Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 171-88. 2009.

 

 

Ethnobotanical Survey of Sariska and Siliserh Regions from Alwar District of Rajasthan, India

 

1S.C. Jain*, 2R. Jain and 1R. Singh

 

1Medicinal Plants and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India

2Department of Chemistry, University  of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India

* Corresponding author’s e-mail: jainnatpro3@rediffmail.com

 

Issued 30 January 2009

 

Abstract

The aim of present survey is to identify and document the plants used amongst the indigenes of Sariska and Siliserh regions of Alwar district from Rajasthan, India. A total of 110 species of plants representing 88 genera and 43 families employed in the literature as traditional medical practice have been recorded from the studied regions. Ailments such as fever, diorrhoea, dysentery, skin-problems, jaundice, rheumatism etc. are mostly treated with the different medicinal plants. Due to overgrazing, encroachments, unsustainable utilization and other developmental activities in the regions, several persistent medicinal plant species are on the verge of extinction. Due to lack of awareness and research on these groups of plant in this area, people of this region are unaware of the wealth of this heritage. The survey provides a veritable source of information for traditional medical practitioners and medicinal plant researchers and help in developing strategies for  future conservation. 

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal survey, Sariska and Siliserh, Alwar District, Rajasthan.

Introduction

The World Health Organization (WHO) Traditional Medical Programme (Farnsworth et al., 1985) has provided the evidence that ethnomedical information    can lead    to valuable

drug discovery. A total of 122 compounds, 80% of which were used for the same or related ethnomedical purposes, were derived from 94 species of plants (Ajibesin et al., 2008).

Several active compounds have been discovered from plants on the basis of ethnomedical information and used directly as patented drugs. Maprouneacin isolated from Maprounnea africana is used as an antidiabetic agent (Carney et al., 1999), taxol, obtained from Taxus breviflora, is used as an antitumor drug (Samuelsson 1992) and artimisinin, discovered from Artemisia annua, is used as a potent antimalarial compound (Klayman 1993). 

In Rajasthan State, many ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plant resources have been carried out by Kirtikar and Basu (1984), Joshi (1995), Katewa and Guria (1997), Singh and Pandey (1998), Katewa et al. (2001, 2004), Jain et al. (2004) but the serial documentation of various areas is still lacking.

The aim of present study is to document properly the biodiversity of medicinal flora of targeted regions to provide safety and efficacy information to encourage the preservation of culture, tradition, conservation and sustainable utilization of plant wealth occurring in the area.

Study areas

Alwar District is situated in the north-eastern part of Rajasthan at 27.57° N and 76.6° E. It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 feet). The length of the district is 137 km2 while its breadth is 110 km2 approx. The district is surrounded by Bharatpur district in the north-east, Jaipur in the south-west, Gurgaon (Haryana) in the north, Mahendragarh district (Haryana) in the north-west and Sawai-Madhopur district in the south. As of 2001 India census, Alwar had a population of 160,245. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Alwar has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 59% of the males and 41% of females literate. The district has a dry climate with hot summer, a cold winter and a short monsoon season.  During summers the maximum temperature is around 41ºC and minimum is around 28ºC and in winters maximum temperature is ~ 23ºC and minimum ~ 8ºC. The normal annual rainfall in the district is 57.77 cms with 70% average humidity. The sandy soil and bright sunlight are the two important natural resources abundantly available in this region which are responsible for for the development of the desert vegetation having variable medicinal properties.

Sariska National Park is located in Alwar district (27º35’N and 76º39’E) in the eastern part of the State of Rajasthan. The park covers an area of 800 km2 including 480 km2 in the core area and 320 km2 in the buffer zone. Sariska National Park, which is a Project Tiger reserve, also boasts of many other species, including rare birds and plants. Being located on the desert land of Rajasthan, the flora and fauna of Sariska is characterized by scrub-thorn arid forests, dry deciduous forests, rocks and scanty grasses spread over the hills and narrow valleys of the Aravalli hill range.

Enroute to Sariska, 12 km2 south west of Alwar is the water places of Siliserh with a lake surrounded by low, wooded hills. The lake was built in 1845 A.D. by constructing an earthern dam between two hills to store the water of a small tributary of river Ruparel. When full, the total water spread covers an area of about 10 sq. km2. Adorned with domed cenotaphs, Siliserh lake is picturesquely set amidst the forested slopes of Aravalli hills. Previously Singh (2002; Table 1) and Yadav (2005) worked on the ethnobotanical survey of the flora of different regions of Alwar district but this was the first attempt in these selected areas.

Methodology

For documentation of the available medicinal flora, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in 2006-2008, randomly selected villages following the procedure as described by Jain (1967). These specimens were collected and identified by one of the author Prof. S. C. Jain and confirmed by Herbarium, Botany Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and also with the help of published data (Jain, 1991; Kirtikar and Basu, 1984; Shetty and Singh, 1987). Using the standard protocol (Muthu et al., 2006), collected voucher specimens were pressed, dried, mounted, prepared and preserved for further reference. Questionnaires were used during field surveys to collect information from the villagers. A total of 100 inhabitants, of which 70 were men and 30 were women were interviewed. For traditional uses of medicinal plants questions were asked to elder and key informants. Repeated queries were made to get the data confirmed. Results from the field surveys were rechecked and compared with literature.

Results

A total of 110 species of medicinal plants representing 88 genera and 43 families employed in the literature as traditional medical practice have been recorded from the studied regions (Plate 1), that are used to treat a variety of human and animals (Table 2). The highest number of medicinal plant species belong to the families Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (9 species); Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae and Malvaceae (7 species) and Convolvulaceae and Solanaceae (5 species). These plants have different growth habits which include herbs (63.63%), shrubs (20.90%) and trees (10.90%). This study established that many different parts of the medicinal plant species are used as medicine (root, stem, leaves, whole plant, flowers, bark, etc.) but the most commonly used plant part was leaf (23.02%), followed by whole plant (17.98 %), root (17.26%) and seed (12.23 %). These plant parts have been used as medicine more because leaf, root and whole plant may contain more active principle(s) in comparison to wood, twigs, pods, berries, and latex. In total 99, medicinal plants were found to be used to wounds, menstrual trouble, urinary complaints, dysentery, inflammation, asthma, ulcers, rheumatism, skin-diseases, gonorrhea, fever, scabies, gastric disorder, malaria, elephantiasis, etc.

Discussion

In drug discovery, ethnobotanical and ethnomedical information has been found to be one of the reliable approaches and several active compounds have been discovered from plants on the basis of this information (Carney et al., 1999; Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001; Ajibesin et al., 2008). This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more western lifestyle, overexploitation of plant resources, modern agricultural practices,, cultural changes within the community, construction of new small dams, rapid shift towards the allopathic medicine, and the spread of housing colonies and modern education lead to the destruction of not only the habitats of medicinal plants but also vanishing of traditional knowledge and medicinal plant species are threatened day by day in the area.

This survey and lack of information obtained about traditional uses of plants exhibited that rural people in the studied area are not using the plants to treat various diseases. This indicates that the use of traditional plant-based medicine is losing rapidly. People are practicing traditional medicine based on what they currently understand about the system and there is also a possibility that people will use this knowledge in the future even in remote areas. Many plant species have become threatened due to habitat loss as a result of rapid urbanization. During the survey, it was observed that people were hesitant in disclosing their knowledge. It is this knowledge that provides them recognition in the society and hence they do not want to share it. In many cases, it was also found that a bit of this knowledge has been lost during transmission in folklore from one generation to other. The villagers themselves said that, compared to them their forefathers knew much more. Due to recent global shift towards herbal medicines, the pressure on the plant resources in nature have increased and the market is also fast expanding. Therefore, the results of this survey can be incorporated into future conservation management plans for threatened medicinal plants. Further, the local people should participate in problem formulation and decision making process for the conservation strategies.

Acknowledgements 

Authors are highly thankful to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India, for providing financial support and facilities for this research work. We are indebted to the rural community and people of region for sharing their valuable knowledge with us during the course of this study.

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Table 1: Medicinal plants reported from Sariska National Park by Singh (2002) during the survey done in  

               1989-1992

S. No.

Botanical name

Family

Vernacular name

Habit

 

1.

Abrus precatorius L.

Papilionaceae

Chirmthi, ghumchi

C

2.

Acacia catechu Willd.

Mimosaceae

Khair

T

3.

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Asteraceae

Dokata, kanti

H

4.

Achyranthes aspera L.

Amaranthaceae

Chirchitta

H

5.

Aegle marmelos Correa. Bel

Rutaceae

Bel

T

6.

Arachis hypogaea L.

Papilionaceae

Mungphali

H

7.

Argemone mexicana L.

Papavaraceae

Kateli, satyanashi

H

8.

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Liliaceae

Satawari, satawar

H

9.

Balanites roxburghii Planch

Simaroubaceae

Hingot

T

10.

Barleria cristata L.

Acanthaceae

Bajardanti

H

11.

Barleria prionitis L.

Acanthaceae

Bajardanti

H

12.

Bauhinia variegata L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Kachnar

T

13.

Blainvillea latifolia (L.f.) DC.

Asteraceae

Kalajari

H

14.

Boerhaavia diffusa L.

Nyctaginaceae

Sathi

H

15.

Butea monosprerma (Lamk.) Taub.

Papilionaceae

Palas,  dhak, cheela

T

16.

Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.

Asclepiadaceae

Aak, akhra

S

17.

Cassia fistula L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Amaltas, karmala

T

18.

Cayratia carnosa Gagnep.

Vitaceae

Kalitripanni

S

19.

Centella asiatica L.

Umbelliferae

Brahmibuti

H

20.

Cissampelos pariera L.

Menispermaceae

Heir, jaljamni

S

21.

Cleome gynandra L.

Capparaceae

Hulhul, bagro

H

22.

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn

Verbenaceae

Arni

S

23.

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelinaceae

Bokhna

H

24.

C. khurzii Cl.

Commelinaceae

Bokhna

H

25.

Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari

Burseraceae

Guggal

S

26.

Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl

Amaryllidaceae

Sukhdarshan

H

27.

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Dioscoreaceae

Paharikan, suarkand

C

28.

Elytraria acaulis (L.f.) Engl.

Acanthaceae

Patharchatta

H

29.

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Euphorbiaceae

Amla, awla

T

30.

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbiaceae

Dudhi bichujari

H

31.

Ficus carica L.

Moraceae

Anjir

T

32.

Gardenia florida L.

Rutaceae

Midola

S

33.

Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall

Apocynaceae

Kero, kutaj, kura

S

34.

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch

Ulmaceae

Papri, bastedun

T

35.

Indigofera cordifolia Heyne. ex. Roth

Papilionaceae

Jhajhru, bekar

H

36.

Leptadaenia pyrotechnica (Forsk.)Decne.

Asclepiadaceae

Khimp

S

37.

Leucas aspera Wild.

Labiatae

Gumma, gomo

H

38.

Melhania futteyporensis Munro ex Masat.

Stercualiaceae

Basni

S

39.

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd

Cucurbitaceae

Janglikarela, bankarela

C

40.

Mucuna pruriens Baker

Papilionaceae

Kauch, kevach

H

41.

Ocimum americanum L.

Labiatae

Bantulsi

H

42.

Ocimum basilicum L.

Labiatae

Dauna, mania

H

43.

Ocimum sanctum L.

Labiatae

Tulsi

H

44.

Peritrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nee.

Acanthaceae

Nil jhojhru, kakar

H

45.

Salmalia malabarica (DC) Schot & Endl

Bombacaceae

Semel

T

46.

Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt

Asclepiadaceae

Khir khimp

S

47.

Sida acuta Burm. f.

Malvaceae

Bal, kharsara

H

48.

S. cordifolia L.

Malvaceae

Kharenti

H

49.

Solanum nigrum L.

Solanaceae

Makoi

H

50.

S. surattense Burm. f.

Solanaceae

Bhurangin, ringni

H

51.

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wt. & Arn.

Combretaceae

Arjuna

T

52.

T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Combretaceae

Bahera, desibadam

T

53.

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers

Menispermaceae

Neem gilody

S

54.

Tribulus terrestris L.

Zygophyllaceae

Gokhru

H

55.

Tridax procumbens L.

Asteraceae

Gorkh-mundi

H

56.

Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.

Apocynaceae

Khirna, katira, dudhi

T

57.

Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers

Papilionaceae

Gewani

H

58.

Zornia gibbosa Span

Papilionaceae

Gewani

H

C, Climber; T, Tree; H, Herb;  S, Shrub

 

 

A

 

 

B

 

 

C

 

D

 


Plate 1: Photographs showing the study regions, conversation with tribals and data

             collection by author.

 

 

 

Table 2: Ethnomedicinal plants from the Sariska and Silisher regions of Alwar district from  Rajasthan, India

 

Plant name

Family & Habit

Herbarium number & availability in study area

 

Common name

Part used

Key ailments

Traditional preparations

References

1.  Abutilon asiaticum G. Don

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

149

(+)

Kanghi

Rt

Tonic, piles

-

-

2.  A. indicum (L.) Sw.

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

8

(+)

Kanghi

Lvs, Bk, Sd, Rt

 

Fever, laxative

Leaf and root juice are taken orally to treat dental problems

Muthu et al., 2006

3.  Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile

 

 

Mimosaceae

(T)

5

(++)

Babul

 

Gm, Bk

Diorrhoea, dysentery, diabetes

Powder of bark is applied externally in ulcers

Parveen et al., 2007

4.  A. senegal (L.) Willd.

 

 

Mimosaceae

(T)

11

(++)

Kumta

 

Gm

Burns, sore nipples, nodular leprosy

Gum is used internally in inflammation of intestinal mucosa and externally to cover inflamed surfaces as burns, sore nipples and nodular leprosy

 

Parveen et al., 2007

5.  Acalypha ciliata Forssk.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

150

(++)

-

Wp, Lvs, Rt

Cuts and wounds, bronchitis, rheumatism

 

Leaf paste is applied to ulcers

Panda, 2000

6.  A. indica L.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

154

(+++)

Kho-kali

Lvs, Wp

Bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, skin disease

 

Decoction of leaves mixed with common salt is applied to scabies

Parveen et al., 2007

7.  A. lanceolata Willd.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

156

(+)

-

Lvs, Wp

Antiseptic, vermicide, carminative

 

Leaf paste is applied externally on boils, sores and swellings

Chandel et al., 1996

8.  Achyranthes aspera L.

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

7

(+++)

Latjira

 

Wp, Rt, Sd

Asthma, fever, cough

One teaspoon powder of whole plant is taken with warm water for pneumonia

 

Parveen et al., 2007

9.  Actiniopteris radiata (SW.) Link.

 

 

Actiniopteridaceae

(F)

164

(+)

Morphanki

Wp

Styptic, anthelmintic

Powdered whole plant along with seed of Ocimum americanum given for Antifertility

 

 

 

 

Asolkar et al., 1992

10.  Adhatoda zeylanica Medic.

 

 

Acanthaceae

(S)

133

(++++)

Adusa

Wp, Lvs, Rt

Fever, jaundice, whooping cough, glandular tumors

Leaf and wood ashes mixed with honey used for cough and asthma; Juice mixed with juice of Feronia limonia cures nose bleeding

 

Asolkar et al., 1992

11.  Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss.

      ex   Schult.

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

10

(++)

Bui

 

Fl, Sd

Headache, rheumatism

Woolly seeds stuffed in pillows to relieve headache and protective against rheumatism

 

 

Parveen et al., 2007

12.  Albizzia lebbeck Benth.

 

 

Fabaceae

(T)

166

(+)

Siris

Lvs, Bk, Fl

Boils, eruption, leprous ulcers

Leaf juice is used as eye drops for night blindness

Parveen et al., 2007

13.  Alternanthera pungens Kunth

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

167

(+)

Kunth

Wp

Diuretic

Decoction of whole plant is used in gonorrhea

Asolkar et al., 1992

14.  Alysicarpus vaginalis DC.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

168

(+)

Bela

Rt

Cough

Roots for treatment of irregular menses

Asolkar et al., 1992

15.  Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze

 

 

Lamiaceae

(H)

14

(++)

Rantil

Wp, Sd oil

Carminative, tonic, uterine affections

Crushed leaves applied to neck of bullock to cure inflammation caused by cart pulling

 

Asolkar et al., 1992

16.  Anogeissus pendula Edgew.

 

 

Combretaceae

(T)

169

(+)

Dhaunkra

Ap

Diuretic, cardiovascular

Decoction of bark is given for gastric disorder

Jain et al., 2005

17.  Apluda mutica L.

 

 

Poaceae

(G)

170

(+)

Tamtabheda

Wp

Skin-diseases

Poultice of whole plant is used to cure mouth sores of cattle

Katewa et al., 2001

18.  Argemone mexicana L.

 

 

Papaveraceae

(H)

135

(++)

Pilikateli

 

Lvs, rt, Sd

Skin diseases, cutaneous affections, snake-bite

Seeds are poured in ‘Mahua oil’ and are applied to eczema and itching

 

Parveen et al., 2007

19.  Barleria prionitis L.

 

 

Acanthaceae

(H)

138

(++)

Bajardanti

Lvs, Rt, Bk

Cough, toothache

Twigs as toothbrush; Decoction of whole plant as health tonic ; Leaves to relieve pain

 

Singh, 2004

20.  Bidens biternata  (Lour.)

       Merr. & Sherrif.

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

171

(+)

Chirchitta

Wp, Lvs, Rt, Fl, Sd

Leprosy, skin diseases, tumors, anthelmintic

Juice of leaves applied to heal ulcers and to cure eye and ear complaints

Asolkar et al., 1992

21.  Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

172

(+)

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

-

22.  Boerhavia diffusa L.

 

 

Nyctaginaceae

(H)

19

(+++)

Punarnava

 

Rt

Asthma

Leaves boiled with rice, garlic and water are rubbed on body for rheumatism

 

Parveen et al., 2007

23.  Borreria articularis (L. f.)

       F. N.  Williams

 

 

Rubiaceae

(H)

17

(++)

Bagrakote jungle

Sd, Rt

Earache, blindness, dysentery, stimulant, kill tooth-worms

Crushed leaves used in stomach pain

Asolkar et al., 1992

24.  B. stricta auct.

 

 

Rubiaceae

(H)

173

(+)

-

-

-

-

-

25.  Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub.

 

 

Fabaceae

(T)

139

(++++)

Dhak

 

St, Bk, Fl, Gm, Lvs

Anthelmintic, astringent, dysentery, leucorrhoea

Stem paste is applied on the affected parts for cuts and wounds; Bark paste is applied locally on the affected portion of body

 

Katewa et al., 2004

26.  Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f.

 

 

Asclepiadaceae

(S)

38

(+++)

Aakada

 

Rt, Lvs, Fl, Lt, Bk

Dysentry, cough, asthma

Decoction of root bark along with black pepper is used twice a day for 3 day for malarial fever

 

Parveen et al., 2007

27.  Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

 

 

Sapindaceae

(C)

174

(+)

Kanphuti

Wp, Rt, Lvs

Rheumatism, laxative, nervous diseases, earache

 

Powdered leaves used externally for healing wounds

Asolkar et al., 1992

28.  Carissa carandas L.

Apocynaceae

(T)

143

(+)

Karunda

Lvs, Rt, Ft

Insect repellent, hypotensive dropsy, anasarca madness

 

Paste of root bark useful in diabetic ulcer

Asolkar et al., 1992

29.  Cassia alata L.

 

 

Caesalpiniaceae

(S)

175

(++)

Datkapat

Lvs, Bk

Diuretic, insect repellant, laxative, anti-inflammatory

 

Leaves decoction is used for skin-diseases

Ajibesin et al., 2008

30.  C. tora L.

 

 

Caesalpiniaceae

(H)

140

(+++)

Chakunda

Lvs, Sd

Laxative, skin-disease, ring-worm

Powdered leaves boiled in water to make decoction and externally used for skin-diseases

 

Ajibesin et al., 2008

31.  Cayratia carnosa (Wall.) Gagnep.   

       ex Wight

 

 

Vitaceae

(S)

176

(+)

Amar-bel

Ap, Rt

Depressant

Root given in anaemic conditions

Asolkar et al., 1992

32.  Celosia argentea L.

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

177

(+)

Sufaid murgha

Sd

Mouth sores, eye diseases, diarrhoea

20 g crushed seeds is taken orally for ovarian and uterus diseases

Katewa et al., 2004

33.  Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

 

 

Cucurbitaceae

(H)

28

(+)

Indrayan

 

Rt, Ft

Purgative, jaundice, rheumatism

Root paste and Ashgandh mixed with honey is administered orally for rheumatism

Parveen et al., 2007

34.  Cleome viscosa L.

 

 

Capparaceae

(H)

178

(++)

 

Hulhul

Wp, Lvs

Headache, boils

Leaf paste is applied topically to heal wounds

Muthu et al., 2006

35.  Coccinia cordifolia Cogn.

 

 

Cucurbitaceae

(H)

179

(+)

Kanduri

Lvs, Rt

Skin-eruption

Juice of rots and leaves is used to treat diabetes

Akhtar et al., 2007

36.  Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels

 

 

Menispermaceae

(C)

180

(+)

Jamti-ki-bel

Lvs, Rt, St

Fever, rheumatism, cooling, laxative

Powdered leaves mixed with water and applied to eyes giving cooling effect

Asolkar et al., 1992

37.  Commelina forskali L.

 

 

Commelinaceae

(H)

33

(+++)

-

-

-

-

-

38.  Corchorus aestuans L.

 

 

Tiliaceae

(H)

181

(++)

-

Wp, Sd

Anticancer, cardiotonic

Paste of seeds is given with warm cow milk to relieve congestion in chest

 

Prusti and Behera, 2007

39.  Crotalaria medicaginea Lam.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

32

(+++)

Gulabi

Wp, Sd

Scabies, impetigo

Seed decoction is given toxaemia

Trivedi, 2002

40.  Croton bonplandianum Baill.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

46

(++)

 

Ban-tulsi

Wp, Lvs, Lt

 

 

Itch, scabies

Latex used to heal cuts and wounds

Asolkar et al., 1992

41.  Datura fastuosa L.

 

Solanaceae

(S)

54

(+++)

Datura

 

Wp, Lvs, Sd

Insanity, fever, cerebral complications, skin-diseases, swellings

 

Leaves smoked to cure cough

Asolkar et al., 1992

42.  Digera muricata (L.) Mart

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

52

(++)

Latmahuria

Lvs

Laxative,

urinary discharges, boils

 

Leaf paste is applied locally to prevent the pus formation

Katewa et al., 2004

43.  Dipteracanthus prostratus  (Poir.)   

       Nees

 

 

Acanthaceae

(H)

49

(++)

Kalighavani

 

Wp, Fl

Hypoglycaemic, anticancer, ear-diseases

Plant decoction is used as ear maladies

Chandel et al., 1996

44.  Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

 

 

 

Myrtaceae

(T)

57

(+++)

Safeda

 

Lvs, oil

Antibacterial, cuts, skin-diseases, diarrhoea

Leaf essential oil can be gargled for sore throat

Chevallier, 1996

45.  Euphorbia caducifolia Haines

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(T)

157

(++)

Dandathor

 

Lt, rt

Cough, skin-blisters

Root decoction is used as effective abortifacient at initial stages

 

 

 

 

Ross, 2003

46.  E. hirta L.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

58

(++)

Dudhi

Wp, Lt

Cough, ring-worm, injury

About 20 leaves are crushed and the extract is given orally with honey once a day in the morning for leucorrhoea

 

Parveen et al., 2007

47.  E. thymifolia L.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

182

(+)

Choti-dudhi

Lvs, Sd

Laxative, bowel complaints

Extract of whole plant to cure small pox

Jadhav, 2006

48.  Ficus carica L.

 

 

Moraceae

(T)

183

(+)

Anjir

Wp, Ft, Lt

Laxative, anticancer, anaemia, anthelmintic

 

Exudates are applied externally on ringworm thrice daily

Trivedi, 2002

49.  Gisekia pharnaceoides L.

 

 

Aizoaceae

(H)

64

(+)

Balu ka sag

 

Wp

Female diseases, defective semen, destroys fat, malfunctioning of sex organs

 

Plant extract to kill  roundworms

Singh, 2004

50.  Gloriosa superba L.

 

 

Liliaceae

(H)

188

(+)

Kalihari

Tbs, Rt

Gonorrhoea, snake-bite

Paste of dried tuber powder is applied locally for wounds

Katewa et al., 2004

51.  Gomphrena celosioides Mart.

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

65

(++)

-

Lvs

Diuretic

Leaf paste is used to treat malaria

Weniger et al., 2004

52.  Grewia damine Gaertn.

 

 

Tiliaceae

(S)

184

(+)

-

Wd

Cough

Whole plant is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery

Jayasinghe et al., 2004

53.  G. flavescens A.  Juss.

 

Tiliaceae

(S)

185

(+)

Kali-siali

Lvs, Rt, Ft

Increase male strength

Rot powder and decoction is used for bleeding of urinary tract, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea

 

Jain et al., 2005

54.  G. tenax (Forssk.) Fiori

 

 

Tiliaceae

(S)

186

(+)

Gango

Rt, St

Antitumor, skin-diseases

Decoction of bark for cough and muscular pain

Singh, 2004

55.  Heliotropium marifolium Koen. ex Retz.

 

 

Boraginaceae

(H)

69

(+)

Choti-santri

Wp

Emetic, ulcer, snake-bite

-

-

56.  Hibiscus lobatus (Murray) Kuntze

 

 

Malvaceae

(S)

187

(+)

-

Wp

Debility, spermatorrhoea

-

-

57.  H. micranthus L. f.

 

 

Malvaceae

(S)

68

(++)

Chanak bhindo

Wp, Lvs, St

 

 

 

Febrifuge

-

-

58.  Indigofera linnaei Ali.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

72

(+++)

Latahai

Wp, Rt

Diuretic, antiscorbutic

Plant decoction is used in epilepsy and insanity ; Plant boild in oil is applied on burns ; Juice of plant is used as an alternative, diuretic and in venereal affections

 

Satyavati et al., 1987

59.  I. tinctoria
       L.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

189

(++)

-

Ap, Lvs,  Rt

Anti-hepatotoxic, hypoglycaemic

Root paste is given in fever

Asolkar et al., 1992

60.  Ipomoea carnea Jacq.

 

 

Convolvulaceae

(S)

163

(+++)

Beshram

 

Lvs, St, Ft, Sd

Skin-diseases, leucoderma, muscle relaxant

 

Paste of a single seed is given in filaria

Prusti and Behera, 2007

61.  I. dichroa (Roem. & Schult)  

       Choisy

 

 

Convolvulaceae

(S)

191

(+)

-

Sd

Purgatve, fever

-

-

62.  I. eriocarpa R. Br.

 

 

Convolvulaceae

(S)

190

(+)

Hara

Lvs, Sd oil

Skin-diseases, arthritis, rheumatism

Plant paste is externally applied to treat rheumatism and leprosy

Singh et al., 2002

63.  I. pes-tigridis L.

 

 

Convolvulaceae

(H)

71

(+++)

Kamalata

Wp, Lvs, Rt

Dog-bite, purgative, boils

Plant paste is locally applied to treat carbuncles and boils

Singh et al., 2002

64.  I. turbinata Lag.

 

 

Convolvulaceae

(C)

192

(+)

Balkauri

Lvs, St, Sd

Skin-diseases, cuts, laxative

Plant juice used as an insecticide and laxative

Chandel et al., 1996

65.  Lantana camara L.

 

 

Verbenaceae

(S)

81

(+++)

Jharmari

 

Wp

Tetanus, tonic, rheumatism, malaria

About half cup of plant decoction with a little quantity of ‘kala namak’ is taken twice a day till relief tetanus

 

Parveen et al., 2007

66.  Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.

 

 

Lamiaceae

(H)

193

(+)

Goma

Wp, Fl

Scabies, cough, cold, scorpion-sting

Plant decoction is used for malaria, headache, eye complaints

Satyavati et al., 1987

67.  L. urticaefolia (Vahl.) R. Br.

 

 

 

Lamiaceae

(H)

194

(+)

Panihari

Lvs

Fever

Boiled leaves mixed with jaggery are given to cows and buffaloes to expel placenta after delivery

Sharma et al., 1992

68.  Lindenbergia muraria (Roxb.)    

       Brühl

 

 

Scrophulariaceae

(H)

77

(+)

Chatti

Wp, Lvs

Fever, skin-infection

Paste of leaf is applied on snake-bite and scorpion-sting

 

 

 

 

Trivedi, 2002

69.  Lycium barbarum L.

 

 

Solanaceae

(S)

195

(+)

Morali

Wp

-

Fresh plant decoction is used as diuretic; Stem bark against bronchitis for horses

 

Singh, 2004

70.  Martynia annua L.

 

 

Martyniaceae

(H)

84

(+)

Bichu

Wp, Lvs, Ft

Sore throat, epilepsy, tuberculosis-glands

Paste of nut is considered to have beneficial effect when applied to the bites of venomous insects

 

Satyavati et al., 1987

71.  Melhania hamiltoniana Wall.

 

Sterculiaceae

(H)

 

204

(+)

-

-

-

-

-

72.  Mollugo nudicaulis Lamk.

 

 

Mollugoniaceae

(H)

87

(+)

-

Wp, Lvs

Bitter, whooping cough

Leaves are macerated in water to  which some lime juice has been added and drunk as a warm-expeller

 

Iwu, 1993

73.  Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

 

 

Cucurbitaceae

(C)

160

(+)

Kakoda

Ft, sd, Tb

Elephantiasis, anthelmintic, jaundice

 

Root paste is applied on snake-bites for three times daily

Trivedi, 2002

74.  Nerium oleander L.

Apocynaceae

(S)

88

(+)

Kaner

Wp, Lvs, Rt, Bk, Oil

Leprosy, skin-disease, poisonous, chanceres and ulcers of the penis

 

Root paste with water and are applied externally chancre, ulcers and leprosy

Parveen et al., 2007

75.  Ocimum canum Sims.

 

 

Labiatae

(H)

90

(+++)

Kali-tulsi

Wp, Lvs

Skin-disorder, cold, carminative, dysentery

Leaf paste is used in parasitical diseases of the skin and also applied to the finger and toe nails during fever when extremities of cold

 

Satyavati et al., 1987

76.  Parthenium hysterophorus L.

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

95

(++)

Gajar ghas

 

Rt, St

Tonic, febrifuge, rheumatism

Plant decoction is externally used for skin-diseases

Dominguez and Sierra, 1970

77.  Pedalium murex L.

 

 

Pedaliaceae

(H)

94

(++)

Bara gokhru

 

Wp, Lvs, Rt, St, Fl

Antiseptic, aphrodisiac, leucorrhoea

Mucilaginous infusion of the fruit is given in incontinence of urine, spermatorrhoea, nocturnal emission and impotence

 

Satyavati et al., 1987

78.  Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov.

 

 

Asclepiadaceae

(H)

105

(++)

Sagovani

 

Gastric ulcer, emetic, anthelmintic

Leaf decoction is an utrine tonic and is taken orally up to 20 ml per day

 

Singh et al., 2002

79.  Peristrophe paniculata (Forsk.)  

      Brummitt

 

 

Acanthaceae

(H)

145

(++)

Atrilal

 

Wp

Snake-poison

Whole plant macerated in an infusion of rice, is taken orally in a large quantity as an antidote to snake-poison

Singh et al., 2002

80.  Portulaca suffruticosa Wt.

 

 

Portulacaceae

(H)

102

(+)

Khurfa

Lvs, St

Fever, polydipsia, headache

Fresh juice of plant for burning micturation

-

81.  Phyllanthus nirurii Sensu Hook. f.

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

(H)

196

(+)

Bhuian anvala

Wp, Rt, Shoot

Diuretic, jaundice, dysentry

Leaves mixed with salt applied locally to skin affections

Parveen et al., 2007

82.  Physalis minima L.

 

 

Solanaceae

(H)

197

(+)

Pipat

Wp

Tonic, purgative, joint pain

 

 

Fruit eaten and leaf juice used in earache

Singh, 2004

83.  Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce

 

 

Mimosaceae

(T)

159

(+++)

Khejari

 

Fl, Infl

Boils, skin-diseases

Flowers are pounded, mixed with sugar and eaten by women during pregnancy as a safe guard against miscarriage

 

 

Parveen et al., 2007

84.  Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss.

 

 

Amaranthaceae

(H)

91

(++)

 

-

Wp

Antidote, dropsy, oedema, febrifuge

-

-

85.  Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

107

(+)

Govindpalli

Lvs

Abortifacient

Seeds are roasted dehusked and used as pulses

Prusti and Behera, 2007

86.  Rhus mysorensis Heyne

      ex Wight & Arn.

Anacardiaceae

(T)

146

(+)

 

Dansara

 

Diarrhoea

Fruits for digestion

Satyanarayana et al., 2008

87.  Ricinus communis  L.

Euphorbiaceae

(S)

38

(++)

 

Arandi

Lvs, Sd

Boil, carbuncle, rheumatism

Leaf infusion is used stomachache

Parveen et al., 2007

88.  Salvadora oleoides Dcne. and                             

        Clarke

 

 

Salvadoraceae

(S)

198

(+)

Kharojhal

Lvs, Ft

Antiinflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer

Leaf paste is used to cure cough and treatment of enlarged spleen and fever

Yadav et al., 2008

89.  Sesamum indicum L.

 

 

Pedaliaceae

(H)

200

(+)

Til

Lvs, Sd

Polyuria, pimples, ophthalmia

Decoction of the seeds with acorus, ‘pippali’ and ‘gur’ is given in amenorrhea

 

Parveen et al., 2007

90.  Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv.

 

 

Poaceae

(G)

199

(+)

-

-

-

-

-

91.  Sida acuta Burm.

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

112

(++++)

Bala

Wp, Lvs, Rt

Astringent, cut and wounds, diorrhoea

Leaf paste is applied topically to heal cuts, wounds and to get relief from headache

 

Muthu et al., 2006

92.  S. cordifolia L.

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

109

(++)

Kungyi

Wp, Lvs, Rt, Sd

Aphrodisiac, snake-bite, gonorrhoea

Rot with cow’s milk showed improvement in Parkinson patients

Nagashayana et al., 2000

93.  S. rhombifolia L.

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

151

(+++)

Atibala

Rt, St, Lvs, Wp

Swelling, rheumatism, tuberculosis

Root infusion for the treatment of rheumatism and neurological complaints

 

Dhalwal et al., 2007

94.  S. veronicaefolia Lam.

 

 

Malvaceae

(H)

201

(+)

Bhiunli

Wp

Astringent, bitter, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea

 

Leaves ground into a paste and applied for thorn poison

Siromoney et al., 1973

95.  Solanum nigrum L.

 

 

Solanaceae

(H)

113

(+)

Makoi

Wp, Lvs, Rt

Psoriasis, piles, dysentry

Roots with small amount of sugar are boiled in water  and are given to women to enhancing fertility

 

Parveen et al., 2007

96.  S. virginianum L.

Solanaceae

(H)

108

(++)

Pili kateli

Rt, St, Fl, Ft

Cough, asthma, gonorrhoea

Decoction of plant with Tinospora cordifolia, Zingiber officinale, added with the powder of Piper longum was used for cough, asthma, anorexia, fever and indigestion

 

Khare, 2004

97.  Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

122

(++)

Sarphonka

 

Wp, Rt

Blood purifier, tonic, colic, pain, tonsilitis

Decoction of the rots with ginger is comsumed to relieve headache

Parveen et al., 2007

98.  T. uniflora Pers.

 

 

Fabaceae

(H)

202

(+)

Bhaker

Wp, Lvs, Rt, Sd, Bk

Poisonous bites, diuretic, asthma, piles, syphilis

Whole plant is boiled in water and eaten for syphilis

Singh, 2004

99.  Thevetia peruviana (Pers.)

       K.  Schum

 

 

Apocynaceae

(S)

123

(+)

Pila-kaner

Bk

Fever, psoriasis, skin-infection

A weak decoction of stem bark is used to treat intermittent fevers

Iwu, 1993

100.  Trianthema portulacastrum L.

 

 

Aizoaceae

(H)

120

(++)

Lal-sabuni

Lvs, Rt

Amenorrhoea

Decoction of root is taken internally to treat constipation and asthma

 

Muthu et al., 2006

101.  Tribulus terrestris L.

 

 

Zygophyllaceae

(H)

119

(+++)

Gokhru

 

Wp, St, Ft

Urinary trouble, kidney stones, gonorrhoea

Powdered fruits  in doses of 18 g  with sugar and black pepper for spermatorrhoea

 

Parveen et al., 2007

102.  Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

 

 

Cucurbitaceae

(H)

203

(+)

Jangli-chichonda

Wp, Lvs, St, Ft, Sd, Rt

 

Cardiac tonic, skin-disseases

Decoction of root is used for bronchitis and heart diseases

Jain et al., 2005

103.  Tridex procumbens L.

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

117

(++)

Molyamehndi

 

Lvs

Kidney stones, boils, blisters, dysentery

Leaf paste is applied topically on cuts and wounds

Muthu et al., 2006

104.  Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

 

 

Tiliaceae

(S)

116

(++++)

Bhurat

Wp, Rt

Jaundice, diarrhoea

Root extract is taken to cure urinogenital problem of male

Jadhav, 2006

105.  Verbesina encelioides (Cav.)

        Benth. & Hook. f. ex Gray

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

126

(+++)

Nakli-Surajmukhi

 

Wp

Febrifuge, emetic, insecticide, anti-inflammatory

Infusion of whole plant for reduce swelling

Soumyanath, 2006

106.  Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

25

(++)

Sahadevi

Wp, Lvs

Diaphoretic, piles, dropsy, conjunctivitis

 

Leaf decoction is given in fever

Jeeva et al., 2006

107.  Vitex negundo L.

 

Verbenaceae

(T)

124

(+)

Nirgundi

Lvs, Rt

Tonic, rheumatism, ulcers

Fresh leaves crushed along with salt and the extract is taken internally once a day for 7 days in night blindness

 

Prashantkumar and Vidyasagar, 2006

108.  Waltheria indica L.

 

 

 

Sterculiaceae

(H)

127

(+)

Nallabenda

Wp

Emollient, cough, cold

Decoction of whole plant for treatment of diarrhoea

Mathabe et al., 2006

109.  Xanthium strumarium L.

 

 

 

Asteraceae

(H)

155

(+++)

Bilawa

Sd

Febrifuge, skin-diseases, eczema, scabies, rheumatism

Fruit is considered cooling and effectious in the small pox and also useful in urinary diseases

Ahmad, 2003

110.  Zizyphus nummularia (Burm. f.)

          W. & A

 

Rhamnaceae

(S)

129

(++)

Boerjadi

 

Lvs, Ft

Cooling, scabies

Juice of the root bark is applied externally in rheumatism

Parveen et al., 2007