Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 763-71. 2008.

 

 

Folk Lore Uses of Some Plants by the Tribes of Madhya Pradesh with Special Reference to Their Conservation

 

Dwivedi S.1, Dwivedi, A. 2*, and Dwivedi S.N. 3

 

1Chordia Institute of Pharmacy, Indore, M.P., India

2NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhopal, M.P., India

3Principal Investigator, UGC Research Project on Medicinal Plants, Dept. of Botany, Janata PG College, APS University, Rewa, M.P., India

*Corresponging Author: Abhishek Dwivedi, 56,Bhel Nagar, Bhopal, M.P

Mob.No 09893478497, E.mail-mainhunabhi@yahoo.co.in

 

Issued 01 October 2008

 

 

ABSTRACT

����������� Madhya Pradesh sustains a very rich traditional medicinal plant wealth and inherits unique plant and animal communities. Due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity and indiscriminate exploitation of wild and natural resources, many valuable herbs like Abrus precatorious, Bauhinia variegta, Mucuna prurita, etc., are at the verge of extinction. The present paper enumerates status, conservation strategies and traditional uses of 80 plant species by the tribes of Madhya Pradesh. The claims were gathered by interviewing tribes of the study area. Attempts were made to verify the efficacy of claims with actual beneficiaries, although this was not possible in all cases due to social customs.

 

Key Words: Folk uses, Tribes, Madhya Pradesh, Ailments.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

����������� The tribes of India have preserved a large bulk of traditional knowledge of medicinal uses of plants growing around them. This knowledge is handed down to generations through word of mouth and is extensively used for the treatment of common diseases and conditions. Herbs are mines of useful drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the principle sources of medicine in India. Since ancient past and presently they are becoming popular. There has been a rapid extension of allopathic system of medical treatment in our country during the past century (Dwivedi et. al. 2007). However, these drugs have adverse effect and people are going back to nature with hope of safety ad security. On the other hand, herbs are safe, cheaper, easily available and with no fear of any side effects. It is evident that many valuable herbal drugs have been discovered by knowing that particular plant was used by the ancient folk healers for the treatment of some kind of ailment (Ekka & Dixit, 2007). Moreover, the medicinal plant wealth is our national heritage and it seems to be the first and foremost line of defense for the treatment of various diseases mostly in tribal and rural communities. During the field survey it has been found by the authors that there are number of plants which are used by the tribes of the region in curing various ailments and till date no any proper work has been performed by the research scholars of the area with proper citation and hence the present work was conceived by us to explore the hidden uses of the species and to conserve the species which are fast disappearing from the region. Efforts have also been made for the collection of the herbs that are fast disappearing form the study sites and to suggest the techniques of the conservation and protection of these herbs.

 

OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK

1.                  To collect scattered scientific information and identify the herbs used by the tribes of Madhya Pradesh.

2.                  To provide status and conservation strategies of the plant in order to conserve the plants which are endangered, vanishing or in the verge of extinction.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

����������� The following methods were adopted by the authors during the course of their investigation:

1.                  The plants used by the tribes in the treatment of various diseases were collected by the investigator from the different study sites of Madhya Pradesh district during Jan-2007 to Oct-2007.

2.                  Field and survey work was made after carefully planned field trips. During the field trip personal interview was made between the author and tribes of the region.

3.                  Data regarding herbal remedies were collected as per plan suggested by Dwivedi (2003), Sinha (1998), Varghese (1996) and Shrivastava et. al. (2007).

4.                  Voucher specimen were collected from different study sites and preserved as per method suggested by Agrawal (1983).

5.                  The plants were identified by Prof. Dr. S. N. Dwivedi, Deptt. Of Botany, Janata PG College, A.P.S. University, Rewa, M.P. and are deposited in Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Chordia Institute of Pharmacy, Indore, M.P.

6.                  Confirmation of the specimen were made with the help of floristic literature, Verma et. al. (1985), Kurian (2003) and Khare (2004).

7.                  Data regarding collection of the species which are fast disappearing from the study sites are designed as per plan suggested by Dwivedi (2006), Dwivedi (1999), Dwivedi et. al. (2007), Phillips et. al (1994) and Mc. Neel et. al. (1990).

 

STUDY AREA

����������� The present investigation has been carried out in the 30 remote places of Madhya Pradesh scattered over three regions Malwa region, Nimar region and Vindhya region. For a proper and orderly study the study sites were selected considering the population and density of flora.

 

OBSERVATIONS

Status

����������� During the course of present work authors tried to have some idea of endangered, vulnerable, threatened and rare medicinal plants. The status of the medicinal plant of the study area has been established (Mc. Neel et al. 1990, Phillips et. al. 1994; Dwivedi, S. et. al. 2007) and given in table-2.

Conservation Strategies

����������� Conservation strategies of biodiversity with special reference to threatened herbs have been adopted as mentioned by the tribes of the study area. The works of eminent scholars (Dwivedi 2003; Dwivedi S. et. al 2007; Ved et. al. 2004; Mc. Neel et al. 1990 and Phillips et. al. 1994) have been referred for this purpose. The conservation strategies of these plants are mentioned in table-2.

Traditional Uses

����������� Direct discussion between the authors and tribes were made and the uses of the plants were recorded, mentioned in table-1.

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

����������� In every ethnic group there exists a traditional health care system, which is culturally patterned. In rural communities health care seems to be the first and foremost line of defense. The WHO has already recognized the contribution of traditional health care in tribal communities. In the present work authors have collected 80 plant species from different study sites. These species contain valuable chemical substances and are useful to cure various human ailments. (Table 1). During the course of present investigation attempt was made to flourish the status and conservation strategies of the plant species (Table-2) and among 80 plant species it has been found that 06 species are endangered, 08 species are critically endangered, 08 species are vulnerable, and rest are rare and common in occurrence in the study area and the method are mentioned by the ethnic group to conserve these plant species. Moreover, the detailed phytochemical screenings of medicinal herbs are required. It is very essential to have a proper documentation of medicinal plants and to know their potential for the improvement of health and hygiene through an eco friendly system. Thus importance should be given to the potentiality of ethno medicinal studies as these can provide a very effective strategy for the discovery of useful medicinally active identity. A detailed and systematic study is required for identification, cataloguing and documentation of plants, which may provide a meaningful way for the promotion of the traditional knowledge of the herbal medicinal plants. The present study reveals that the Madhya Pradesh is rich in herbal medicine with diversified ethnobotanical values. From the table presented, it can be seen that there is a wide variety of plants for common ailments and diseases. However, different types of strategies are require to adopted such as in-situ conservation, ex-situ conservation and traditional conservation to conserve the plants which are vulnerable and endangered.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

����������� The authors are thankful to the tribes of Madhya Pradesh for the valuable information required for this survey. Heartily Thanks to Dr. S.N. Dwivedi, Principal Investigator, UGC Research Project, Department of Botany, APS, University for their valuable guidance and support for the identification of medicinal plant.

 

REFERENCES

 

  1. Agrawal, V. S. �Perspective in Botanical museum with special reference of India�, Today and tomorrow, New Delhi, (1983).
  2. 2.Ekka, R Neeli and Dixit, V. K. �Ethno-pharmacognostical studies of medicinal plants of Jashpur district, Chattisgarh�, Int. Jour. Of Green Phar. (2007), 1(1): 2-4.
  3. Dwivedi, S.N. �Traditional health care among the tribals of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh with special reference to conservation of endangered and vulnerable species�, Econ. Taxon. Bot. (1999), 23(2): 315-320.
  4. Dwivedi, S.N. �Ethonobotanical studies and conservation strategies of wild and natural resourses of Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh�, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. (2003), 27(1): 233-244.
  5. Dwivedi, S. N., Dwivedi, Sangeeta & Patel, P. C. �Medicinal Plants used by the tribals and rural people of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh for the treatment of gastrointestinal disease and disorders�, Nat. Pro. Rad. (2006), 5(1): 60-63.
  6. Dwivedi, S.N.; Shrivastava, Satyaendra; Dwivedi, Sangeeta; Dwivedi, Abhishek; Dwivedi, Sumeet and Kaul, Shefali �Relevance of medicinal herbs used in traditional system of medicine�,Farmavita. Net, (2007).
  7. Dwivedi, Sumeet; Shrivastava, Satyaendra; Dubey, Darshan; Kapoor, Shweta & Jain, Sanjay �Status and conservation strategies of herbal oral contraceptives�, Planta Indica, (2007)3(1): 5-7.
  8. Dwivedi, Sumeet; Kaul, Shefali; Pandey, Deepak; Shrivastava, Satyaendra & Dwivedi, S.N. �Satus and conservation strategies of endangered and vulnerable medicinal plants�, Planta Indica, (2007), 3(2): 13-15.
  9. Kurion, J.C. �Plants that heals�, 5th ed. Pune, Oriental watchman publishing house, (2003).
  10. Khare, C.P. �Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants�, Springes-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, (2004).
  11. Mc. Neel, J.A., Miller, K.R., Reio, W.V., Mittermein, R.A. and Werner, T.B. �Conserving the World biological diversity�. Global Biodiversity, IUCN, Switzerland, (1990).
  12. Phillips, O., Gentry, A.H., Reynal, L., Wilkin, P. and Gulvez- Durand, C.B. �Quantitative Ethnobotany & Amazonian Conservation�, Conser. Biol. (1994), 8:225-248.
  13. Shrivastava, Satyaendra; Dwivedi, Sumeet; Dubey, Darshan & Kapoor, Shweta �Traditional herbal remedies from Madhya Pradesh used as oral contraceptives- A field survey�, Int. Jour. of Green Phar. (2007),1(1): 18-22.
  14. Sinha, R. K. �Tools of investigation. In Ethnobotany: The Renaissaance of Traditional Herbal Medicine�, INA Shree publication, Jaipur, (1998), 194-202.
  15. Varghese E. SVD �Applied Ethnobotany- A case study among the Kharias of Central India�, Deep Publications, New Delhi, (1996).
  16. Ved, G.A., Kinhal, K., Ravikumar, Mohan Karnat, Vijaya Sankar, and Indresha, J.H. �Threat Assessment and Management prioritization for Medicinal Plants of Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh�, FRLNI, Bangalore, India, (2004).

 

Table 1. List of medicinal plant species.

 

S/N.

Botanical Names

Local Name

Family

Parts Used

Uses

1.

Abrus precatorius L.

Ghughuchi

Fabaceae

Root, Seed, Leaves

Contraceptives, purgative, emetic

2.

Achyranthesaspera L.

Chirchiri

Amaranthaceae

Root, Seed, Leaves

Diuretic, time of bleeding in delivery

3.

Acorus calamus L.

Bach

Araceae

Rhizomes

Stimulant, stomachache, emetic

4.

Adhatoda vasica Nees.

Adusa

Acanthaceae

Leaf, root, bark, flower

Expectorant

5.

Aegle marmelos L.

Bel

Rutaceae

Fruits

Diuretic, laxative, antipyretic

6.

Aloe vera L.

Gheekumar

Liliaceae

Leaf pulp, dried juice of leaves

Enhancement of sexual vitality, stomachic-tonic

7.

Andrographis paniculata L.

Kalmegh

Acanthaceae

Whole herb

Antipyretic, anthelmintic.

8.

Argemone mexicana L.

Ghamoya

Papaveraceae

Seeds, roots

Boils, diuretic, expectorant.

9.

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Satavar

Liliaceae

Roots, leaves

Galactogogue, aphrodisiac.

10.

Azadirachta indica Juss.

Neem

Meliaceae

Whole plant

Vermifuge, antiseptic

11.

Bauhinia variegata L.

Kachnar

Caesalpiniaceae

Roots, leaves, bark, seeds

Astringent, carminative, oral boils.

12.

Boerhaavia diffusa L.

Punarnava

Nyctaginaceae

Herb, roots

Diaphoretic, diuretic, jaundice

13.

Bombax ceiba L.

Semal

Bombacaceae

Bark

Haematuria

 

14.

Bacopa monnieri

Brahmi

Scrophulariaceae

Whole plant

Nervine tonic

15.

Butea monosperma Kuntze.

Palash

Falaceae

Seeds

Oral contraceptive

16.

Calotropis procera L.

Safed madar

Asclepiadaceae

Roots, leaves,

Detergent, snake bites

17.

Carica papaya L.

Papita

Caricaceae

Seed powder

Oral contraceptive, digestant, rubifacient.

18.

Cassia fistula L.

Amaltas

Caeselpiniaceae

Pulp, root bark, flowers

Purgative, febrifuge

19.

Catharanthus roseus L.

Sadabahar

Apocynaceae

Roots, leaves

Anticancer, antidiabetic

20.

Centella asiatica L.

Jal brahmi

Apiaceae

Whole plant

Brain tonic

21.

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Harjor

Vitaceae

Rhizomes, leaves, roots

Antiosteoporotic, antiasthamatic.

22.

Curcuma longa L.

Haldi

Zingiberaceae

Rhizomes

Anthelmintic, carminative

23.

Calonyction muricatum G.Don

Kotlaiya

Convolvulaceae

Pedicel

Appetizer

24.

Corisea spinarum L.

Karonda

Apocynaceae

Fruits

scurvy

25.

Caeselpinia crista L.

Gatayar

Caeselpiniaceae

Roots

Fever

26.

Convolvulus pleuricaulis L.

Shankhpushpi

Convolvulaceae

Flowers

Brain tonic

27.

Datura stramonium L.

Dhatura

Solanaceae

Leaf or whole plant

Anti inflammatory, antispasmodic

28.

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Ratalu

Dioscoriaceae

Tubers

Antidysentery, antisyphilis.

29.

Dendrocalamus strictus Nees.

Bans

Poaceae

Leaves

Astringent tonic

30.

Eclipta alba Hassk.

Ghamira

Asteraceae

Whole plant

Liver tonic, antiseptic

 

31.

Emblica officinalis Gaert

Amla

Euphorbiaceae

Fruits

Stomach disorders

 

32.

Euphorbia hirta L.

Dhudhi

Euphorbiaceae

Plant juice

Infantyl diarrhoea

33.

Euphorbia nivulea Buch.Ham.

Sehuda

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf juice

Ear ache

34.

Ficus bengalensis L.

Bargad

Moraceae

Prop roots

Abortion

35.

Ficus glomerata Roxb

Umer

Moraceae

Bark decoction

Male contraceptive

36.

Ficus religiosa L.

Peepal

Moraceae

Bark decoction

Leucorrhoea

37.

Gloriosa superba L.

Kalichari

Liliaceae

Root stalk paste

Mumps, diphtheria.

38.

Helicteres isora L.

Marosfali

Sterculiaceae

Fruits

Colic, flatulence

39.

Ipomoea fistulosa Mart

Beshram

Convolvulaceae

Leaf paste

Sprains

40.

Jatropha curcas L.

Ban rendi

Euphorbiaceae

Seed oil

Purgative

41.

Jasminum auriculatum L.

Chameli

Oleaceae

Leaves

Oral ulcers

43.

Lawsonia inermis L.

Mehndi

Lythraceae

Leaves

Boils, burns

44.

Leucas cephalotes Roxb.

Gumma

Lamiaceae

Leaves

Cough

45.

Lathyrus aphaca L.

Jangali matar

Fabaceae

Seeds

Famine food

46.

Madhuca indica GmeL.

Mahua

Sapotaceae

Fruit pulp

Snake bite

47.

Mentha longifolia L.

Pudina

Lamiaceae

Leaves

Abdominal disorders

48.

Momordica dioica L.

Parora

Cucurbitaceae

Unripe fruits

Nutritive supplement

49.

Mucuna puriens L.

Kemanch

Fabaceae

Seeds

Oral contraceptives

50.

Morus alba L.

Shehtut

Moraceae

Bark

Purgative

51.

Mimosa pudica L.

Lajwanti

Mimosaceae

Roots, leaves

Carminative, aphrodisiac

52.

Martynia annua L.

Bichhu

Martyniaceae

Plant paste

Local sedative

53.

Ocimum sanctum

Tulsi

Lamiaceae

Leaves

Cough, fever

54.

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Gajarghas

Asteraceae

Whole plant

Allergies

55.

Peristrophe bicalyculata

Chotiharjori

Acanthaceae

Whole plant

Snake bite

 

56.

Phyllanthus fraternus Webster.

Bhuamla

Euphorbiaceae

Roots

Jaundice

57.

Portulaca olerasea L.

Kulta

Portulacaceae

Seeds

Diuretic

58.

Piper longum Linn

Pepper

Piperaceae

Fruits

Stomachic

59.

Rauwolfia serpentina .

Sarpagandha

Apocynaceae

Roots, tubers

Antihypertensive

60.

Ricinus communis L.

Castor

Euphorbiaceae

Seeds

Oral contraceptive

61.

Sida acuta Burm F.

Kamraj

Malvaceae

Seeds

Sexual vitality

62.

Solanum surattense Burm F.

Kateli

Solanaceae

Anthers

Upper respiratory tract infections

63.

Solanum nigrum L.

Makoya

Solanaceae

Leaf

Poultice used in Scrotum swelling

64.

Strychnus nuxvomica L.

Kuchila

Loganiaceae

Seeds

Sedative

65.

Saraco indica L.

Ashoka

Caeslpiniaceae

Bark

Brain tonic

66.

Syzygium cumini L.

Jamun

Myrtaceae

Seed powder

Diabetea

67.

Tamarindus indica L.

Imali

Caesalpimiaceae

Ripe fruit pulp

Laxative

68.

Terminalia arjuna W. & A

Kahara

Combretaceae

Bark

Cardiac problems

69.

Tinospora cordifolia Willd.

Giloya

Menispermaceae

Stem

Sexual impotency

70.

Thevetia pevuriana Mier.

Kaner

Apocynaceae

Seeds

Abortifacient

71.

Tephrosia purpurea L.

Silpoka

Fabaceae

Roots, leaves

Cough, asthma

72.

Tridax procumbens L.

Ghawa patti

Asteraceae

Leaf

Bleeding piles

73.

Vanda roxburghii RBr.

Jarakindu

Orchidaceae

Leaf juice

Earache

74.

Vetiveria zizanioides Nash.

Khasghars

Poaceae

Root

Head ache

75.

Vicia sativa L.

Akari

Fabaceae

Seeds

Antiseptic

76.

Vitex negundo L.

Nirgundi

Verbenaceae

Leaf

Rheumatism

77.

Vanda tessellata L.

Hajodi

Orchidaceae

Rhizomes

Bone fractures

78.

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Aswagandha

Solanaceae

Roots

Sexual impotency

79.

Xanthium strumarium L.

Chota gokhru

Asteraceae

Leaves

Diuretic, diaphoretic

80.

Zizyphus nummularia Lamk.

Jhar bal

Rhamnaceae

Fruits

Bilious infections

 

 

Table 2. Status and conservation strategies of vulnerable and endangered plant species.

 

SN.

Botanical Name

Local Name

Status

Conservation Strategies

1.

Abrus precatorius L.

Ghughuchi

EN

TC-OA

2.

Achyranthesaspera L.

Chirchiri

VU

TC-OA

3.

Acorus calamus L.

Bach

CR

TC-OA

4.

Andrographis paniculata L.

Kalmegh

EN

ESC-HG

5.

Bauhinia variegata L.

Kachnar

EN

TC-OA

6.

Boerhaavia diffusa L.

Punarnava

VU

ISC

7.

Bombax ceiba L.

Semal

VU

ISC

8.

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Harjor

CR

ESC-HG

9.

Calonyction muricatum G.Don

Kotlaiya

EN

ESC-N

10.

Ficus glomerata Roxb

Umer

CR

TC-FTRA

11.

Gloriosa superba L.

Kalichari

EN

ESC-CAP

12.

Leucas cephalotes Roxb.

Gumma

VU

ISC

13.

Momordica dioica L.

Parora

VU

ESC-N

14.

Mucuna puriens L.

Kemanch

VU

TC-OA

15.

Martynia annua L .

Bichhu

CR

TC-FTRA

16.

Strychnus nuxvomica L.

Kuchila

EN

ESC-CAP

17.

Tinospora cordifolia Willd.

Giloya

CR

ESC-N

18.

Tridax procumbens L.

Ghawa patti

CR

ISC

19.

Vetiveria zizanioides Nash.

Khasghars

CR

ESC-CAP

20.

Vanda tessellata L.

Hajodi

CR

ISC

21.

Xanthium strumarium L.

Chota gokhru

VU

ESC-CAP

22.

Zizyphus nummularia Lamk.

Jhar bal

VU

ESC-CAP

 

Abbrevations

VU-Vulnerable, EN-Endangered, CR-Critical Endangered,

1. ISC: In-Situ Conservation

2. ESC-Ex-Situ Conservation

ESC-HG: ESC-Home gardens, ESC-N:ESC-Nurseries.

ESC-CAP:ESC-Cultivation and Agriculture Production.

3. TC: Traditional Conservation.

TC-FTRA: TC- Faith, Tradition and Religious aspects. TC-OA: TC-other aspects.