Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 319-26. 2010.
Preliminary Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Treatment of Animal Trypanosomosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria
* Maikai, V. A., Abubakar, U., Salman, A.A., and Inuwa, T. N.
of Agriculture and Animal Science, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
*E mail: email@example.com
Issued March 1, 2010
A preliminary survey of medicinal
plants used in the treatment of animal trypanosomiasis
Key words: Trypanosomiasis, Khaya senegalensis, Terminalia avicenioides, Ximenia americana.
The African trypanosome is a group of
diseases caused by a protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. It is an acute,
sub acute and chronic disease affecting both animals and humans of tropical
and subtropical countries only. The disease is characterized by intermittent
fever, anemia, odema (Anosa,
1988), and known as jola or sammore
in fulfulde (Fulani). In
Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis by trypanocides however, form the most important aspect of control and eradication of trypanosomes. Unfortunately the use of these trypanocides is beset by numerous limitations, including toxicity of the drugs, development of resistance by the parasites and exhibition of antigenic variation which hampers vaccine production (Kuzoe,1993; Doua and Yapo, 1993).These factors emphasizes the need for research into a more comprehensive, formidable and cheaper sources of trypanocide. About 60-80% of third world countries rely wholly or partially on traditional / herbal medicines (Sofowora, 1993) which are mainly plants. Plants have been traditionally used for centuries and are still widely used to treat illness and other parasitic diseases. Several well known drugs such as quinine and artemisinin are used as antiprotozoal agents have their origins in nature (Tagboto and Townson, 2001).
Plants have provided the basis for traditional treatment for different types of diseases and still offer an enormous potential source of new chemotherapeutic agents. Plants present a spectrum of biological compounds with activities against virus, cancer and parasites. These plants contain compounds mainly secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes and coumarins (Rates, 2001). They have been reported to provide better and cheaper alternatives (Nwude and Ibrahim, 1980; Secoy and Smith, 1983; Phillipson and Wright, 1991; Freiburghans et. al., 1996; ITDG and IIRR 1996, Nok et.� al., 1996, Adewummi et. al., 2001, Nok, 2005).
The present investigation therefore
was undertaken to survey the most used plants in treating animal trypanosomosis in
Materials and Methods
The survey was carried out in six
areas namely, Birnin Gwari,
Kachia, Kafanchan, Makarfi, Saminaka and Soba �
A simple descriptive statistical method of analysis was used for analyzing the data.����
Results and Discussion
The result of the preliminary survey
on plants used in treating animal trypanosomosis is
summarized in Table 1. The result showed that Khaya senegalensis (23.3%) had the highest
usage followed by Terminalia avicennioides
The leaves bark and roots were mainly the parts of the plant used. The parts of the plants were prepared by soaking or boiling in water and drenched, or pounded and mixed with the feed of the sick animal, or the parts of the plant was smoked in a room and the animal allowed to inhale the smoke. Others include making a paste of the plant part and rubbing the animal with the paste or putting the paste in a cloth and tying the cloth to the leg of the sick animal. Some modes of preparation include addition of red potash or salt to the part of plant before soaking in water. The dosage of the part of the plant varies from 2 to 3 times a week until the animal recovers, which they noted by resumption in eating and passing out of bloody gelatinous stools. Since this work is a preliminary survey, there is a need to further validate the claims of the respondents to determine the efficacy and safety of the plants.
In conclusion, the preliminary survey
of the plants showed that Khaya senegalensis and Terminalia avicenniodes were widely used in
treatment of trypanosomosis in animals in
The authors wish to thank the Miyeti Allah Association, village heads and extension workers of the various areas for the cooperation and assistance provided.
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Table 1. Plants used in the treatment of trypanosomosis in six areas of