

 

 

 

Table11. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of V. doniana.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its stem bark, roots and leaves are used in the study area  This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                              involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow well in well drained soil                                             It could be cultivated in most parts of the

                                                                                             state

 

It could be cultivated as fruit tree                                         Suitable for domestication and large scale

                                                                                             (commercial) proportion

 

Its roots and bark is now known to produce dye                 Suitable for cultivation in commercial

                                                                                             proportion and as a major source of

                                                                                              income

 

 

Table 12. The potentials of the respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge on the conservation of V. paradoxa.

Respondents� indigenous ecological knowledge                       Conservation conjecture         

Its seeds and roots are used in the study area                   This could enhance willingness to be

                                                                                             involved in its cultivation

 

Harvesting methods are annihilative                                     This stressed the need for its conservation

 

It grow on many types of soil                                                 It could be cultivated in all the ecological

                                                                                               zones of the state

 

It fruits in the dry season                                                       Its seeds could be available for planting at

                                                                                              the onset of the rains

 

Its fruits is a source of local ointment called �Ori                  Ready market available for the fruit of

                                                                                              this species