Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 299-304. 2008.
to the Flora of
R. Kottaimuthu*, R. Ganesan*, K. Natarajan, J. Brabhu and M. Vimala
*Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
This paper reports eight species of flowering plants, from southern
Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu,
all are new to the flora of
During our botanical exploration to the Dindigul
H ills of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, we came
across eight plant species, hitherto unreported in any of the previous
publications on the flora of Eastern Ghats ( Brabhu et al., 2005; Karuppusamy et al.,
2001; Mathusuthana, 1992; Muthurakku,
1992; Pallithanam, 2001; Pullaiah
& Muraldhara Rao,
2002; Pullaiah et
al., 2007; Reddy et al., 2006; Sriganesan,
1984; Subramanyam & Henry, 1959). The present
discovery of these species from Dindigul hills of
Capparis shevaroyensis Sund.-Ragh. in
Strraggling shrub, up to 3m high; branchlets ribbed, pubescent when young, later glabrous. Stipular thorns minute or prominent (in old stems), sometimes absent. Leaves alternate, ovate-elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 5 - 10.5 x 2 - 3.5 cm, base obtuse, margin entire sometimes slightly undulate, apex acuminate with prominent cusp, sometimes obtusely acuminate and retuse, subcoriaceous, glabrous on both surfaces, paler beneath, midrib above sunken in young leaves and slightly raised in mature leaves; lateral nerves 8-14 pairs, impressed beneath; petioles 0.1 - 0.2 cm long. Flowers white, in 5 - 10 flowered subterminal / axillary umbels; peduncles 0.5 - 3 cm long; pedicels 1 1.2 cm long, glabrous. Sepals 4, ovate oblong / obovate, 0.3 0.6 x 0.2 0.4 cm, concave. Petals 4, white, oblong elliptic, 0.5 0.7 x 0.2 0.4 cm, sericeous tomentose on both sides, margin ciliate. Stamens 15 25, glabrous; filaments curved, 0.6 1 cm long; anthers oblong, 0.1 0.2 cm long. Gynophore 0.5 1.2 cm, purplish. Ovary ovoid, 0.1 0.2 x 0.1 cm; style minute, bristle like; stigma obscure. Fruits globose, 1 1.2 cm in diameter; seed solitary, ovoid / globose, 0.6 0.8 cm in diameter.
Flowering & Fruiting: July - August.
Specimens examined: Specimens
Cocculus laurifolius DC. Syst. 1: 530. 1817; Hook. f. & Thoms., in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 1: 101. 1872; Dunn in Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras . 1957 (repr. ed.) . Chithra in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu 1: 7. 1983. ( Menispermaceae ).
Small trees, 1.5 2.5m tall; branchlets with raised lenticels. Leaves elliptic lanceolate / obovate, 5 - 7.5 x 2 - 4 cm, entire, 3-ribbed from base, glossy above, paler beneath, apex caudate acuminate, cuneate towards the base; petiole flattened, 0.5 cm long. Fruits globose, 0.6 - 0.8 cm across, juicy, black when ripe.
Strip. Nov. 1: 17, t. 9. 1785; Amaratunga in
Erect herbs, up to 80 cm high; stem terete, dichotomously branched; branchlets clothed with pale strigose stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, ovate / oblong, 2.5 5 x 1.5 4 cm, margin serrate, apex acute, obliquely truncate at base; lateral nerves 3- 5, obscure above, distinct below with 2 prominent glandular hairs at base of lamina; petioles 1 2 cm long; stipules linear, 0.2 cm long, caduceus. Inflorescence a terminal, branched raceme with copious multibranched glandular hairs with globose tips, female flowers below, male flowers above; male flowers white; pedicels up to 0.5 cm long, stellate hairy; sepals 5, obovate, 0.2 cm long; petals 5, oblanceolate, 0.2 cm long, serrate along margin; stamens 9 11; filaments 0.1 cm long, glabrous; anthers oblongoid, pale brown. Female flowers green; pedicels 0.5 1.5 cm long; bracts linear, fringed with 2 5 stalked capitate glands; sepals 5, unequal, linear oblong, 0.3 cm long, dentate along margin; ovary ovoid, 0.1 cm across; styles 3, each divided in to two, 0.2 cm long, apex reflexed. Capsules globose, 0.5 cm across, bractetae; seeds 3, trigonous, black.
Flowering & Fruiting: January - May.
Specimens Examined: Eastern Ghats:
Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
District, On way to china malaiyur rice field, Karandamalai, 478m, 14-1- 2007, R. Kottaimuthu & M. Vimala
370; On way to Mulaiyur, Perumalai,
Notes: Croton hirtus LHerit
is native to
Lepianthes umbellatum (L.) Raf. Sylva. Tellur. 85. 1838; Matthew, Fl. Palni hills 3: 1053. 1999. ( Piperaceae ).
Sub shrubs, up to 1m tall; branchlets sub succulent, lepidote. Leaves alternate, cordate-orbicular, 17-36 x 12-30 cm, palmately 10-15 nerved from base, apex rounded to sub acute; petiole 10-20 cm long, sheathing at base. Spikes 1-6, on stout axillary peduncle, 5-12 x 0.3 cm; bracts peltate, densely white ciliate at margins. Stamens 2; anthers 4-lobed. Ovary ellipsoid / obovoid, punctuate; stigmas 3, caducous. Fruits not seen.
Specimens Examined: Specimens examined: Eastern Ghats: Tamil Nadu: Dindigul District, On way to Kannimaruthu odai, Karandamalai, 318m, 22-9-2007, R. Kottaimuthu & K. Natarajan 2010.
(L.) Blume, Bijdr. Atuurk. Wetensch. 6: 220. 1831, var. aspera; Clarke, C. B. Fl. Brit.
Under shrubs, up to 1-1.5m tall; branchlets adpressed pubescent. Leaves elliptic, 1.5-4 x 0.5-1.6cm, coriaceous, velvety tomentose, 4-5 ribbed from base, apex acute-mucronate. Flowers pink, in 4-7 flowered terminal cymes; peduncles 0.5-1 cm long. Hypanthium with prominent intersepalar emergences. Petals 5, obovate, 1.5-1.8 x 1.8-2cm. Stamens 10; filaments 0.5-0.6cm long, incurved. Capsule urceolate, 1cm across, many seeded.
Flowering & Fruiting: June August.
Specimens examined: Specimens
Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3: 85. 1832 & DC., Prodr. 11: 183. 1847; Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 4: 439. 1884; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 2: 729. 1957 (repr. ed.). Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Nees) Bremek. in Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Naturk., Tweede Sect. 41: 270. 1944; Kumari in Henry et al., Fl. Tamil Nadu 2: 154. 1987; Ahmedullah & Nayar End. Pl. Indian region 1: 150. 1986. ( Acanthaceae ).
Shrub, 1-1.5m tall; stems terete, fimbriate at nodes. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 10 - 18 x 3 - 5cm, acute, decurrent at base, margin serrate, acuminate at apex, prominently lineolate above, not so beneath; secondary veins 5-7 pairs, raised above, impressed beneath; petioles 1.5 - 3.8 cm long, some times obscure due to decurrent lamina. Inflorescence spike, axillary, 2 - 2.5 cm long, glabrous; peduncles 2.3 3 cm long, articulate, bracteate below middle; bracts orbicular, 0.5 cm long, obtuse at apex; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 0.5 cm long, apiculate. Calyx lobes 5, oblanceolate, 0.5 cm long, glabrous. Corolla tubular-campanulate, white with purple blotches, lobes obovate, 0.3 cm long, prominently veined. Stamens 4, didynamous, exerted; filaments arising from top of staminal sheath, longer ones up to 1.5 cm long; anthers purple, 0.2 cm long. Ovary on a disc, 0.3 cm long, glabrous; style slender up to 1.5 cm long. Capsules not seen.
Specimens examined: Specimens
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 6: 93. 1890; Trimen, Handb. Fl.
Terrestrial herb, 15 30 cm high; stem clothed with leaf sheaths except at base. Leaves linear lanceolate, 6 14 x 1 2 cm, apex acuminate, 3 5 ribbed at base; base sheathing, sheaths up to 2.5 cm long, strongly ribbed. Flowers yellowish-green, in terminal spikes; peduncle 1 2.5 cm long with many erect, strongly nerved, subulate sterile bracts. Floral bracts 0.5 0.9 x 0.2 0.3 cm, 3-nerved, glabrous. Sepals oblong lanceolate, 0.5 0.6 x 0.2 0.3 cm, 3-nerved, laterals connate basal half and ensheathing the base of the lip. Petals oblong, subfalcate, 0.4 0.5 x 0.2 cm, 3-nerved. Lip ovate lanceolate, 0.5 0.7 x 0.2 0.3 cm, sessile at the base of the column, constricted and deflexed at the apical end. Column short, stout, 0.4 0.5 cm long, rostellum erect, ovate, bifid, stigma anticous. Anther erect, linear oblong, 0.2 cm long; pollinia 2, clavate; caudicle short and slender; ovary 0.6 0.8 cm long, ribbed, glabrous.
Specimens examined: Specimens examined: Eastern Ghats: Tamil Nadu: Dindigul District, Peria aruvi valley, Alagar Hills, 402m, 20-11-2007, R. Kottaimuthu & K. Natarajan 389.
Viscum subracemosum Sanjai et Balakrishnan in Rheedea 10: 113. 2000. ( Viscaceae ).
up to 1m high, branchlets trichotomously
branched, longitudinally grooved. Leaves opposite, elliptic-oblanceolate / lanceolate,
2.5-6.3 x 1.5-2.8cm, margin wavy, apex rounded, base attenuate, triplinerved, lateral pair converge towards apex.
Inflorescence 3-6 flowered subraceme, 3-6cm long;
peduncles 1-2.8cm long. Flowers enclosed in cupule;
bracts ovate, up to 0.2cm long.
Flowering & Fruiting: January April.
Specimens examined: Specimens examined: Eastern Ghats: Tamil Nadu: Dindigul District, On way to Ayyanar falls, Karandamalai, 400m, 14-1-2007, R. Kottaimuthu & M. Vimala 1878; On way to Kallanai valley, Karandamalai, 456m, 1-4-2007, R. Kottaimuthu & J. Brabhu 1958; On way to Meenmutti aruvi, 680m, 3-5-2007, R. Kottaimuthu & K. Natarajan 333.
We thank Dr. G. V. S. Murthy, Joint Director, Botanical Survey of
India, Southern Circle,
Brabhu, J., Kottaimuthu,
R. & Vimala, M. 2005. Riparian Flora of Elanikudai and Peria aruvi Streams, Karandamalai, Dindigul
District. ). M. Sc., Dissertation, The
Karuppusamy, S., Rajasekaran,
K. M. & Karmegam, S. 2001. Endemic flora of Sirumalai Hills (
Mathusuthanan, G. 1992. Flora of Karandamalai Hills (Gamopetalous Dicotyledons).
M. Sc., Dissertation,
Muthurakku, A. 1992. Flora of Karandamalai Hills (Polypetalous Dicotyledons). M. Sc., Dissertation,
Pallithanam, J. M. 2001. A pocket Flora of Sirumalai Hills,
Preetha, S. S. & Binojkumar, M. S. 2006. Croton hirtus LHerit. (Euphorbiaceae) A fast naturalizing exotic weed in Indian Subcontinent. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 30(2): 294-295.
Pullaiah, T. & Rao,
D. M. 2002. Flora of
Pullaiah, T., Ramamurthy, K. S. & Karuppusamy, S. 2007. Flora
Ramachandran, V., Ravikumar,
K. & Balasubramanian. 1992. Croton Hirtus LHerit (Euphorbiaceae): A new
Reddy, C. S., Pattanaik, C, Murthy, M. S. R. & Reddy, K. N. 2006. Floristic census of Orchids of Eastern Ghats, India. The Botanica 56: 79-76.
Sriganesan, T. 1984. Flora of Alagar Hills Volumes I &
II. Ph. D. Thesis,
Subramanyam, K. &
Henry, A. N. 1959. A
contribution t the flora of Alagar Hills, Karandamalais and surrounding regions in