Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 475-79 , 2009.

 

 

 

Traditional  Phytotherapy used in the Treatment of Malaria by Rural People of Bhopal, District of Madhya Pradesh, India

 

Dwivedi A.1*, Patel R. 2, Jhade D., 3 Sachan R. 4and Argal A. 5

 

1, NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhopal, M.P.-India

2, Nanda College of Pharmacy, Erode, T.N.-India

3, Dept. of Pharmacy, Chauksey Engineering College, Bilaspur, C.G.-India

4, Dept. of Pharmaceutics, VNS College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, M.P.-India

5, Principal, Rajiv Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, M.P.-India

                      * Corresponding Author E.mail: abhiherbal@gmail.com

 

Issued 01 April 2009

 

Abstract

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and transmitted through female Anopheles mosquito. The disease is common in rural areas. Although a number of synthetic medicines have been used for the treatment of malaria, but they have adverse effects and their high cost is beyond the reach of common people. It is, therefore, worthwhile to look towards antimalarial herbal drugs. Herbal drugs are cheaper, easily available and with no fear of any side effects. The present paper enumerates the herbs used in malaria by the rural people of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, India.

 

Keywords: Malarial, herbs, Bhopal, rural people.

 

Introduction

       Malaria is one of the major health problems. WHO estimates there are 300- 500 millions cases globally and 1.5- 2.7 millions death occur due to malaria each year, 90% of which are in Africa. In India the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) was started in 1950, achieving near complete disappearance of the disease in 1960s (from 75 millions in 1950 to 0.1 million in 1960).1 However, due to development of insecticide resistance mosquitoes and other factors, it stages a comeback in the mid 1970s (96.47 millions in 1976) and continues to prevail in endemic/ sub endemic proportions in different areas, conceding that eradication of malaria is not possible. NMEP has been renamed National Antimalarial Programme (NAMP).  In 2001 NAMP has reported 72 millions malaria cases, out of which 48% were due to P. falciparum. WHO estimates that actual number of malaria cases in India is 6 times more, i.e. 12-15 millions.  The present work was conceived by us to explore the medicinal plants of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, India in the treatment of malaria by the rural villagers of the study site.

 

Methodology

       Following methods were adopted by the author during the course of present investigation.

1. The plants used by the rural people in the treatment of malaria were collected by the investigator from the different study sites during Jan-2008 to Sep-2008.

2. Field and survey work was made after carefully planned field trips. During the field trip personal interview was made between the author and informants. 2,3

4. Voucher specimen were collected from different study sites and preserved. 4

5. The plants were identified by Prof. Dr. S. N. DWIVEDI, Dept. of Botany, Janata PG College, A.P.S. University, Rewa, M.P. and are deposited in our institute.

6. Confirmation of the specimen was made with the help of floristic literature. 5,6,7

 

Study Area

       During the course of present investigation, the following study sites of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh were selected (Henotia, Hataikheda, Bhandbada, Badwai, Jhagonia, Kokta, Semra, Bagroda, Jamina and Chana). These study sites were selected depending upon the density of flora and population in order to make the effective discussion with the informants for revealing the information regarding the  usage of herbs in the treatment of malaria.

 

Observations

S/N.

Botanical Name

Local Name

Family

Preparation

 

1.

Andrographis paniculata (Brum. f.) Wall. ex Nees.

Kalmegh

Acanthaceae

Decoction of whole plant (10ml BD X 5days)

2.

Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Penn.)

 

Brahmi

Scrophulariaceae

Juice of whole plant (5TSF TDS X 5days)

3.

Caesalpinia boducella Fleming.

 

Gatayan

Caesalpiniaceae

Roasted and powdered seeds with sugar (2gm : 10gm BD X 3days)

4.

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffery.

Shivalingi

Cucurbitaceae

 

Ripe or unripe fruits fried with purified butter

5.

Eclipta prostata Roxb.

Bhringraj

Asteraceae

Juice of whole plant (5ml TDS X 5days)

6.

Fumaria indica (Haussk.) Pugsely

Pitpapar

Fumariaceae

Extract of leaves and shoot (5ml TDS X 5days)

7.

Leucas  aspera (Willd.) Linn.

Gumma

Lamiaceae

Decoction of whole plant with equal amount of leaves of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) as a dose of 10ml TDS X 5days

8.

Mimosa pudica Linn.

Lajawanti

Mimosaceae

Powder of shade-dried plant (10gm BD X 5days)

9.

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.

Harsingar

Oleaceae

Expressed juice of leaves (10ml BD X 5days)

10.

Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Tulsi

Lamiaceae)

Extract of fresh leaves

11.

Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

Chitrak

Plumbaginaceae

Extract of leaves and stem (2TSF BD X 5days

12.

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.

Giloya

Menispermaceae

Fine powder of dried stem   prescribed (10gm BD X 5days)

13.

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Adarakh

Zingiberaceae

Extract of fresh rhizome (2TSF TDS X 5days) with honey

Abbr. OD= Once daily, BD= Twice daily, TDS=Thrice daily, TSF=Teaspoonful

 

Conclusion

      Modern allopathic medicines used for the treatment of malaria have grave side effects and seldom damage the vital organs viz. spleen, liver, kidney etc. Obviously, the complete eradication of parasites from the human body is not possible by these drugs. The herbal treatment for malaria is cheaper with no fear of any side effects. Moreover, herbal drugs are more compatible to human body constitution and suits to the local and cultural need of people. The indigenous method of preparation maintains the purity of the drug. The essence of substance is never destroyed and is always present in balance amount, as nature might have prescribed it.  It has been also observed that the herbs employed in malarial fever are bitter tonic, antipyretic, febrifuge and stimulate liver and spleen. However, more detailed clinical studies are required for the plants showing antimalarial actions, so the malaria can be treated effectively by use of plant based formulations and offered by the other people of our society. Therefore, the present work focuses the usage of herbs in curing the malaria fever.

 

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful the rural people of Bhopal district for the lucid comment and discussion pertaining to the subject. Also, thankful to Dr. S. N. Dwivedi for the identification of plants.

 

References

  1. Dwivedi, S.N.; Shrivastava, Satyaendra; Dwivedi, Sangeeta; Dwivedi, Abhishek; Dwivedi, Sumeet and Kaul, Shefali (2007). Relevance of medicinal herbs used in                                   traditional system of medicine. Farmavita. Net
  2. Dwivedi S.; Dwivedi A. and Dwivedi S.N. (2008). Folklore uses of some plants by the tribes of Madhya Pradesh with special reference to their conservation. Ethnobotanical leaflets, 12, 763-771.
  3. Varghese E. SVD (1996). Applied Ethnobotany- A case study among the Kharias of Central India. Deep Publications, New Delhi.
  4. Sinha, R. K. (1998). Tools of investigation. In Ethnobotany: The Renaissaance of Traditional Herbal Medicine. INA Shree publication, Jaipur, 194-202.
  5. Sinha, R. K. (1998). Tools of investigation. In Ethnobotany: The Renaissaance of Traditional Herbal Medicine. INA Shree publication, Jaipur, 194-202.
  6. Kurion, J.C. (2003). Plants that heals, 5yh ed. Pune, Oriental watchman publishing house.

7.      Khare, C.P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, Springes-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York.