Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 126-35, 2010.

 

 

Study of Parasite Hosts of the Genus Cuscuta and its Traditional Uses in Palanpur Taluka, Gujarat, India

 

J.N. Patel and N.K. Patel*

 

R.R. Mehta college of science, Palanpur 385001

*Biology Department, Sheth M. N. Science college, Patan- 385 120

E-mail: taxonomy.naren@gmail.com

http://plantethnobotany.nong.com

 

Issued: February 01, 2010

 

Abstract

 

Cuscuta is a parasitic plant belonging to family Cuscutaceae. The present paper is an investigation of its various host plant species and its traditional uses in Palanpur Taluka of North Gujarat during 2005-2008. Two species of Cuscuta occur in the Palanpur Taluka. The preservation and documentation of traditional knowledge is a matter of prime importance. This will not only provide recognition of this knowledge but will also help in conservation of�� such�� gradually�� vanishing�� endangered�� semi/arid�� plant�� species. The present paper provide ethnomedicinal information of 2 species of Cuscuta. For each plant species listed, the botanical name, family, vernacular name, part used, uses/ailments treated, preparations/administrations, use (%) and locality are given.

 

Key words: Host, Cuscuta, Traditional uses.

 

Introduction

����������� Palanpur Taluka is situated in the Banaskantha district. The Banaskantha district is situated between the parallels of latitude 23� 49' and 24� 42' and the meridians of longitude 71�.1 'and 73�.0' (Fig.1). The area covered by the district is 10,757 sq. km. The rank of the district is 4th in area of the state. It is in the north western part of the Gujarat State.��� The Palanpur Taluka is situated at 24� 10� to 24� 17� N and 72� 26� to72� 43� E at the Banaskantha district of North Gujarat. Out of the total area of 10577 sq. km. of the district an area of about 1,108 sq km is covered by forest, out of which 51967.29.41.Ha. Area is Reserve forest, 1303,39,19 area isprotected forest and Unclassified forest is 57385,21,37in thedistrict. The main products of these forest are timber, kher, neem, charcoal, timru and firewood. This area has dry deciduous and scrub type of forest. Saxton and Sedgwick (1918), Sutaria (1941-42), Yogi (1970), Patel (1970), and Shah (1978) have carried out floristic studies of North Gujarat in Palanpur Taluka. Bharti (1959) and Narula (1971) have made the floristic work. Cuscuta has three species in Gujarat state (Shah, 1978) viz. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb; Cuscuta chinensis Roxb. and Cuscuta hyaline Roth; out of three species Cuscuta hyaline Roth is not observed in Palanpur Taluka.

 


Fig.1. Map of Palanpur Taluka.

 

����������� Plants have�� alwaysplayed�� a�� major�� role�� in�� the�� treatment�� of�� human�� traumas�� and diseases worldwide. They have been used as sources of modern drugs, either by providing pure compounds, starting materials for partial synthesis of useful compounds or models for synthesis of new drugs. Ethnomedicinal information is an important tool in drug discovery.

�������� Information about medicinal plants is still passing from one generation�� to another�� byoral communication, posing the danger of loosing some knowledge. There is, therefore, a need to document medicinal plants in Palanpur before both the provider of information disappear. Meanwhile most of these plants was already endangered by the arid/semi arid climatic conditions and man-made activities.

 

Materials and Methods

������ Regular visits almost parts of Palanpur Taluka were made to collect all host plant specimens which were affected by the two species of Cuscuta. The information was gathered from urban and rural inhabitants knowledgeable on indigenous herbal medicine by personal interviews. Questions about the use of medicinal plants were asked using classical means of ethnobotanical analysis. The interviews were in the form of group discussions, in groups of three or four people, except for the traditional healers who preferred confidentiality.

�������� Plant materials of all thetaxareported werecollected either by authorand shownto the informants, or by the informants and shown to us or by the informants, or by us together. During fieldwork plant materials were collected for preparation of herbarium specimens and for biological and chemical testing. The plants were identified using the Flora and also by comparison with herbarium specimens. Voucher�� specimens�� were�� deposited�� in�� the Botany Department, R.R.Mehta College of Science, Palanpur.

�������� All the data obtained have been integrated and analysed. The results have been structured according to these categories: number of plants mentioned (with scientific Latin name, botanical families and vernacular(popular) names; part used;�� uses/ailments treated; preparations/administrations; host species and parts of host species. To assess the degree of originality and novelty of the uses claimed by the informants, these were compared with those reported in several works on ethnobotany, medicinal plants and phytotherapy.

 

Result and Discussion

�������� Of the 289 angiospermic plant species found in Palanpur Taluka, only seven species are partial / total parasites. Among the seven species only the two species of Cuscutae.g�� C. chinensis Roxb. and C. reflexa Roxb. are total parasites. The frequency of total parasite plants is only 2.8 %. The effect of parasite on vegetation was found at 27 locations in study area. The collected data are summarized in tables I and II.

 

Text Box:  (1)������ Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Vernacular Name: �� AMARVEL

Family: Cuscutaceae

Habit: A perennial, parasitic. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).

Properties: Alterative; Anthelmintic; Carminative; Purgative.

Traditional uses:The seeds are used in the treatment of bilious disorders. The stems are used in the treatment of bilious disorders. The whole plant is purgative. It is used internally in treating protracted fevers and externally in the treatment of itchy skin. The plant is employed in Ayurvedic medicine to treat difficulty in urinating, jaundice, muscle pain and coughs.

 

Text Box:  (2)������� Cuscuta chinensis Roxb.

Vernacular Name:AMARVEL

Family: Cuscutaceae

Habit: A perennial, parasitic. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).

Properties: Aphrodisiac; Demulcent; Diaphoretic; Hepatic; Kidney; Ophthalmic; Tonic.

Traditional uses: A lotion made from the stems is used in the treatment of sore heads and inflamed eyes. In particular, it is used in the treatment of impotence, nocturnal emissions, vertigo, lumbago, leucorrhoea, frequent micturation, decreased eyesight, threatened abortion and chronic diarrhoea.

 

Table 1: Various hosts of CuscutachinensisRoxb.

Sr No.

Name of Host Plant

Local Name

Family

Habit

On which part parasite

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

Abutilon indicum���

Acanthospermum hispidum

Acacia nilotica

Achyrenthus aspera

Blainvillea acmella

Boerhavia diffusa

Caesalpinia crista

Calotropis procera

Capparis deciduas

Capparis spinosa

Cardiospermum halicacabum

Cassia auriculata

Cassia occidentalis

Cassia tora

Cissampelos pareira

Clerodendrum inerme

Coccinia grandis

Coccinia indica

Cocculus hirsutus

Cocculus pendulus

Commelina benghalensis

Commelina nudiflora

Corchorus aestuans

Desmostachya bipinnata

Eragrostis cynosuroides

Euphorbia neriifolia

Grass sp-1

Holoptelia integrifolia

Ipomoea fistulosa

Lablab purpureus

Luffa acutangula

Luffa echinata

Momordica charantia

Momordica dioica

Mukia maderaspanata

Pennisetum typhoides

Phylanthus fraternus

Physalis minima

Polyalthia longifolia

Rhynchosia minima

Ruellia tuberose

Seyaria glauca

Sida acuta

Sida cordifolia

Tribulus terrestris

KANSHKI

-

BAVAL

ANDHADO

FULDO

SATODI

KACHKA

AKADO

KERDO

KANTHERO

KAGDOLIU

AVAL

KASUNDRO

KUVADIO

VENI VEL

VAD MEHNDI

GHILODA

GHILODI

VEVADI

VEVADI

MOTU SISMULIU

SISMULIU

CHUNCH

DARBH

KUTRA GHAS

THURIA

-

KANAJO

NAFAT VEL

VAL

TURIA

KUKUD VEL

KARELA

KANKODA

CHIBHDI VEL

BAJARO

BHOY AMALI

SARPOPATO

ASOPALAV

DARIA VEL

BANDHUKADI

ZIPTI

BALA

BALA

GHOKHRU

ZIPTI

GOLZIPI

SAHDEVI

Malvaceae

Acanthaceae

Mimosaceae

Amarantaceae

Asteraceae

Nyctaginaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Asclepiadaceae

Capperaceae

Capperaceae

Sapindaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Menispermaceae

Verbinaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Menispermaceae

Menispermaceae

Commelinaceae

Commelinaceae

Tiliaceae

Poaceae

Poaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Poaceae

Urticaceae

Convolvulaceae

Papilionaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Poaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Solanaceae

Annonaceae

Papilionaceae

Acanthaceae

Poaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Zygophyllaceae

Tiliaceae

Tiliaceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

S

H

T

S

H

H

S

S

S

S

C

S

S

S

C

S

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

S

H

T

S

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

T

C

H

H

S

S

H

S

S

H

S

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

 

 

St

 

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

 

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

 

 

Lf

Lf

Lf

 

 

Lf

 

 

Lf

Lf

 

Lf

 

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

Lf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fl

Fl

Fl

 

 

 

Fl

 

 

Fl

Fl

 

Fl

Fl

 

Fl

Fl

Fl

 

Fl

Fl

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fl

Fl

 

 

Table 2: Various hosts ofCuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Sr.

No

Name of host plant

Local Name

Family

Habit

On which

part

parasite

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Accacia nilotica�����

Azadirecta indica

Capperis spinosa

Cassia occidentalis

Cassia siamea

Clerodendrum multiflorum

Cordia dichotoma

Cordia perrottetii

Grewia tenax

Holoptelea integrifolia

Ipomoea fistulosa

Ipomoea pes-tigridis

Maytenus emarginata

Melia azaderachta

Morus alba

Murraya koenigri

Nerium indicum

Salvadora oleoides

Salvadora persica

BAVAL

LIMDO

KANTHERO

KASUNDO

 

ARANI

VAD GUNDA

NANI GUNDI

GENGATI

KANAJI

NAFAT VEL

VAGPADINI VEL

VICKDO

BAKAN

SHETUR

MITHO LIMDO

LAL KAREN

VAKDO

Mimosaceae

Meliaceae

Capparaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Verbinaceae

Ehretiaceae

Ehretiaceae

Tiliaceae

Urticaceae

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae

Celastraceae

Meliaceae

Moraceae

Rutaceae

Apocynaceae

Salvadoraceae

Salvadoraceae

Rhamnaceae

T

T

S

S

T

S

T

T

S

T

S

C

S

S

S

S

S

S

T

T

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

St

 

Lf

Lf

 

 

Lf

Lf

Lf

 

 

Lf

 

Lf

 

 

Lf

Lf

 

 

Lf

 

 

 

����������� Cuscuta chinensis Roxb. is parasitic on 49 host plants whereas C. reflexa Roxbis parasitic on 20 plant species. Cuscuta chinensis attacks herbs and shrub while C. reflexa affect only shrubs. It is a most common parasite on host Salvadora persica in almost all

 

Text Box:  
Fig.2: Percentage of host plants of different habits Cuscuta
          chinensis  and Cuscuta reflexa

 

Text Box:  
Fig.3: Number of parts of host plants of Cuscuta chinensis and  
         Cuscuta reflexa

locations of study area. Various parts of host plants viz. stem, leaf and flower are severely affected by both the species.

����������� Fig.2 reveals that of the total 49 host plants affected by , C. chinensis, their habits are; 32.6% herbs, 34.6% shrubs , 26.5% climbers and 6.12% small trees. of the 20 hosts affected by C. reflexa, 55% are shrubs, 5% climbers and 40% trees. Both parasitic species were observed on the following host plant species: Holopetelea integrifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Acasia nilotica, Ipomoea fistulosa, Capparis spinosa. Fig.3 reveals that of the C. chinensis found on stem of 45 plant species , leaves of 42, flower of 15 plant species and C. reflexa found on stem of 20 plant species and, leaves of 10 plant species.

 

Acknowledgement

������ We are very much thankful to M. K .Makawana, I/C Principal, R.R .Mehta College of Science Palanpur, North Gujarat for providing laboratory facility during the work.

References

Bharthi, S.G. 1959. A brief account of the floraof Visnagar, North Gujarat and its������������ environs. J. Bombay Nat Hist. Soc. 56:588-610.

Champion, H. G. and S.K.Seth,1968. A revised Survey of the forest types of India Press,���������� ��Nasik.

Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. 1986. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.

Narula,S.B.1971. Record of angiospermic plants of Visnagar, Seminar and workshop in����������� Botany, Souvenir: 1-8.

Patel, R.I.1970. Forest flora of Gujarat, forest Department, Vadodara.

Sexton, W.T. and L.J.Sedgwick,1918. Plants of North Gularat records. Bot. Survey ofIndia 6:242-323

Shah, G.L.1978. Flora of Gujarat state Vols.I&II, S.P. University,Vallabh Vidyanagar,��� Anand.

Sutaria,R.N.1941-42. The Vegetationo of Vireshver, Prakruti, J.Gujarat nat.Hist.�� Soci.8:36-42.���

Yogi, D.V.1970. Acontribution to the flora of North Gujarat, Ph.D. thesis S.P.Univ.�� Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand.����