Ehnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1409-1416. 2009.

 

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in West Kordofan (Western Sudan)

 

I.G. Doka andS. M. Yagi*

���

 

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum. Sudan

*Corresponding author E-mail address: sakinayagi@yahoo.com

 

Issued 01 November 2009

 

 

Abstract

������������� The aim of the present study was primarily to evaluate the medicinal uses of the plants known to some western Kordofan tribes and to encourage preservation of their culture, conservation and sustainable utilization of the plant wealth. The present study revealed a record of 49 plant species belonging to 26 families which are used in the folk medicine of West Kordofan, Sudan. It is believed to be a form of healthcare in many aspects of curing practices. The plants were arranged alphabetically by their family name followed by species name, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. This wisdom available with the tribes is transmitted only through oral communication therefore needs conservation.

Key words:Medicinal plants; Ethnobotany; West Kordofan.

Introduction

�������������Western Kordofan, an area in Sudan, is located between latitude 270 E and 300 E. Climatically, it is characterized by a long dry period (October-May) and a shorter period of precipitation (June-September). The average annual rainfall ranges for 400 mm in the Northern part to 800 mm in the Southern part. An average maximum temperature of 42 C reached during summer and falls to about 25 C in winter (El Sammani, 1985). The main constituent of vegetation is of the grass woodland savannah type (El Amin, 1990).

��������������� The population of this area is 768 000 inhabitants, 154 000 of whom are urban sedentary and 70 000 nomads, spending the dry season in the southern of the Sudan and migrating to the north with advent of the rainy season. The Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at the National Centre for Research in Sudan has drawn an urgent short term objective to issue an atlas of medicinal plants used in Sudanese folk medicine (El Ghazali, 1987; El Ghazali et al., 1994; El Ghazali et al., 1997; El Ghazali, 1998; El Ghazali et al., 2003). Ethnobotanically, Western Kordofan area remains unexplored and no comprehensive account of traditional local remedies is available. The only work existing for a few areas of this region is compiled by EL-Ghazali et al., 1997 and. EL-Kamali, 2009.

����������������� The purpose of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plants used by the locals of West Kordofan with emphasis on those have never been described in the ethnobotanical literature of Sudan or with new therapeutic uses. The scant knowledge concerning medicinal plants prompted investigation on intensive search of systematic study to better understanding of traditional healing.

Materials and Methods

�������������� The current ethnopharmacological survey was conducted among 31 local practitioners in different regions of West Kordofan Area, included Babanusa, Muglad, Rigl EL Fula, Lagawa, EI Meiram. EI Tubn, EI Odaya, Ed Dibah, Abu EI Kiri, Namatein, Nama, Dambloya, Tundy, Bajaj and Umm Jack (Fig.1).The choice of the individual informant to be interviewed was of fundamental importance to the reliability of the gathered information. We only selected practitioners who utilized medicinal plants as part or all of their therapeutic activity, and who were regarded as professional. Questions addressed to the informants were mainly focused on local names, ailments and diseases treated, therapeutic part(s) of plants used and methods of preparation. A therapeutically efficacious effect was accepted if use is mentioned by at least three different informants.

������������� Botanical specimens of recorded plants were collected and materials were mounted on herbarium sheet, and then deposited in the Herbarium of Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum. Identification was determined using the available relevant African Flora with special attention to scientific publications of Sudan and neighbouring countries (El Amin, 1990; Andrews, 1950, 1952, 1956; Berge and Hijam Maria, 1898; Broun and Massey, 1929; Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1968; Maydell, 1990; Ross, 1975) and by means of a comparison with herbarium specimens conserved in the Herbaria of Botany Department and that of Soba Forests Research Centre.

Results and Discussion

��� ����������Information obtained from the analysis including the folk therapeutical data was compared with those of the atlas of medicinal plants used in Sudanese folk medicine. 49 plant species belong to 26 families was reported with further emphasis on their vernacular names, popular uses, parts used and methods of preparation. These plant species were arranged alphabetically by their families and botanical names (Table 1).

������������� The plants listed in Table 1 include remedies for treating skin diseases, digestive system diseases, urinary and the respiratory systems diseases and antidotes for treatment of scorpion and snake strokes. Also, species like Mitragyna inermis (bark), Balanites aegyptiaca (leaves) and Terminalia laxiflora (bark) were used for the treatment of malaria. However, for some species, there is evidence in the literature that the mode of application being practised by the local people is likely to be effective. For example, in the traditional medicine, the bark powder of Albizzia anthelmintica is used as anthelmintic which coincides by the pharmacological validation of Galal et al., 1991a and b) and Koko (2000). The prevalence of numerous endemic diseases, malnutrition, poverty and increasing cost of personal healthcare emphasizes the role played by folklore medicine as revealed by the study conducted in Western Kordofan.

������������� Moreover, we observed that, knowledge of medicinal plant use among the young was less well developed and negatively correlated with the level of informant education. Our observation suggests that the educated, usually younger people tend to migrate to more lucrative jobs away from the villages. As western Kordofan traditional medical knowledge is orally passed down via lifestyle, it is important to exhaustively document and publicize medicinal plant knowledge within the young generation to raise awareness of and appreciation for their traditional values and for the conservation and sustainable use of the plants as well as to keep the traditional medical knowledge left in their community alive.

In this context, it may be important that personal contacts with natural areas not only provide learning opportunities but also motivate people to protect their environment; thus, the natural setting seems to be central to the acquisition of traditional plant knowledge. In conclusion, folklore medicine in Western Kordofan may constitute an important component of the health care system. However, more than 30% of these species are endangered species. This calls for efforts for the protection and conservation of these species. Further, the claimed therapeutical values of the reported species call for thorough investigation and modern scientific studies to establish their safety and identify the active ingredients.

Acknowledgement

��������� We appreciate Dr El Sheikh Abd Alla El Sheikh, Soba Forests Research Centre, for his help and interest in this study.

 

References

Andrews, F.W. 1950. The flowering plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Vol.l, Buncle &Co.Ltd., Arbroath, Scotland.

Andrews, F.W. 1952. The flowering plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Vol.II Buncle & Co. Ltd, Abroath, Scotland.

Andrews, F.W. 1956. The flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Vol.III. Buncle & Co.Ltd, Arbroath, Scotland.

Berge, C.C. and Hijam Maria E.E. 1898. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Moraceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Broun, A.F. and Massey, R.E. 1929. Flora of the Sudan. Thomas Murby and Co 1. Fleet Lane, London, E.C. 4.

El Amin, H.M. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaea Press, Exeter.

El Ghazali, G.E.B. 1987. Medicinal plants of Sudan, Part I, Medicinal plants of Erkowit. University Press, Khartoum.

El Ghazali, G.E.B., El Tohami, M.S., El Egami, A.A.B., Abdalla, W.E. and Mohamed, G. 1994. Medicinal plants of Sudan, Part II, Medicinal plants of northern Kordofan. Khartoum University Press, Khartoum.

El Ghazali, G.E.B., El Tohami, M.S. and El Egami, A.A.B. 1997. Medicinal plants of Sudan, Part III, Medicinal plants of the eastern Nuba Mountains. Khartoum University Press, Khartoum.

El Ghazali, G.E.B. 1998. Medicinal plants of Sudan, Part IV. Medicinal Plants of the White Nile Province. Khartoum University Press, Khartoum.

El Ghazali, G.E., Aballa, W.E., Khalid, H.E., Khalafalla, M.M. and Hamad, A.D. 2003. Medicinal plants of Sudan, Part V. Medicinal plants of Ingessana. Sudan Currency Printing Press, Khartoum.

EL-Kamali, H.H. 2009. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants used in North Kordofan (Western Sudan).Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 89-97.

El Sammani, M.O. 1985. ElKhuwei-Mazroub-Tinna study area, Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Galal, M., Bashir, A.K., Salih, A.M. and Adam, S.E. 1991a. Efficacy of aqueous andbutanolic fractions of Albizzia anthelminthica against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infestation in rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 33 (6): 537-537.

Galal, M., Bashir, A.K., Salih, A.M. and Adam, S. E. 1991. Activity of water extracts of Albizzia anthelminthica and A. lebbek barks against experimental Hyenolepis diminuta.infection in rats. J. Ethnopharmacology 31 (3): 333-337.

Hutchinson, J. and Dalziel, J.M. 1968. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 1st Ed., Crown Agent for Overseas Governments and Administration, Millbank, London.

Koko, W.S., Galal, M. and Khalid, H.S. 2000. Fasciolicidal efficacy of Albizzia anthelminthica and Balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole. J. Ethnopharmacology 71 (1-2): 247-252.

Maydell, H.J.V. 1990. Tress and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. GTZ, Germany.

Ross, J.H. 1975. Flora of South Africa, Vol. 16 Part I. The Government Printer, Pretoria.

 

�������������������������������������� Fig. 1. Location map of Western Kordofan, Sudan

 

 

 

M A M Siddig 004

 

 

Table 1: Medicinal plants used in West Kordofan.

 

Family/ Species

Local name

Part

Preparations

Aliment treated

used

Acanthaceae

 

 

 

 

Blepharis linariifolia Pers

 

El Bigiel

Wp

Decoction

Urine retention

Ampelidaceae

 

 

 

 

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Sala Sala

Wp

Smoke Decoction

Syphilis

 

 

 

Cataplasm

Leprosy

 

 

 

 

Snake bite

Anacardiacae

 

 

 

 

Lannea fruticosa (Hochst.ex A.Rich.) Engl.

 

Layoun

Ba

Cataplasm

Swellings

Asclepiadaceae

 

 

 

 

Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait.f.��

Ushar

Sl

Direct application

Scorpion bite

 

 

Fr &Le

Boiled in seasamin

oil

Rheumatic pains

Leptadenia arborea (Forsk.) Schweinf.

Shaaloub

Ro

Decoction

Jaundice

Le

Paste

Dandruff

 

 

 

Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) Kuntze

 

Umm Gato

Ba

Decoction

Malaria

Balanitaceae

 

 

 

 

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.

Hagleeg

Le

Decoction

Malaria

 

 

Fr

Infusion

Kidney & bladder troubles

Bignoniaceae

 

 

 

 

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

 

Damblo

Fr

Roasted and powdered

Swollen mastilis

Bombacaceae

 

 

 

 

Adansonia digitata L.

Tabaldi

 

Ba

Decoction

Pain after birth, diarrhoea

Burseraceae

 

 

 

 

Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst.

Umm Targtarg

Ba

Decoction

Dysentery

 

 

Ro

Infusion

Respiratory infections

Commiphora oppbulsamum (L.) Engl.

Gafal

Ba

Decoction

Measles

 

 

G

Decoction

Urine retention

Caesalpinaceae

 

 

 

 

Bauhinia rufescens Lam.

El Bigiel

Ba

Decoction

Cough

Cassia sieberana DC.

Umm Kasho

Ro

Decoction

Snake bite

Senna italica Mill.

Sena Sena

Le &

Decoction

Constipation

Fr

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

Bun Balash

Se

Decoction

Diabetes;

intestinal ulcer

 

 

Ro

Decoction

Gonorrhoea

Tamarindus indica L.

Aradeib

LE

Decoction

Food poisoning

 

 

G

Direct application

Toothache

Capparidaceae

 

 

 

 

Boscia angustifolia A.Rich

Shara bieda

Ba

Paste

Swellings

Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.ex Poir.

Mikheit

Le

Decoction

Cough, head pustules

Capparis micranthe A.Rich.

El Mardo

Ro

Decoction

Snake bite

Crateva adansonii DC.

Dabker

Fr

Decoction

Stomach swellings

Maerua crassifolia Forsk.

 

Sereih

St

Cataplasm

Wounds

Combretaceae

 

 

 

 

Combretum aculeatum Vent.

Shukheit

Ro

Decoction

Snake bite

 

 

 

 

 

Combretum glutinosum Perr.ex DC.

Habie

Ba

Cataplasm

Swellings

 

 

Hw

Smoke

Rheumatic pains

Terminalia laxiflora Engl.& Diels

 

Darout

Ba

Decoction

Malaria

Ebernaceae

 

 

 

 

Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex DC.

 

Gughan

Ba

Decoction

Diarrhoea

Leguminaceae

 

 

 

 

Arachis hypogaea L.

 

Foul

Se

Jam

Scorpion bite

Liliaceae

 

 

 

 

Asparagus flagellais (Kunth.) Baker

 

Umm Mushbat

Ro

Decoction

Rabies, snake bite

Loganiaceae

 

 

 

 

Strychnos spinosa Lam.

 

Umm Bekhesa

Fr

Eaten

Hypertension

Malvaceae

 

 

 

 

Sida ovata Forsk.

Magasht el Regal

Ro

Paste

Taenia capitics

Mimosaceae

 

 

 

 

Acacia gerrardii Benth.

Salgum

Ba

Decoction

Swellings

Acacia nubica Benth.

El Ifein

Fr

Paste

Tooth cavity

Acacia polyacantha Willd.

Umm Siniena

Ba

Decoction

Dysentery,

gastric ulcer

 

Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

Kitr Abied

G

Juice

Guardia

Acacia seyal Del.

Talih

Ba

Decoction

Bleeding

 

 

Le

Direct application

Leprosy

Acacia sieberiana DC.

Kook

Ba

Decoction

Cough

Albizzia amara (Roxb.) Boiv.

Arad

Le

Cataplasm

Agnail

 

 

Ba

Decoction

Scabies

 

 

Se

Decoction

Jaundice

Albizzia anthelmintica Brongn

 

Ba

Infusion

Anthelmintic

Faidherbia albida Del.

El Haraz

Se

Cataplasm

Scorpion bite

Prosopis africana (Guill.& Perr.) Taub

 

Umm Surouj

Ba

Decoction

Sexual impotence

Moraceae

 

 

 

 

Ficus platycephale Del

 

Gumaize

Ba

Cataplasm

Leprosy

Nymphaeaceae

 

 

 

 

Nymphaea lotus L.

 

Suteib

Ro

Cataplasm

Agnail

Olacaceae

 

 

 

 

Ximenia americana L

 

Umm Medeka

St

Smoke

Rheumatic pains

Papilionaceae

 

 

 

 

Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.

Babanoose

Ro

Smoke

Rheumatic pains

 

 

Le

Paste

Taenia capitis

 

 

Fr

Decoction

Urine retention

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

 

Gardenia ternifolia Schum.& Thonn

Abu Gawi

Ro

Decoction

Jaundice

Xeromphis nilotica (Stapt) Keay

 

Shagarat El Marfaaein

Ro

Decoction

Rabies

Solanaceae

 

 

 

 

Solanum incanum L.

 

Abu Ifein

Fr

Decoction

Antispasmodic

Tiliaceae

 

 

 

 

Grewia flavescens Juss.

Abu Halaf

Ro

Decoction

Stomach disorders,

 

 

 

 

leprosy

Zygophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

Fagonia cretica L.

Umm Shweika

Wp

Cataplasm

Skin allergy

Ba, Bark; Fr; Fruits; Hw, Heart wood; Le, Leaves;Ro, Roots; Se, Seeds; St, Stem; Wp, Whole plant; G, Gum