Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 49-62. 2006.
Medicinal Folk Recipes of Siran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan
Ghulam Mujtaba Shah
and Mir Ajab Khan*
Department of Botany, Govt Post Graduate College Abbottabad.
*Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad.
Issued 23 February 2006
The present studies were aimed to investigate ethnomedicinal folk recipes used to cure different
diseases in the study area. Questionnaire method was adopted for
documentation of folk indigenous knowledge .The interviews were carried out
in local community, to investigate local people and knowledgeable persons
(Hakims, Women and Herdsmen) who are the main user of medicinal plants. The ethnomedicinal data on 44 plant species belonging to 31
families were recorded during field trips from different villages of the
area. The botanical name, followed by local name, family, part used and ethnomedicinal uses in different folk recipes was
recorded. Plants were collected, pressed, dried, preserved, mounted and
identified through the available literature (Nasir
& Ali, 1971- 2001) and were confirmed by the experts in Department of
Biology, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad. The
specimens were deposited in the Herbarium, Department of Plant Sciences, and Quaid -i-Azam University
Islamabad Pakistan (ISL).
�Key words: Ethnomedicinal, folk recipes and Siran Valley, Pakistan.
���������� The study area is located in the Hazara Civil Division, District Mansehra
of the North West Frontier (NWFP), Pakistan.
The Siran River catchments area is commonly known
as, �Siran Valley�. It is situated between
34o 33/ 35// and 34o 44/
30// North Latitude, and between 73o 13/ 38//
and 73o 22/ 40// East Longitude. The
tract is bounded on the north by Allai Valley,
on the south by Lower Siran,
on the west by the Konsh
Valley and on the east by the Kaghan Valley.
River is 130 km in length joining
the Indus at Tarbala in Hazara Division. The total area of the tract is 5284.2
km. The climate of the tract is moist temperate with very marked seasonal
periods of snow, rain and drought. Snowfall is considerable and occurs any
time from later half of November to the end of March. Snow often remains to
the end of May. Most of the rain occurs during Monsoon viz. July- August
between these two seasons of snow and rain the Spring and Autumn months are
periods of less rain and drought.
According to standard classification of forest types of Pakistan
(Champion, Seth and Khattak1965) the upper Siran
reserved forests fall under the major type �Montane
Temperate Forests.� Gymnosperms consist of Pinus roxburgii, P.wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Taxus wallichiana and Cedrus
deodara. Several other broad-leaved species
like Aesculus indica, Populus ciliata, and Juglans regia are also
found. The shrubby dominant undergrowths are, Sarcococca saligna,
Indgiofera heterantha, Rubus fruticosus.,
Cotoneaster sp., Plectranthus rugosus., Stachys sp., Rhododendron sp., Rosa webbiana etc. Among the herbaceous
flora Viola Serpens, Fragaria vesca. Potentilla nepalensis., Anemone
sp., �Thymus serpyllum ., Eremurus sp., Impatiens sp., Arisaema sp., Pennisetum sp, Sauromatum venosum, Artemisia
sp., Delphinium sp etc. is common.
In the shady places especially cliffs, several species of ferns are found.
Examples are Adiantum sp., Onychim sp., Cetrach sp., Pteris sp., and Asplenium
living in remote areas and in villages are using indigenous plants as
medicines from long ago because this knowledge reaches to them through
generation to generation�
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998). Marwat and Shinwari (1996)
documented ethnobotanical� information of Upper
is a moist temperate region of NWFP and is very rich in floristic
composition. Altogether 79 species of plants belonging to 48 families have
been recorded as ethnobotanically important.
����������� Qureshi and Khan (2001) conducted the study in Kahuta; Rawalpindi
to list the medicinal plants there. In total 25 species of herbs belonging to
18 families were recorded, which were being used medicinally by inhabitants
of the area. Some of the most interesting and representative plants of the
area were Cyprus rotundus �mainly used for Cholera, dyspepsia and fever
and Saussurea hereomala
�as a tonic for animals. The oil of
Pongamia pinnata� was applied to cure herpes and
eczema. Leaves of Euphobia helioscopia� were used to cure
mad dogs. Boerhaavia diffusa
�was useful for jaundice and other
Materials and Methods
trips of 60 days duration to various parts of Siran
Valley was undertaken from January 2001 to January 2003 to collect various
plant species of ethnodecinal importance present in
the area in different seasons. The main target sites in Siran Valley
were Baffa, Shinkiari,
Banda Piran, Dhodial, Dadar, Jabori, Jacha, Mandagucha, Panjul, Kund Bungla, Shaheed Pani, Khori, Bakki, Jabbar and Musa- Ka-Musallah. Field
numbers were given to the specimens and field data� scientific names, vernacular names,
family and other relevant information was noted in the Field Note Book .The
collected material was pressed, dried using blotting papers for about two
weeks at room temperature and identified through the available literature (Nasir & Ali, 1971-1999). The dried material was
poisoned using mercuric chloride and absolute alcohol (2 gm mercuric chloride
dissolved in 100 ml of absolute alcohol). After poisoning, the plants were
mounted on the standard size herbarium sheets. Local people, herds men, local healers
(Hakims) and plant collectors were interviewed for ethnobotanical
information of the area. A questionnaire was constructed and survey was
carried out in every study village.
Achillea millefolium Linn. ���
Names: Birangesif (Hindko),
Sultani booti (Urdu),
Parts used: Whole plant
Recipe: The pant is boiled and hot infusion is used to induce sweats that cool
fevers.� One teacup is taken at night.
Fresh plant is crushed and used as a poultice for healing wounds, chapped
skin and rashes and as mouth wash. The tea� made from the plant is used to treat
tuberculosis, discarded stomach and�
headache. Fresh or dried ground leaves are taken for relieving
headaches, anorexia and constipation.
Voucher No: GMS/ KI/S-115
Achyranthes aspera Linn.
Vernacular Names: Lainda
(Hindko), Prickly-chaff flower (English).
Parts used: Whole plant.
Recipe: Decoction of both leaves and
roots are used as toothache. It is also used for abdominal pain. The juice of
the herb is given in dysentery, rheumatism and skin diseases. The paste of
fresh leaves is applied over insect bite. An infusion of the root is used for
bowel complaints, night blindness and skin diseases. The ash of the plant
with honey is given in cough and asthma. Leaves of A. aspera
and ripen fruit of Rubus fruticosus are mixed and crushed; the juice obtained
is applied in eye diseases i.e. �Phola�. The
dry leaves are smoked in a pipe in asthma. The ash of the plant is given with
honey in colic and stomachache. Paste is
prepared from the fresh leaves of the plant, gur
and soap. Then is applied to the blister twice a day
Voucher No: GMS/BD/S-94
�Aconitum heterophyllum Wall ex Royle
Vernacular Names: Patris (Hindko), Atis (Urdu), Bonga (Punjabi)Aconite root,� (English).
Parts used: Dried tuberous roots.
Juice of the fresh leaves is applied to the pigmentation of the skin.
Mixed with milk and honey, a cure for rheumatism and pain in the body.
�Adhatoda vasica Nees.
Vernacular Name: Bhaikar
(Hindko, Gujri), Arusha (Urdu), Bhaikkar,
Malabar Nut� Tree (English)
Parts used: Dried leaves���������
Recipes: The juice of leaves is used
for cough and asthma. For tuberculosis,
500 grams of leaves are crushed and boiled in 2 liters water in an earthen
vessel, till it is left to half. It is given to the patient with honey for
fifteen days four times in a day. The leaves are also used as insecticide.
Leaves are crushed and used as poultice on the wounds as antiseptic.� Leaves are boiled and are given for throat
pain. Also used� joints pain and skin
Wall. ex Camb
Vernacular Names: Bankhor
(Hindko, Gujri), Horse
Chest nut (English).
Parts used: Leaves, bark, fruit, seed
Recipe: Seed endocarp is crushed and
mixed with wheat flour and is given to horses to relieve stomach pain
�Ajuga bracteosa Wallich ex Benth.
Vernacular Names: Kori
booti (Hindko, Urdu),
Parts used: Whole plant
Recipe: Decoction of this plant is
used in headache and earache. Also effective in jaundice, malarial fever and
hypertension. Decoction of the fresh or dried leaves is also swallowed for
fever. The leaf juice is poured in ear to cure earache.
Aloe barbadensis Mill
Vernacular Names: Kanvar
(Hindko, Gujri), Ghee-Kunvar (Urdu), Musabar (Tib) Pakistani Aloe (English)
Parts used: Leaves and the dried juice obtained from
Recipe: The roasted leaves of Aloe are applied over blisters. Latex from
the leaves with salt is used to cure stomach ulcer. Aloe leaf is washed with
water. The pulp is exposed by longitudinal section and then placed on pussy
wounds, which drain out it efficiently Crushed leaves are mixed with turmeric
and the paste thus obtained is applied on the eruptions on any part of the
GMS/ BP /H-112
Amaranthus viridis Linn.
Vernacular Names:��� Ganhar (Hindko),
Dhindo (Punjabi), Green Amaranth (English).
Family: Amaranthaceae ���������
Parts used: Whole plant.
Recipe: The upper surface of the leaves are smeared with ghee and then warmed
gently. The slightly warmed�
leaves are applied to the abscesses and boils for ripeness. The
tender tops are cooked and are eaten by the people in urinary diseases. Juice
of the leaves is mixed with oil, applied to the scalp as hair tonic.
Voucher No: GMS/ND/H-32
Vernacular Names: Duck Chawo (Hindko), Biranjisf (Urdu),
Indian wound wood (English)
Parts used: Inflorescence and leaves.
Recipe: The plant is burnt to ash and mixed with mustard oil and is applied to
tumors. The whole plant is dried and crushed into powder form and given to
horses in colic. Dried leaves in very small doses (Mg) are given as anthelmintics.
Arisaema flavum (Forsskal)
Vernacular Names: Surganda
/Sanp Ki Booti (Hindko), Indian Turnip (English)
Parts used: Rhizome
Recipe: Juice of the fresh rhizome is
applied to snake bite and scorpion sting. .
Voucher No: GMS/ JI /H-62
�Asparagus racemosus Willd. �����������������������
Vernacular Names: Shahghandal
(Hindko), Shakakul (Urdu),
Parts used: Roots and bark of the
stem are generally used.
Recipes: The juice of the roots of
Asparagus given with milk is very effective when the stone has been present
in the kidney for a long time. Corm is used to stimulate sexual desire and
carminative. Decoction of rhizome is given for fever. The juice of the herb
with equal portion of milk is given to remove calculi.
Atropa acuminata Royle
Vernacular Names: Cheela Lubur (Hindko), Angurshefa (Urdu),
Pakistan belladonna (English)
Parts used: Leaves and root��������������� �����������
Recipe: Root crushed and applied externally in the treatment of gout and
rheumatism. Leaves are applied to boils.�
Voucher No: GMS/SPI/H-133
Berberis lycium Royle.
Vernacular Names: Sumbal
(Hindko), Kashmal (Urdu),
Zirishk (Persian), Berberry
Parts used: Dried roots
Recipe: The roots are used for the
relief of intestinal colic (antispasmodic) and also used as cooling agent.
Plant and bark is astringent, used for the improvement of internal wounds,
throat pains mouth diseases �Chall�� .The dried powder
of root is used for this purpose). Decoction of fruit is used in typhoid and
common fever. Powdered bark is locally used in dysentery; 5-10gm is taken
daily. Root bark is mixed with Ghee and heated. This is used as bandage on
the broken organs. The root bark is dried and grinded; the powder is put in
water along with small amount of sugar and is taken before sleeping which is
effective for pain, sore throat and jaundice. This is also considered useful
in stomach ulcer. One cup is taken daily before breakfast. An infusion of the
root bark is taken internally to cure sore throat and also as gargle. Extract
of leaves is used in jaundice. The concentrated juice of berries is used for
gums and teeth trouble. Decoction of fruit is used in typhoid and common
Voucher No: GMS/DR/S-144
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.�������� �����������������������
Vernacular Names: Butpehwa/Zakh �mi-Hiyat (Hindko)
Parts used: Rhizomes.
Recipe: Powder is used for healing of
wounds. Rhizome mixed in milk and sugar is used in colon cancer and muscular
pains daily before breakfast. Powdered rhizome is applied over wounds.
Powdered rhizomes mixed with honey are given to the children when teething. A
powdered rhizome is mixed with wheat floor, sugar is added and cooked in �Desi Ghee� This �Halwa�
is eaten as tonic
Bistorta amplexaule (D.Don)
Vernacular Names: Masloon (Hindko),
Parts used: Leaves, rhizome, root
Recipe����������� Tea made from
fresh roots and leaves is used in joint pain and colic and give warmth to
body in winter. Decoction of rhizome is used in cough and stomach problems
Whole plant or syrup of the dried root is considered as a general body tonic.
Whole plant is dried and powdered and is given internally in pneumonia.
�Catharanthus roseus G.Don
Vernacular Names: Sada phul, Sadabahar (Hindko, Gujri), Sada-phul (Urdu), Periwinkle (English)
Parts used: Leaves.
Recipe: The juice of the leaves is
applied to wasp-sting. The extract from the plant is applied to certain human
Voucher No:�� GMS/DL/S-5
Cannabis sativa Linn.
Vernacular Names: Pang (Gujri),
Bhang (Urdu, Punjabi), Pakistani Hemp (English)
Parts used: Leaves and flowering
Recipe: The leaves crushed with onion
and used for boils in the form of poultice. The
resinous exudation that collects on the leaves and flowering tops of the
plant is taken and are smoked as narcotic
Voucher No: GMS/GN/H-146
�Colchicum luteum Baker.����������������
Vernacular Names: Surinam
talk, Qaimat-Gula (Hindko),
Golden collyrium (English)
Parts used: Dried corms.
Recipe: The corms are dried and
grinded to powder form then it is mixed with Ghee and used externally for
lessening inflammation and pain.
GMS/ DR /H-41
Crataegus songarica C.Koch
Vernacular Names:��� Batsangli (G), Bansangli (P),
Parts used: Dried fruits.
�Recipe: The extract of fruit is used as
cardiac tonic and other heart diseases like hypertrophy and vascular
�Cyperus rotundus Linn.
Names: Muther (Hindko)
Parts used: The rhizomes are used
Recipe: The tubers are scraped and pounded with green ginger and mixed with
honey are given in dysentery. Fresh tubers are crushed and one spoon is given
in skin allergies. The rhizomes paste is applied in the healing of wounds.
GMS/ SI /H-79
Datura stramonium Linn.
Vernacular Names: Datura (Hindko, Punjabi), Sada
dhutura (Urdu), Jimson Weed (English).
�Parts used: Dried leaves, seeds and
Recipe: Green leaves are applied for the softening of the boils. Juice of the
fruit is applied to scalp for falling hairs and as antidandruff. Juice of the
flower is used in earache. One drop is poured in the ear at night.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill������ �����������������������
Vernacular Names:��� Saunf (Hindko,
Punjabi, Urdu), Fennel fruit (English).
Parts used: Whole plant.
Recipe: Fennel seeds are boiled and
filtered. Water is given in colic and flatulence to children Four or five
seeds are swallowed daily to improve eyesight, gum disease, sore throats and
to alleviate hunger and easer digestion. The dried fennel seeds and Thymus
seeds are crushed in equal amounts and black salt and soda in small amount is
also added. All the ingredients are mixed. One spoon is taken daily with
fresh water to improve digestion, urinary disorders, constipation and piles.
Fennel seeds are boiled along with green tea leaves and Mentha
leaves and sugar is added. One cup is taken daily in stomach complaints.
Voucher No: GMS/SI/H-37
Geranium wallachianum D.Don ex Sweet .
Vernacular Names: Ratanjot (Gujri, Hindko, Urdu), Laljhari (Punjabi ).
Parts used: Dried rhizomes.
Recipes:� The rhizomes of the plants are dug out,
dried, grinded into powder form, mixed in wheat flour, ghur
or sugar and Desi ghee (Animal fat) in order to
make halwa. The halwa is
eaten once in a day at nighttime as tonic for backache. Powdered root with
milk or oil is also used as tonic
Mentha arvensis Linn.
Vernacular Names: Poodna (Hindk) Pudinah
(Urdu, Punjabi), Field Mint (English).
Parts used: Leaves����������������� �����������
Recipe: Dried leaves are taken with curd to control dysentery. Tea of dried
leaves is drunk for stopping vomiting and nausea.
����������� Oxalis corniculata
Vernacular Names: Khutkorla
/ Khati buti (Hindko ),
Indian sorrel (English) .
Parts used: Whole plant.
Recipe: Fresh leaves are crushed, extract is mixed with water, and sugar is
mixed ands yrup �Sharbat�
is used in jaundice and also in stomach complaints. Leaves are crushed and applied as poultice to skin during inflammation
and warts. Fresh leaves are applied as antiscorbutic.�����������
Voucher No: GMS/JBA/H-59
Otostegia limbata (Bth.) Boiss
Vernacular Names: Chitta Kanda� (Hindko), Bui
Parts used: Leaves.
�Recipe: Some time powder of the plant is
mixed butter and used for wounds.Fresh leaves are
applied to gums and extract of leaves is used in ophthalmia.
Paeonia emodi Wall ex Royle
Vernacular Names: Mamekh (H indko), Udsalib
(Urdu), Paeoney Rose (English).
Parts used: Dried tuberous roots.
Recipe: Dried tubers grinded into
fine powder, mixed with flour and desi ghee to make
halwa. One or two spoons of this Sheera/halwa is used
daily at night before sleeping for rheumatism, backache and as tonic. Dried
tubers mixed with � Ratta
jot� and boiled in milk or fried in food are used once daily for all
kinds of pains especially lumbago, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular pain and
�Pistacia integerrima J.L.Stewart ex Brandis
Vernacular Names: Kangar (Hindko, Gujri), Kakar shingi (Urdu) Spogel seed (English).
Part Used: Bark, galls and leaves.
Recipe: Galls are burnt to ash and
mixed with honey or sugar. One spoon is given daily to cure whooping cough
and asthma. The bark is torn from the tree and boiled in water. This boiled
extract is cooled and used as refrigerant and in jaundice. The galls are
powdered and fried in Ghee and given internally in dysentery. The galls are
powdered and used as an antidote to snake venom and scorpion sting. Galls are
crushed, wheat flour and gur is mixed and given to
buffaloes in intestinal colic.
Plantago amplexicaulis Cav
Vernacular Names: Ispaghol (Hindko), Plantago (English).
Parts used: The ripened seeds.
Recipe: The seeds are mixed with
syrup made of sugar and this mixture is called �Sharbat�
as is used as laxative and also used in diarrhoea
when the blood is coming in the stool. One teacup is taken daily. One gram of
seeds are mixed with one cup of curd and taken in diarrhoea. The seeds and husk are used to cure
inflammation of mucous membrane of gastro-intestinal and genito
urinary tracts, duodenal ulcer and piles.
�Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Royle
Vernacular Names: Bankakri
(Hindko, Punjabi), May apple, Mandrake (English).
Parts used: Roots and rhizomes.
Recipe: The dried fruits or seeds crushed and mixed with root bark of Berberis lycium and
3 mg is taken with water in jaundice and other hepatic problems. Dried
grinded rhizome is used as cardiac stimulant. It is used in a very minute
amount because rhizomes are poisonous. The root paste is applied on ulcers,
cuts and wounds.
�Portulaca oleraceae Linn.
Vernacular Names:��� Lorank (Hindko), Common
Parts used:���� Leaves and stem.
Recipe: Fresh leaves and branches of
the Portulaca are collected. These are washed with
water, grinded and juice is extracted. This juice is given to children to
relieve their abdominal pain. Its leaves are also used for external
inflammation in form of poultice and seeds decoction is used as a cooling
Punica granatum Linn.
Vernacular Names: Daruna (Hindko), Anar (Punjabi, Urdu), Abortive Pomegranate tree
Parts used: Dried bark of roots, stem
and rind of fruit.
Recipe: The rind of fruit in powdered from mixed with sugar id
used as remedy of diarrhoea and dysentery. The root
bark is used for expulsion of tapeworm. Flowers dried and powdered used as
tooth powder, strengthens the gums and acts as haemostatic for bleeding gums.
Seeds dried and used traditionally in sauces and fresh chutneys. They serve
as astringent, appetizing and digestive. Bruised in water, seeds act as
favorable antidiarrhoeal. The juice is widely used
as cooling refrigerant given in dyspepsia and fever, dysentery, and against
tapeworms. Dried fruit made into powder, boiled and used as such. Fruit juice
is beneficial for leprosy patients. Pimpinella
stewarti and Zingiber
officinale and very little amount of salt are a
best cure for dysentery and belly swelling in children.
Ricinus communis Linn.��������
Vernacular Names: Erand
(Hindko, Gujri), Arand (Punjabi, Urdu),�
Castor oil plant (English)
Parts used: Seeds, leaves, bark and
Recipe: The decoction of ginger given
with the addition of castor oil is very effective in flatulence, it also
relieve pain in the back. Fruit of Ricinus
communis is roasted in Ghee and is used for
remedy of skin disease �Chambal�. The
leaves of Ricinus communis
is warmed over fire and applied to breast of women acts as galactogogue i.e. increase the milk secretion. For the treatment of leucorrhoea fresh leaves
are crushed and are boiled in 250 ml of milk. This is filtered and the
filtrate is taken for one month in divided doses. Heated
and oiled leaves are placed on rheumatic joints, swellings and inflamed muscles.
Voucher No: GMS/KKI/H-170
Rumex hastatus D.Don
Vernacular Names: Khatimbal (Hindko), Khatbiri (Punjabi).
Parts used: Leaves, roots and stem
Recipe: Grounded powdered dried roots
are applied as a poultice for sore joints. The extract of the root of this
plant is used as a tonic and slight purgative. The grounded root powder is
taken with water in diarrhoea. The leaves are
rubbed on the skin in inflammation caused by Urtica
plant. The sap of the leaves and stem is applied on cuts for its astringent
Salvia moorcroftiana Wallich ex Benth.
Vernacular Names: Kalgari��� /Gadhikan (Hindko, Gujri), Meadow clary (English).
Part Used: Leaves and rhizome
Recipe: Ghee is applied to leaf and
warmed and placed on boils. Rhizomes are crushed and mixed with the crushed
leaves of Vitex negundo
and Zanthoxylum armatum
and is given to buffalos in colic and other diseases. Rhizomes are washed and
crushed; gur and wheat flour is mixed and given to
buffalos to increase milk
Sarcococca saligna (Don) Muell.
Vernacular Names:��� Ban Sathera, Shela (Hindko), Sweet box (English).
Parts used: Leaves and shoots. ���������������������
�Recipe: The leaves and shoots are boiled and applied on swollen joints or in
pain in the form of poultice. A Sharbat prepared
from root is given in gonorrhoea.
Voucher No: GMS/JA /S-44
�Saussurea lappa (Dene)� �����������������������
Vernacular Names: Kuth (Gujri, Urdu), Arabian costus
Parts used: Rhizome
Recipe: The dried rhizome is grinded in to powder form and mixed with maize
flour. Tablets of larger size are formed and given to goats in a disease
locally called as �Bagri�. A few mg is taken
once a week to improve digestion and to keep the body warm .The rhizome is
grinded to powder form along with other ingredients like Acacia gum and �Kabli misri�and mixed with honey .A
few mg is given to the women for pregnancy and in a disease called �Hasba� .Dried roots in powder form are taken with
water as carminative.
Skimmia laureola Hook
Vernacular Name: Ner
(Gujri), Nera (Hindko), Sheshar (Punjabi).
Parts used: Leaves.
Recipe: The rhizome is rubbed down and
given with honey to children when teething. In powdered form it is used in
the form of � Halwa� as tonic. Dried ground
leaves are taken orally with water as an antacid and also for flatulence,
colic and heartburn. Decoction of leaves is used in complains of liver and
stomach. The leaves when crushed have an orange like smell and are burried near small pox patients with� a view to curative effects.
Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming)
Vernacular Names: Chirta
karita (Hindko), Chiraita (Tib) Chiratta, Bitter stick (English)
Parts used: Whole plant.
Recipe: Root is mixed with milk and
used in opthalmia.
�Taraxacum officinale Weber.
Vernacular Names:��� Hand, Dudal, Khanphul
(Urdu, Punjabi, Hindko), Dandelion (English)
Parts used: Dried rhizomes, roots and
Recipe: The flowers are boiled and used with honey for coughs. One teaspoon is
sufficient. The leaves are cooked and eaten to release constipation and also
to purify blood. Roots are used to increase urine flow.
Voucher No: GMS/TA/H-169
Thymus serpyllum auct
Vernacular Names:��� Bunn Ajwain (Hindko),
Wild Thyme (English)..
Parts used: Dried leaves.
Recipe: The seeds are grinded and one
spoon is used daily with water for abdominal pain and internal wounds. The
decoction is used for abdominal pain and raising body temperature. The
infusion of leaves is used in skin diseases. The herb is dried and crushed in
to powder which is used as antiseptic The plant is boiled and used as
mouthwash, and is excellent remedy for sore throats and infected gums.
Decoction of dried ground seed is taken for joint pain and asthma. Juice from
leaves is applied to toothache. Powder of flowers is mixed in �Gur� and is given as vermicide.
Vernonia anthelmintica Willd
Vernacular Names: Kali Ziri (Hindko, Gujri), Purple Flebene (English).
Parts used: Seeds
�Recipe: Five seeds are taken daily with water for cough and flatulatence
an infusion of the powdered seeds is used as tonic, diuretic and stomachic.
Crushed seeds with honey are given for the treatment of round worms. Two or� three seeds are
swallowed to cure toothache and also mouth problems.
Verbascum Thapsus L.
Vernacular Names: Gidar
Punjabi), Common Mullein (English)
Parts used: Leaves and flowers.
Recipe: Leaves in powder form of
poultice are used for healing the wounds. The leaves are warmed and then
tightly tied on the joints to relieve the pain and also used for softening
the boils. Warm poultice of the fresh leaves is externally applied to
blisters and carbuncle
Zanthoxylum armatum D.C.
Vernacular Names:��� Timar (Hindko),
Tejbal (Punjabi), Prickly ash (English).
Parts used: Bark, Fruit
Recipe: The seeds are dried and
grinded and mixed with the powdered leaves of Mentha
and rock salt is mixed. Three to five grams are taken daily to improve
digestion and also other stomach problems. The seeds are chewed to cure
toothache. Branches are also used as toothbrush�Maswak�
Voucher No: GMS/JI/H-145
present study provides information about some therapeutic uses in different
traditional recipes of 44 plant species belonging to 31 families. The plants
are either used singly or in combination with some other plants or plant
parts. Some plant species are claimed to be quite effective remedies for
coetaneous affection of head, snakebite, diarrhoea,
boils, cough and cold, and stomach troubles .The recipes are made by
different methods. Preparation of compounds from dry parts of one plant or
several plant drugs and from ashes by using small mortars or grinding stones.
Pressing, boiling or soaking in hot or cold water and milk and various other
solvents is common and in this way, orally administered liquid preparations
are obtained. Preparation for applications to the skin such as ointments,
liniments, lotions, foamlotions, and baths,
inhalants etc. Application is frequently percutnaeous,
by rubbing or covering (including poultices), by washing or baths,
occasionally complemented by messages. More research is needed on the
long-term effects of specific remedies.
Taking into account the serious health problems of the people and
livestock, medicinal uses of plants in the Siran Valley
may prove to be of greater importance for many people than firewood, timber,
food, forage and various raw materials. Various plant recipes used to cure
different diseases were collected during the studies. Some of the common
recipes of the area are:
rhizome of Bergenia ciliata
(But Pewa) is mixed with wheat floor,
sugar is added and�
cooked in �Desi Ghee� This
�Halwa� is eaten as tonic The dried rhizome is grinded in to powder
form and mixed with maize flour. Tablets of larger size are formed and given
to goats in a disease locally called as �Bagri�.
This recipe is an example of Ethnoveterinary
medicine The leaves of Verbascum thapsus are warmed and
then tightly tied on the joints to relieve the pain and also used for
softening the boils
The dried Foniculum vulgare
seeds and thymus seeds are crushed in equal amounts and black� salt and soda in small amount is
also added. All the ingredients are mixed. One spoon is taken daily with
fresh water to improve digestion, urinary disorders, constipation and piles. Foeniculum vulgare recipes are
used as antidiarrhoeal, gases expulsion (Trease and Evens, 198
The leaves of Canabis sativa
crushed with onion and used for boils in the form of poultice. The rhizomes
of Geranium wallichianum are dug out, dried,
grinded into powder form, mixed in wheat flour, ghur
or sugar and Desi ghee in order to make �halwa�. The �halwa� is
eaten once in a day at nighttime as tonic for backache.
tubers of Paeonia emodi
grinded into fine powder, mixed with flour and Desi
ghee to make halwa. One or two spoons
of this halwa is
used daily at night before sleeping for rheumatism, backache and as tonic. Salvia
moorcroftiana recipes are used for abdominal
pain and external wound (Rehman, 1986) Perezgrovas et al. (1994) has tested the effectiveness of
some common herbal remedies in Highland.
The most effective treatment was 5g garlic +5g epazote,
which significantly reduced the number of eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes
by 66 + 8 and 61 + 28% at 1 and 2 weeks treatment respectively.
Valley is rich in medicinal
floristic diversity and tree is a need of further exploration of the area in
this regard. The main aim of this traditional recipes study is to bring to
the screen that what type of plants does the people of valley use
medicinally. During the research project it was noted that the medicinal
plant wealth of Siran
Valley, district Mansehra are not fully exploited. Some plants are
exploited on very large scale while others are unexploited; there is an
increased threat to plants being utilized for various purposes resulting into
habitat destruction. Conventional in situ conservation may no longer be
realistic or straightforward approach. Some sort of reintroduction programme, with the back up of ex situ facilities,
provides a practical solution to the conservation of plants. The conservation
programme can protect the medicinal plants by
participation of local community.
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Marwat, Q. and Z. K. Shinwari. 1996. Ethnobotanical studies in Upper
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