Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 741-43. 2008.
Anthelmintic Activity of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Fruits
of Terminalia chebula Retz.
1*S. Dwivedi, 2A.
3R. Kapadia and 4S. Kaul
Institue of Pharmacy, Indore,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhopal, M.P.-India
and Research Centre, Bhopal,
Dept. Plethico Pvt. Ltd., Indore,
Lecturer, Chordia Institute of Pharmacy
AG-184, Sch. No. 54
Vijay Nagar, Indore M.P.-India
Mob. No. 09893478497
Issued 01 October 2008
extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. were screened to evaluate anthelmintic
activity in adult earthworm Pheritima posthuma. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of the
fruits showed significant anthelmintic activity and
it was found that the alcoholic extract activity is higher than aqueous
extract and the standard drug of albendazole.
Anthelmintic activity, Albendazole,
Earthworm, Fruits extract.
chebula Retz. (Harra) Is a plant of the family combertaceae,
commonly called the king of medicine and is always listed in the Ayurveda (Anonymous, 2002). The tree is abundantly grown
in North India at an altitude of 1000-3000 ft. It is
used to treat digestive disease, urinary disease, heart disease, parasitic
infection, fevers, flatulence, constipation, etc., and is an important
constituent of triphala formulation (Dwivedi, 2004 and Dwivedi S et.
al., 2007). The present study was undertaken to screen the anthelmintic activity of the fruits extracts of Terminalia chebula
Collection of Plant Materials
The fruits of the Terminalia chebula
Retz. were collected from
the forest of Rewa District of Madhya
during may-june 2007 and then authentified
and confirmed by Dr. S. N. Dwivedi, Department of
Botany, Janata PG College, A.P.S.
Madhya Pradesh, India.
Preparation of Extract
The dried fruits of Terminalia chebula
Retz. was collected, then
dried fruits were powdered to get a coarse powder. The dried powder fruits
(200 gm) were taken in 1 lit. beaker and alcohol in
sufficient quantity was added, then it was kept for maceration for 72 hours.
The alcoholic extract obtained was filtered and concentrated on hot plate.
Similarly, the aqueous extract of fruits was prepared by macerating coarse
powder for 24 hours. And was filtered and concentrated. The fruits extracts
were prepared by dissolving 2.5 ml of 1% gum acacia solution prepared in
normal saline to give 100mg/ml, 80mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 20mg/ml
Adult earthworms of the genus and
species, Phertima prosthuma,
were collected (due to their anatomical and physiological resemblance with
the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings) from moist soil and
washed out of sand. Five groups of approximately equal size earthworms consisting
of six earthworms in each group were used for the present study (Blackmore, 1999).
Albendazole is taken as standard drug and the
concentration of the standard drug was prepared in 1% gum acacia in normal
saline to give 100mg/ml, 80mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 20mg/ml concentration.
Five groups of approximately equal
size earthworms consisting of six earthworms in each group were used for the
present study. Each group was treated with one of the following vehicle (1%
gum acacia in normal saline), albendazole,
alcoholic and aqueous extract (100mg/ml, 80mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 40mg/ml and
20mg/ml concentration). Observations were made for the time taken to
paralysis and death of individual worms. Paralysis was said to occur when the
worms do not revive even in normal saline. Death was concluded when the worms
lost their motality followed with fading away of
their body color (Gunasekharan et. al. 2006).
All the data obtained was
presented as Mean + SEM (Table 1)
and were analyzed with student- t test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The alcoholic and aqueous ectracts of fruits of Terminalia
chebula Retz. showed significant anthelmintic
activity. The result of anthelmintic activity of
alcoholic and aqueous extract of Terminalia
chebula Retz. on earthworms (Phertima prosthuma) were given in Table 1. It was concluded
from the study that the alcoholic extract of Terminalia
chebula Retz. showed marked and potent anthelmintic
activity than the aqueous extract and standard drug albendazole.
Standard drug albendazole is showing moderate
activity while aqueous extract of Terminalia
chebula Retz. is showing comparatively less anthelmintic
Table 1. Anthelmintic activity of fruit extract of Terminalia chebula Retz.
PARALYSIS TIME (min.)
DEATH TIME (min.)
expressed as Mean + SEM from six
Authors are thankful to Dr. S. N. Dwivedi for the identification of plants and also
thankful to the Principal, Chordia Institute of
Pharmacy, Indore M.P. for providing the facility in
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