Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 851-65. 2008.

 

 

An Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Markets and Medicinal Plants in Lagos State of Nigeria

 

Olowokudejo J. D., Kadiri A. B*. and Travih V.A.

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

For correspondence: deledejo2005@yahoo.co.uk, abkadiri2001@yahoo.com

 

Issued 30 October 2005

 

ABSTRACT

An ethno-botanical survey of three largest herbal markets and medicinal plants used for treating ailments in Lagos state of Nigeria was undertaken by means of oral and written questionnaire. Traditional medicine is undoubtedly a reliable alternative approach to health care delivery in the metropolis because it is cheap, easily accessible, and efficacious. Herbs are obtained from bushes around the neighbourhood and forests from adjacent states. Recipes for the treatment of common ailments which are reported almost on daily basis such as hypertension, dysentery, low sperm count and weak erection, coated tongue, pile, menstrual disorder, leucorrhoea and fevers were given by the practitioners. Moreover, a list of medicinal plants and their reported folkloric uses was compiled during the survey. Apparently, daily health issues of Lagosians are partly taken care of by traditional medicine and its use is on the increase in Lagos state. The efforts of the Lagos State Traditional Medicine Board and Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency are praised in facilitating recognition of herbal medicine in the metropolis. Government should help in the area of conservation of medicinal plant and protect patent right of the Traditional Medicine Practitioners to encourage release of information.

 

INTRODUCTION

Animals live in equilibrium with the plants surrounding them, using these plants as sources of food and intuitively or through years of trials and error, as medicine. Traditional medicine refers to health practices, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plants, animals and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well being (NNMDA, 2008; WHO, 2005) . The use of plants as medicine to cure or prevent illness and to lubricate the wheels of social interaction at the interpersonal and group level is a behaviour that predates civilization, and in today�s civilization, it is found in every society irrespective of its level of development and sophistication (Odugbemi, 2006).

The earliest references to these medicinal plants as cure for diseases are to be found in the manuscript of the �Eber papyrus� which contains 700 medical formulas and it dates back to 16th century B.C (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 1986). The drugs of today�s modern society are products of research and development by major pharmaceutical companies but among the most important raw materials researched and developed are naturally occurring materials obtained from plants. Hence, when we take well packaged medicines today, it is well to remember that we might be taking a processed plant product. Interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well-being, and the bio-prospecting of new plant-derived drugs. Based on current research and financial investments, medicinal plants will, seemingly, continue to play an important role as a health aid (Hoareau and DaSilva, 1999; Moerman, 1996).

In spite of the millions of chemical compounds currently synthesized in the laboratory, and available for screening for action of therapeutic value, natural products, particularly of plants origin remain the most important sources of new drugs (Odugbemi, 2006).

The use of medicinal plants constitutes an important part of traditional medicine which is a part of African heritage. Though modern / orthodox medicine has improved the lot of many people worldwide, it is noteworthy that in many cultures, modern medicine complements traditional practices as is obtainable in industrialized societies e.g. China and India (Odugbemi, 2006). In these societies, herbal remedies have become more popular in the treatment of minor ailments, and also on account of the increasing costs of personal health maintenance. Indeed, the market and public demand has been so great that there is a great risk that many medicinal plants today, face either extinction or loss of genetic diversity.

In Nigeria, the majority of citizens still use medicinal plants and visit traditional medicine practitioners for their health care need (Odugbemi, 2006). It was reported by WHO that in Nigeria, the ratio of Traditional Health Practitioners to the population was 1:110, while the ratio of Medical Doctors to the population was 1:16, 400 (African Health Monitor, 2003). This gives credence to the fact that people patronise Traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) for their primary health needs more than orthodox medical doctors.

Medicinal plant is defined as any substance with one or more of its organ containing substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which can be used as precursors for the synthesis of antimicrobial drugs (Sofowora, 1982, 1984). It is estimated that there are about 250, 000 � 500, 000 species of plants on earth (Borris, 1996), of which a relatively small percentage (1-10%) of these are used for food by humans and animals. It is possible that more serve medicinal purposes (Moerman, 1996). Medicinal plants contain numerous biologically active compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, fats and oils, minerals, vitamins, alkaloids, quinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, simple phenolic glycosides, tannins, saponins, polyphenols, to mention a few which have medicinal activities.

Lagos State is a city in the South-Western part of Nigeria, located on the Bight of Benin. It is the largest city in Nigeria (in terms of population size), the chief port as well as the economic and cultural centre. The metropolitan area spreads over much of the state, covering about 3557 sq. km. It has a diverse and fast growing population resulting from heavy and on-going migration to the city from all parts of Nigeria as well as neighbouring countries. The population of its metropolis increased to about 10.1 million in 2003 and the United Nations predicted that the city�s metropolis will exceed 20 million come 2010.

This population explosion means that the city�s infrastructure will be under stress. The primary health care sector, largely the responsibility of the Local Government with support from the State Government, might not be able to cater for everyone in the state. Hence, TMPs will have more people coming to them for their health care needs. This invariably brings medicinal plants, which are and would be in high demand, under threats of extinction. This trend would have serious consequences on the survival of some plant species, hence the need to conserve them. Conservation of medicinal plants is, therefore, an important step that should be taken in order to prevent the extinction of threatened species of medicinal plants.  Because of the foregoing, the study was undertaken in order to provide information on how much in demand the medicinal plants, availability status of the plants, method of collection, preservation methods before marketing, medicinal plant farm and conservation methods.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Information was obtained from herb sellers and traditional medicine practitioners by the means of questionnaire from three popular and largest markets in Lagos: Oyingbo, Mushin and Bariga, located within the Lagos mainland where the largest proportion of Lagosians dwell.Cross referencing of facts was carried out at the Lagos State Traditional Medicine Board and the Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency (NNMDA. Relevant literature and the University of Lagos Herbarium were consulted for plant nomenclature authentication (Gbile, 1984 ). A list of medicinal plants and their reported folkloric uses was compiled during this survey. Also, some recipes used for curing several ailments are also reported in the study.

Some of the questions that were responded to included: market location, sex of practitioner, medicinal plants sold, medicinal uses of the plant, do you give herbal prescriptions, do you have herbal farm, where do you collect medicinal herbs, method of preservation before sale, any information of medicinal plants that are becoming rare, any conservation approaches known, year of experience in the trade and cost of services rendered.

RESULTS

Table 1 shows a summary of names of some medicinal plants, their families, parts that are used, their local names and medicinal importance.

It was reported that plant parts like roots, bark, leaves and flowers are usually collected from the forest, around the neighbourhood, along road sides and many other places. However, it was established that most of the medicinal plants brought to the markets were randomly collected in the wild and bushes from Lagos environs and adjacent states. These plant parts are preserved by cutting them into smaller pieces and then sun-dried or kept in the ceiling of thatched houses, hung in the kitchen or fire places where they are exposed to constant heat that dries them up in order to reduce moisture content. Some are ground into powder and preserved for future use. As regards conservation, most of the herb sellers and practitioners have no idea about the threat levels of most of the medicinal plants due to their low literacy level. When asked if they noticed any scarcity in some particular plants, many of them responded that the shortage is due to seasonal changes. None of them have personally monitored medicinal plant farms where medicinal plants are cultivated.

The collection method was reported in all markets to be hygienic in that well kept harvesting hatchets are used and transportation of the herbs is done almost immediately to prevent nutrient degradation.

From the responses to the questionnaire, it was provided that medicinal preparations offered for sale are made by infusion, decoction, tincture, macerations, poultices, concoction, powder and pastes. Treatment recipes for some of the common ailments which affect people in the cosmopolitan Lagos are presented below:

1.                  HYPERTENSION

(a)                Leaves of Persea americana are made into shreds, dried and taken as infusion.

(b)               Leaves of Senecio biafrae added to fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa are used to prepare soup which is eaten. Leaves of Talinum triangulare or Basella alba may also be used.

(c)                Kola nut�s mistletoe mixed with honey is also effective.

2.                  DYSENTERY

(a)                Decoction of the leaves of Grewia flavescence is made and drunk.

(b)               Leaves of Parquentina nigrescens, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pergularia daemia, Ocimum gratissimum and Momordica charantia are all powdered together and taken with cold pap, or as decoction.

3.                  LOW SPERM COUNT AND WEAK ERECTION

(a)                Powdered Piper guineensis and extract from 10 big onions are poured into honey and boiled between 5-10 minutes. A cup to be taken in the morning and at night.

(b)               Manihot esculenta root, Dioscorea sp. tuber, Garcinia cola seed, Cola nitida cotyledon, dried Zea mays, Cnetis ferruginea, seeds of Mucuna sloanei, unripe Musa parasidiaca and Piper guineensis are all ground together with sugar, and taken with water or cold pap.

(c)                The same plants as the foregoing in addition with Klainedoxa gabonenesis, sugar and pure bee-honey are mixed together. A spoonful to be taken like that or with cold pap.

4.                  COATED TONGUE

(a)                Bark of Khaya ivorensis, bark of Pycnanthus angolensis, bark of Hymenocardia acida, bark of Bridelia ferruginea, bark and root of Rauvolfia vomitoria, bark of Alstonia boonei, twigs of Citrus medica, bark of Enantia chlorantha, bark of Melicia excelsa are all cooked and the decoction to be taken.

(b)               Costus afer, bark of Khaya grandifoliola, bark of Bridelia, ferruginea, fruit of Alchornea cordifolia, bark of Bridelia micrantha, bark of Pycnanthus angolensis, sulphur, and lime water all poured into a container. One tablespoon of the extract to be taken before breakfast.

5.                  PILES

12 seeds of Croton penduliflorus and 7 cubes of sugar are ground and poured into bottle containing kernel oil (30cl), then left for 7 days, after which the first dose of two tablespoonfuls will be taken. Later, one spoonful every morning is to be taken before breakfast. The drug is to be taken at four days interval.

6.                  MENSTRUAL DISORDER

Water or alcohol extract of the leaves of Dalbergiella welwitschii mixed with potash is to be taken for 3 days, morning and evening.

7.      LEUCORRHOEA (VAGINAL DISCHARGE)

(a)    Root of Glyphea brevis, root and leaves of Senna podocarpa, Senna alata, Allium ascalonicum and potash are put together into a container, and hot water poured on the mixture. The recipe is left till the next day. One glass cup to be taken every morning before breakfast for 3 days. The preparation is also suitable for seminal discharge in men.

(b)   Root of Croton zambesicus, 3 seeds of Garcinia cola, Acacia nilotica leaves, 3 seeds of Aframomum melegueta, leaves of Mimosa pudica and small quantity of potash are ground together, and taken with cold pap.

8.      FEVERS

A decoction of the root of Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Zingiber officinale, bark of Khaya grandifoliola, root and bark of Rauvolfia vomitoria, bark of Alstomia congensis, root and bark of Senna sceptabilis, root of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides, leaves of Ocimum basilicum andsp is taken for fever.

Fig 1. Summary of the medicinal plants that are traded in Lagos.

 
 

 


S/N

Local name

Botanical name

Family

Part used

Medicinal use(s)

1

Ori (Y)

Butryospermum paradoxum

Sapotaceae

Seeds

Nasal decongestion, catarrh, hypertension, diuretic, antihelmintic.

2

Ayu (Y)

Allium sativum

Liliaceae

Bulb

Fever, cough, asthma, antibiotic, diuretic, malaria, hypertension

3

Ata-wewe (Y)

Capsicum frutescens

Solanaceae

Fruits, seed

Fever, dysentery, malaria, carminative, stimulant

4

Yanrin (Y)

Lactuca capensis

Compositae

Leaves

Diuretic, constipation

5

Abamoda (Y)

Bryophyllum pinnatum

Crassulaceae

Leaves, roots, leaf sap

Cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, wounds, fever, sedative, diuretic, epilepsy, antifungal, antimicrobial, anticancer

6

Jinja, Atale (Y)

Zingiber officinale

Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

Cold, cough, asthma, stimulant, rheumatism, piles, hepatitis, liver

diseases, obesity, typhoid fever, malaria, digestive disorders

7

Esuru (Y)

Dioscorea dumetorum

Dioscoreaceae

Tuber, leaves

Colic, analgesic, skin diseases, psychic troubles, malaria, antibilharzial.

8

Awopa (Y)

Enantia chloranta

Annonaceae

Bark

Typhoid fever, malaria, jaundice, ulcer, rickettsia, haemostatic, infective hepatitis

9

Oganwo (Y)

Khaya grandifoliola

 

K. senegalensis

 

K. ivorensis

Meliaceae

Stem, root, bark

Treatment of convulsion, fever,threatened abortion, rheumatism and dermatomycosis.

Treatment of malaria and anaemia

Treatment of malaria, jaundice,anaemia, arthritis; antihelmintic

 

10

Akerejupon (Y)

Sphenocentrum jollyanum

Menispermaceae

Roots, fruits

Treatment of high blood pressure with leaves of Commiphora africana; cough, wounds, fever, jaundice, breast swelling related to menstrual cycle, malaria; aphrodisiac.

11

Ifan, Ifon (Y)

Olax subscorpioidea

Olacaceae

Roots, leaves, stem-bark, twigs

Yellow fever,jaundice, guinea worm, toothache, venereal diseases, mental disorders

12

Aidan, Aridan (Y)

Tetrapleura tetraptera

Leguminosae

Bark, pod

Convulsions, fever, cough, asthma,

insomnia, poison antidote, fractured bones, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, infertility, bilharzia.

 

 

13

Akika (Y)

Lecaniodiscus cupanioides

Sapindaceae

Leaves, roots, young shoots, seeds, stem-bark

Fever, burns, liver abscesses, jaundice, cough, malaria; purgative,aphrodidiac

14

Efirin-gogoro, Efirin-oko (Y)

Lippia multiflora

Verbenaceae

Whole plant

Malaria, hypertension, cough, jaundice, sleepimg sickness; antipyretic.

 

 

15

Botuje, Lapalapa (Y)

Jatropha curcas

Euphorbiaceae

Seed, leaves, stem, roots, sap.

Ringworm, eczema, scabies, fever, guineaworm, herpes, rectal eczema, black tongue, whitlow, impotence, irregular menses, convulsion small pox;

 

colic

16

Botuje pupa (Y)

Jatropha gossypifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Stem latex

Ringworm, ascariasis, antitumor, malaria, dysentery, dysmenrrhoea.

17

Ogege (Y)

Jatropha multifida

Euphorbiaceae

Sap

Coated tongue

18

Kooko-oba. (Y)

 

Cymbopogon citratus

Poaceae

Leaves, root

With Lippia to treat malaria; contains highly valued essential oil; malaria, cough,sprains, lumbago, diuretic diaphoretic.

19

Apepo, Agbelosun(Y)

Pterocarpus erinaceus

Leguminosae

Leaves, stem-bark

Insomnia, dermatomycosis, breast cancer fever, dysentery, diarrhoea

20

Osun (Y)

Pterocarpus osun

Leguminosae

Root, stem-bark

Asthma, dermatomycosis, candidiasis; antipyretic

21

Gbengbe(Y)

Pterocarpus santalinioides

Leguminosae

Bark

Skin diseases; antipyretic, astringent

22

Apabida pupa (Y)

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Leaves, whole plant

Diabetes, hypertension, dysentery, menorrhagia; antileukemic, antitumor.

23

Ibepe (Y)

Caricapapaya

Caricaceae

Leaves, fruits, seeds

With the bark of Mangifera indica to cure malaria; gonorrhoea, syphilis, amoebic dysentery, diabetes, mental disorder, convulsion; papain as meat tendirizer and as digester in breweries.

 

24

Dasa (Y)

Dioclea secandens

Leguminosae

 

Used to reduce high body temperature.

25

Agbarin, Epe, Arin (Y)

Dioclea reflexa

Leguminosae

Seed

Asthma, head lice, dandruff, stimulant

26

Laali, Lali (Y)

Lawsonia inermis

Lythraceae

Leaves, flower, bark

Spermatorrhoea, jaundice, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, ulcer, malaria, menorrhagia, astringent.

 

27

Epin (Y)

Ficus exasperata

Moraceae

Leaves, bark, root, seeds

Hypertension, scabies, stomach disorders, gonorrhoea, urinary ailments, jaundice; arbotifacient, antipyretic

28

Ipin (Y)

Ficus asperifolia

Moraceae

Leaves, root

Wounds,cough.

 

29

Opoto (Y)

Ficus capensis

Moraceae

Leaf, stem, fruit, root

Dysentery, oedema, leprosy,epilepsy, rickets, infertility, gonorrhoea, respiratory disorders; emollient,

 

astringent; increases lactation.

30

Asoro (Y)

Ficus elegans

Moraceae

Leaves

Diarrhoea, piles, stomachache, constipation, craw-craw

31

Odan-afomo

Ficus mucuso

Moraceae

Bark of stem

Insomnia

32

Odan-abaa(Y)

Ficus thoningii

Moraceae

Bark

Wounds, fever, dysentery

33

Ogunro (Y)

Ficus vallis-choudae

Moraceae

Leaves, stem, latex

Jaundice, gastro-intestinal disorders, skin diseases; antihelmintic, astringent.

 

 

34

Ewuro (Y)

Vernonia amygdalina

Asteraceae

Leaves, stem, root

Measles, stomachache, ringworm, toothache, gingivitis, pneumonia, malaria, diabetes.

35

Eyin-olobe

Phyllanthus amarus

Euphorbiaceae

Whole plant

Fever, ringworm, gonorrhoea, diabetes.

36

Werepe (Y)

Mucuna sloanei

Leguminosae

Seeds, root

Haemorrhoids, skin diseases; diuretic

37

Ewe-ina, Yerepe (Y)

Mucuna pruriens

Leguminosae

Hairs on the pod

Intestinal worms, genito-urinary problems

38

Ahun (Y)

Alstonia congensis

Apocynaceae

Bark

Malaria, toothache; astringent

39

Mangoro (Y)

Mangifera indica

Anacardiaceae

Leaves, stem-bark, root

Malaria, diarrhoea, diabetes, hypertension, haemorrage, insomnia, insanity, asthma, cough; astringent, antihelmintic, emmenagogue.

 

40

Egbesi (Y)

Nauclea latifolia

Rubiaceae

Inner bark, stem, sap, roots, fruits, root-bark

Cough, febrile condition, thrush, jaundice, pile, measles, sore, stomach disorders, menstrual disorders; emetic.

41

Poroporo okababa (Y)

Sorghum bicolor

Poaceae

Leaves, whole plant, grains

Malaria, fever, blood tonic

42

Aidantoro (Y)

Senna fistula

Leguminosae

Pods, leaves

Diabetes, liver disorders; purgative, astringent; with Madunmaro +H2O to cure pile.

43

Erun obo, Olu-obo(Y)

Erythophleum suaveolens

Leguminosae

Stem-bark, leaves

Chickenpox, gangrenous sores, snake bites, filarial worms, skin diseases, wounds, HBP; astringent.

44

Efirin (Y)

Ocimum gratissimum

Labiatae

Leaves, whole plant

Cough, diarrhoea, convulsion, fever,cold, bronchitis, diabetes, pile, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antihelmintic,insect repellant; colic.

45

Ugwu (I)

Telfaria occidentalis

Cucurbitaceae

Leaves

Convulsion, gastro-intestinal disorders, blood tonic, anaemia.

 

46

Orin ata (Y)

Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides

Rutaceae

Bark, root

Sickle cell anaemia, venereal diseases, cough, tuberculosis, cancers, urinary disorders, arthritis, gonorrhoea

47

Jiwini, Ewe larapupa (Y)

Acalypha wilkesiana

 

Euphorbiaceae

Leaves, twigs

Skin rashes, flatulence, antimicrobial, constipation.

48

Osepotu, Esoketu(Y)

Sida acuta

Malvaceae

Leaves, roots

Malaria, ulcer, intestinal worms, analgesic, astringent, antipyretic, boil.

49

Iso-obo (Y)

Sida cordifolia

Malvaceae

Leaves, root, seeds

Spermatorrhoea, uro-genital disorders,

 

gonorrhoea, piles, rheumatism, hay fever, asthma.

50

Eesinle (Y)

Sida pilosa

Malvaceae

Leaves

Diarrhoea, cuts, wounds

51

Iseketu pupa

Sida rhombifolia

Malvaceae

Leaves

Diarrhoea, wound; emollient

52

Ewe moi-moi (Y)

Thaumatococcus danielli

Marantaceae

Fruits

Diabetes; emetic

 

 

53

Dongoyaro(H)

Azadirachta indica

Meliaceae

Leaves, stem-bark, fruits

Malaria, jaundice, syphilis, eczema, ringworm, sorethroat, emethic, laxative.

54

Ahon-erin (Y)

Aloe vera

Liliaceae

Leaf juice

Purgative, guineaworm, skin diseases, wounds, diabetes, amenorrhoea, immunity.

55

Eti-erin, Ida-egun, Ida-orisa (Y)

Aloe barteri

Liliaceae

Leaves

Ringworm, amenorrhoea, cough, skin infection, pile; astringent, aphrodisiac, antihelmintic.

56

Orogbo (Y)

Garcinia cola

Guttiferae

Seeds, root, stem-bark, fruits

Dysentery, bronchitis, cough, fever, toothache, throat and respiratory ailments, liver disorders, headache, anticancer.

57

Imi-esu (Y)

Ageratum conyzoides

Asteraceae

Whole plant, leaves, roots.

Wounds, ulcer, craw-craw, digestive disturbance, diarrhoea, skin diseases, gonorrhoea, eye wash; emetic.

58

Ila (Y)

Abelmoschus esculentus

Malvaceae

Fruit, seeds

Fevers, gonorrhoea, dysentery, catarrhal infections; emollient, antispasmodic, tonic

59

Oju-ologbo (Y)

Abrus precatorius

Leguminosae

Root, leaves, seeds.

Cold, cough, convulsion, rheumatism, conjuctivitis, contraceptive, aphrodisiac, ulcer, anaemia

60

Furu (Y)

Abutilon mauritianum

Malvaceae

Leaves, root

Diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, cough, pile; antipyretic

61

Ihun, Ewon adele

Acacia ataxacantha

Mimosaceae

Young leaves

Dysentery, backache

62

Baani, Booni (Y)

Acacia nilotica

Mimosaceae

Fruits, bark, exudate

Skin diseases,fungal infections, insomnia; emollient.

63

Dagunro (Y)

Acanthospermum hispidum

Asteraceae

Leaves, whole plant

Yellow fever, tuberculosis, cough, rheumatism, migraine; purgative.

 

 

64

Ahon-ekun, Irunmu arugbo

Acanthus montanus

Acanthaceae

Stem-twig, leaves, roots.

Syphilis, cough, urethral discharge, boils, anaemia; purgative, emetic, antihelmintic.

65

Ose (Y)

Adansonia digitata

Bombacaceae

Leaves, fruit pulp, bark.

Malaria, asthma, diarrhoea, kidney and bladder diseases, caries, antimicrobial, prophylactic, skin diseases.

66

Efun-ile (Y)

Aerva lanata

Amaranthaceae

Whole plants

Ulcer, wounds, snake bite, kidney and bladder stones sore; diuretic, purgative, antihelmintic.

67

Atare (Y)

Aframomum melegueta

Zingiberaceae

Leaves, seeds

Stimulant, smallpox, chickenpox, wounds, cough, anaemia, rheumatism, measles, malaria, toothache.

68

Agbari etu (Y)

Alafia barteri

Apocynaceae

Roots, leaves

Sickle cell anaemia, rheumatic pains, toothache, eye infections.

 

 

 

69

Alubosa elewe (Y)

Allium ascalonicum

Liliaceae

Leaves, bulb

Convulsion, dysentery.

70

Ipa (Y)

Alchornea cordifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Leaves, stem-bark, twig.

Fever, rheumatism, antimicrobial, diuretic, purgative, toothache, cough, gonorrhoea.

71

Eko-omode (Y)

Caesalpinia pulcherima

Leguminosae

Bark, leaves, seeds

Purgative, emollient, abortifacient, emmenagogue.

72

Apa-igbo (Y)

Afzelia africana

Leguminosae

Root, leaves, stem bark, seeds

Gonorrhoea, stomach disorders, hernia, lumbago, febrifuge, antiemetic.

73

Reku-reku (Y)

Alternanthera sessilis

Amaranthaceae

Whole plant, leaves

Astringent, antibacterial, boil, headache, snake bite antidote.

 

74

Kasu (Y)

Anacardium occidentale

Anacardiaceae

Bark, leaf, fruit

Malaria, elephantiasis, leprosy, ringworms, scurvy, diabetes, warts, typhoid fever, caries; antihelmintic

75

Sapo, Shapo (Y)

Anthocleista djalonensis

 

Anthocleista liebrechtsiana

Leguminosae

Bark, leaves

Skin diseases- rashes and eczema, diabetes, impotence, abdominal pain; antipyretic, purgative

Skin infection; purgative, antimicrobial

 

 

76

Epa (Y)

Arachis hypogea

Leguminosae

Nuts

Antimicrobial, insomnia.

77

Oparun (Y)

Bambusa vulgaris

Poaceae

Leaves, young shoot

Gonorrhoea, abortifacient, antihelmintic, emmenagogue.

78

Osun, Irosun (Y)

Baphia nitida

Papilionaceae

Leaves, bark, root, twig.

Constipation, skin diseases, venereal diseases, ringworm, enema, flatulence, smallpox.

79

Eku, Eso roro (Y)

Allanblackia floribunda

Guttiferae

Root, leaves, stem-bark, fruit

Malaria, dysentery, toothache,

 

chickenpox, smallpox, measles.

80

Amuje wewe (Y)

Brysocarpus coccineus

Connaraceae

Root, leaves

Jaundice, pile, gonorrhoea, venereal

 

diseases, impotence, antitumor.

81

Ododo-Maria

Calendula officinalis

Asteraceae

Leaves, root

Ulcer, astringent

82

Bomubomu (Y)

Calotropis procera

Asclepiadaceae

Leaves, root, bark, latex

Diarrhoea, dysentery, elephantiasis, leprosy, chronic eczema, ringworm, cough, diaphoretic, emetic, asthma, abortifacient, convulsion, antipyretic.

83

Paapo, Origbo (Y)

Canarium schweinfurthii

Burseraceae

Bark.

Black tongue, round worm, gonorrhoea, stomach disorder.

84

Sese-nla (Y)

Canavalia ensiformis

Leguminosae

Seed

Antibiotic, antiseptic

 

85

Abo-oganwo (Y)

Carapa procera

Meliaceae

Bark, seed, leaves

Purgative, ringworms, boils; carminative, malaria.

86

Shaworo (Y)

Cardiospermum halicacabum

Sapindaceae

Leaves, root

Skin eruption, piles, rheumatism, emetic, syphilitic sores, amenorrhoea.

87

Ponju-owiwi (Y)

Celastrus indica

Celastraceae

Root, leaves, twigs

Asthma, malaria; antihelmintic, antimicrobial

88

Araba (Y)

Ceiba petandra

Bombacaceae

Flowers, leaves, bark exudates.

Diabetes, asthma, gonorrhoea, menorrhagia; emollient, emetic.

89

Ewe jokoje (Y)

Cissampelos owariensis

Menispermaceae

Root, whole plant

Lung diseases, skin diseases; emmenagogue, antipyretic, diuretic, blood tonic.

 

 

 

 

90

Akintola, Awolowo (Y)

Chromolaena odorata

Asteraceae

Leaves, stem, twigs

Antimicrobial, dysentery, headache, fever, malaria, toothache, haemostatic, skin diseases.

91

Awusa, Asala (Y)

Tetracarpidium conophorum

Euphorbiaceae

Leaves, fruit, bark.

Masticatory, giddiness, thrush, syphilis, dysentery, toothache, snake bite antidote.

92

Eriro-Ijebu (Y)

Vernonia colorata

Asteraceae

Root, leaves

Antipyretic, antihelmintic, astringent; skin diseases, gonorrhoea, anaemia, poison antidote.

93

Eeru, Erunje (Y)

Xylopia aethiopica

Annonaceae

Fruit, bark, leaves, seeds.

Stomach ache, cough, neuralgia, mental disorder, amenorrhoea, bronchitis;

 

 

purgative, carminative.

 

94

Igbalode, Muwagun (Y)

Tridax procumbens

Asteraceae

Whole plant

Antipyretic, haemostatic; backache, stomach ache

 

 

 

95

Ewe-epo (Y)

Waltheria indica

Sterculiaceae

Whole plant, root

Cough, fever, external haemorrhage,

dysentery, toothache, malaria, eye drop.

96

Oori-nla (Y)

Vitex doniana

Verbenaceae

Leaves, root, stem-bark.

Cough, stomach ache, ringworm, fever, inflammatory swelling of joints, rheumatism, bad breath, diarrhoea, catarrh.

97

Eruju (Y)

Uvaria chamae

Annonaceae

Root, leaves

Jaundice, yellow fever, sores; febrifuge, purgative.

98

Afomo (Y)

Viscum album

Loranthaceae

Whole plant

All purpose herb for cancer, anaemia, HBP, diabetes, stroke, hysteria, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea; emetic.

99

Gbongbose,

 

Anikan wogba-arun (Y)

Uvaria afzelii

Annonaceae

Bark, leaves

Infections of liver, kidney and bladder;

 

fever, cough, skin diseases; purgative.

100

Ilasa-agborin, Ilasa-omode (Y)

Urena lobata

Malvaceae

Whole plant leaves

Dysentery; emollient, expectorant

 

101

Alupayida (Y)

Uraria picta

Leguminosae

Leaves

Snake bite antidote, repositioning foetus intra-uterine; aphrodisiac.

102

Ako-dodo (Y)

Voacanga africana

Apocynaceae

Latex, stem, root bark.

Fever, toothache, cardiac tonic, sores, carious tooth, hypertension, improves mental alertness.

 

103

Egun arugbo, Ekan-ekun (Y)

Argemone mexicana

Papaveraceae

Whole plant, latex, seed, roots.

Jaundice, gonorrhoea, skin diseases, diuretic, blennorrhoea, abscesses; taeniacide

 

 

 

 

104

Berefurutu

Artocarpus altilis

Moraceae

Root, fruit.

Fever, astringent, sedative

 

105

Etiponla, Olowojeja (Y)

Boerhaavia diffusa

Nyctaginaceae

Whole herb.

Skin diseases, smallpox, jaundice, gonorrhoea, asthma, cough, yaws, scabies; diuretic, antipyretic.

106

Irawo ile (Y)

Borreria verticiliata

Rubiaceae

Leaves, root, whole plant.

Gonorrhoea, skin diseases, dysentery; antibilharzia, antileprosy, abortifacient, diuretic.

107

Osunsun (Y)

Carpolobia lutea

Polygalaceae

Leaves, bark.

Rheumatism toothache; aphrodisiac.

 

108

Egusi-baara (Y)

 

Citrullus colocynthis

Cucurbitaceae

Seeds, whole

plant, root, fruit

Antimicrobial, purgative, antihelmintic,

contraceptive; head lice bladder stone

109

Osan (Y)

Citrus aurantium

Rutaceae

Oil, root, juice

Cough, sore throat, stomach ache, malaria, typhoid fever; carminative, antihelmintic.

110

Yunyun (Y)

Aspilia africana

Asteraceae

Leaves, flowers

Haemostatic, cleaning sores, corneal opacities, stomach disorders, tuberculosis, nervous disorders, guinea worm, gonorrhoea, skin rashes.

KEY: Y = Yoruba language, H = Hausa, I = Igbo. Source: Local markets in Lagos state, TMPs and traditional medicine users in Lagos.

 

 

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

It is apparent that the use of herbal medicine in Lagos State is on the increase. The ubiquitous presence of herb and herbal products marketing both in the conventional and unconventional way of selling drugs as well as the sexes and number of people that are involved in the trade is a confirmation of this assertion. Not only this, year of expertise, standard of living and material achievements pointed to the fact that the trade is lucrative in Lagos. Moreover, patronage and usage of traditional medicine cut across the social strata of Lagosians. Daily health issues of Lagos state dwellers are taken care of by traditional medicine. It is well used in Lagos as an alternative method of health care delivery. It is opted for as a result of its cost effectiveness, easy access and potency.Recipes for the treatment of common ailments which are reported almost on daily basis in Lagos included hypertension, dysentery, low sperm count and weak erection, coated tongue, pile, menstrual disorder, leucorrhoea and fevers; these recipes reported in the study are reproducible. The TMPs remain in the business because of cheap source of raw materials, ease of preparation, overwhelming patronage, government recognition of their practices, drug effectiveness report from users and due to the fact that it is the practitioners� main source of livelihood. However, a more serious government intervention is required to uplift the quality status of the traditional medicine practice in the country. The frantic efforts of Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency and Lagos State Traditional Medicine Board should be praised in ensuring safe delivery of medicinal preparation in the country.It was extremely difficult to obtain information from the practitioners; to combat this, the patent rights of TMPs and herb sellers should be protected by government. Conservation of these plants is paramount in order to avoid extinction through education, establishment of medicinal plant farms, sustainable harvestingapproaches and setting aside of thick forest in the local communities as special forest.

 

REFERENCES

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Borris, R.P., (1996). Natural Product Research: Perspectives from a major pharmaceutical company. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 51: 29-38.

 

Gbile, Z.O., (1984). Vernacular names of Nigerian Plants (Yoruba). Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. 101pp.

 

Hoareau, L. and DaSilva, E.J. (1999). Medicinal Plants: a re-emerging health aid. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2: 56-70.

 

Moerman, D.E., (1996). An Analysis of the Food Plants and Drug Plants of Native North America. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 52: 1-22.

 

NNMDA (2008). The Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency(Federal Ministry

���������������� of Science and Technology). Profile. pp.40.

 

Odugbemi, T. (ed.) (2006). Outlines and Pictures of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria. pp.1 - 85.

 

Simpson, B.B., and Ogorzaly, M.C. (1986). Economic Botany: Plants in our World.

���������������� McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York. 640pp.

 

Sofowora, A., (1982). �African Medicinal Plants�, Proceedings of Conference. University of Ife, Nigeria. pp 70-73.

 

Sofowora, A., (1984). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.pp.1 � 20.

 

World Health Organization. (2005). National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines. Report of a WHO global survey.