Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 687-93 , 2010.

 

Ethnomedicine Against Jaundice Used by Gond Tribes of Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India 

 

V. Madhu* and T.N. Swamy 

 

Plant Systematics Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University,

Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. - 506009

*Corresponding author: madhu_kuc@rediffmail.com 
 

Issued: 01 June 2010

 

Abstract 

 

The present  investigation  was performed in order to enumerate the medicinal plants that gond tribes uses for the treatment of jaundice in  Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study revealed that totally 12 plants belonging to  9 families were used to cure jaundice . The plants were used either separately or in combination with some other plant parts..

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Tribal, Gonds, Jaundice, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. 

Introduction

������� The Composition of population in the state of Andhra Pradesh exhibit great diversity. Gonds are one of the major and largest tribe of Adilabad district, and numerically predominant tribal group in India. They are found in larger areas of central India known after them as Gondwana. Important sub divisions among Gonds are MuriaGond(found in Madhya Pradesh), RajGond and DurveGond(found in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa). All these sub division call themselves as Koitur in their dialect like Koyas, another larger tribal group in Andhra Pradesh. Naikapod is mentioned along with RajGonds in the approved list of Scheduled Tribe but in tribal areas of Adilabad district, Naikapod is a separate tribe. Most of the information's on medicinal uses of plant preparations given here have been found to be new when compared with earlier published work (Shanker and Henry, 1992; Pullaiah, Prasanna, and Obeulesy, 1998; Madhu, 2009). Mubeen, Fatima, Khanum, Alikhan and Anwar (2004-2005) studied the medicinally important plants growing in and around Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh.  Seetha Rama Reddi TV.V, S.Prasanthi and B.V.A. RamaRao Naidu (2006), studied Tradition phytotheraphy for Jaundice. In the present investigation , we report the Ethnomedicinal plants against Jaundice used by the Gonds in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Study Area

�������� The present ethnomedicinal study has been carried out in Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh. It is situated between770 47/ and 800 0/ of the eastern longitudes and 180  40/ and 190  56/ of northern latitudes. The district is bounded on North by Yeotmal and Chanda districts of Maharashtra on the East by Chanda district, on the South by Karimnagar and Nizamabad districts and on the west by Nanded district of Maharashtra state. These harbour mainly dry deciduous forest and aborigines. These forests occupy about 44.5 percent of the total geographical area of the district. The total forest area in the district is 7218.86 sq.km. The total population of the district is 24,88,003 out of which the tribal population is 4,16,511 in which Gondu population is 2,21,376 (52.15% in total district Tribal population) as for 2001 Census of India. The main occupation of the people is agriculture.  

Methodology

��������� Field investigations were carried out in Adilabad district to study the species which are used to cure Jaundice by interviewing the gonds. The selected species were collected between June 2009 to December 2009 in their natural habitats in Adilabad district.Regular periodical field trips were undertaken to the tribal hamlets in Thmsi, Jainad, Bela, Narnoor, Indervelly, Gudihathnoor, Ichoda, Bazarathnoor, Neradigonda, Utnoor, Jainoor, Kerameri, Kuntala, and Bejjur mandals in the district. Information was collected directly from the medicinemen and other elder people of the gond tribes.  

Enumeration of  Ethnomedicinal Plants 

1) Acalypha indica L.

     ����� Family: EUPHORBIACEAE,

    �����   Vernacular Name: Muripinda

Mode of Administration: Leaves crushed with sugar candy and curd taken orally early in the morning for 3days. 

2)     Boerhavia diffusa L.

  Syn: Boerhavia repens L.

  Family: NYCTAGINACEAE,

 Vernacular Name : Atika Mamidi

 Mode of Administration: Whole plant extract mixed with sugar and curd and   administered once early in the morning for 7days. 

3)   Celosia argentea L.

 Family: AMARANTHACEAE,

 Vernacular Name: Gurugaku

      ��������Mode of Administration :Leaf extract in combination of leaves of Achyranthes  

        ������mixed with sugar and curd and administered once in the morning for 3days. 

4)    Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

 Family : HYPOXIDACEAE,

 Vernacular  Name: Nela Tadi

 Mode of Administration : Rhizome extract given with curd in 2 spoonfuls twice

������������ a day for about a week. 

5)   Cyperus rotundus L.

 Family: CYPERACEAE,

 Vernacular Name: Tunga Gaddi

       �������Mode of Administration :Tubers ground with triphal (Fruits of Terminalia   

       ��������chebula, T.bellirica Emblica offcinalis) and the extract administered in 2

        spoonfuls twice a day about 5 days. 

  6)    Euphorbia hirta L.

 Syn: Euphorbia pilulifera L.

 Family: EUPHORBIACEAE,

Vernacular Name: Reddivari Nanubalu , Chukkabottala chettu.

�����       Mode of Administration :Leaf extract in combination with leaf extract of

      �������Phyllanthus amarus, sugar and curd is administered in 2 spoonfuls thrice a day  

      �������for 2-3days. 

7)   Oldenlandia croymbosa L.

 Family: RUBIACEAE,

 Vernacular Name: Chiru veru

       ������Mode of Administration :Whole plant decoction given with a glass of buttermilk

       �������in 3 spoonfuls twice a day for about 5days.  

8)   Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn

 Syn: Phyllanthus niruri L.

 Family: EUPHORBIACEAE,

 Vernacular Name: Nela Usiri

       ������Mode of Administration Whole plant extract mixed with curd and given in  

       ������2 spoonfuls twice a day for a week. 

9)   Portulaca oleracea L.

Family: PORTULACACEAE,

Vernacular Name: Pappu koora

      ������Mode of Administration : Whole plant dried and made into powder and

       ������administered in 2 spoonfuls early in the morning for about 15days. 

10)  Ricinus communis L.

 Family: EUPHORBIACEAE,

 Vernacular Name: Amudamu

 Mode of Administration: Leaf paste administered in 1 spoonful with buttermilk early in the morning for 5-7days. 

11)  Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f.et Thoms.

  Syn: Menispermum cordifolium Willd.

  Family: MENISPERMACEAE

  Vernacular Name: Tippa teega

         ���� Mode of Administration : Dry fruit powder mixed with honey and administered����

��������������� in 2 spoonfuls once in morning for 5 - 7days. 

12)     Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

     Family: LYTHRACEAE

     Vernacular Name: Jeguru

           �������Mode of Administration: Stem bark ground with bark of Bauhinia racemosa

            ������and Oroxylum inidcum in and the poultice administered in 2 spoonfuls ��

����������������� banana  fruit twice a day for 5-7 days. 
 

Results and Conclusion 

���������� The present study revealed that totally 12  plants belonging to 9 families  and different modes of treatment were followed to cure jaundice by the gond tribes inhabiting in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Euphorbiaceae is the leading family with four species. During the treatment of the disease, various forms of preparations are used. The plants were used either separately or in combination with other plant parts or either with  sugar candy or curd or butter milk. Mostly they prefer whole plant or leaves in top priority to cure the disease.The indigenous knowledge of the tribal communities must be properly documented and preserved so that their knowledge could be passed on to the future generations. Such studies and documents provide important and vital clues for understanding the complex heritage of tribal communities and their association with environment and nature.  

Acknowledgements 

������������� The authors are grateful to the tribal and rural herbalists of Adilabad district who whole heartily co-operated in sharing their knowledge and in helping the collection of the plant material for study.  Our thanks also go to the University Grants Commission (UGC) New Delhi for providing the financial assistance in the form of Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship, and to the Head of the Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal for the facilities provided. 
 

References 

Mubeen, Rizwana, Sadia Fatima, Atiya Khanum, Irfan Ali Khan and S. Y.   Anwar. 2005. Medicinally important plants growing in and around Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh used in the treatment of different ailments. (Eds.), III, 118--180.

 Ravishankar, T. 1990. Ethnobotanical studies in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ph.D., Thesis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

 Ravishankar, T. and A. N. Henry. 1992. Ethnobotany of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India, Ethnobotany 4, 45-52.

 T. Pullaiah, P.V. Prasanna and G. Obulesu. 1992. Flora of Adilabad District (Andhra Pradesh, India) x, 284 p., map,   Details No. 6962.

 T.V.V. Setharami Reddi, S. Prasanthi and B.V.A. Ramarao Naidu. 2006, Traditional phytotherapy for Jaundice. Herbal medicine-Traditional Practices

 V. Madhu and C. Suvartha. 2009. Ethnobotanical  and  Ethnomedicinal  Observations in Nirmal Division of Adilabad District, Andhrapradesh, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1003-16.

 V. Madhu. and DS Ravindra Naik 2009. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Leaf Preparations in Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1337-47.