Ethnobotanical Resources of Manikhel Forests, Orakzai Tirah, Pakistan

By

Habib Ahmad1, Samiullah Khan2, Ahmad Khan2 and Muhammad Hamayun3

1Associate Technical Coordinator, Ethnobotany Project, WWF-Pakistan, Peshawar

2Research Officers, WWF-Pakistan, Peshawar

3Lecturer in Botany, Govt. Degree College, Swabi, Pakistan

Address for correspondence:

Ethnobotany Project, WWF-Pakistan

34 D/2 Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Road, University Town, Peshawar

E.mail, M. Hamayun: smh_khan@hotmail.com

 

���

Abstract

Manikhel forests, the far southern extension of Hindu Kush Mountain ranges, exhibit rich floral diversity in its nearly 175 Km2 area. It comprises sub-tropical semi deciduous thorny forests in the southern low lying Mediterranean type of climate and evergreen Oak-Yew forests in the northern faces of the Himalayan type of climate. A wide variety of plants are present in the area but this paper includes only those species whose common use is either known locally or they are in daily use for various purposes. The present investigations comprise 172 plant species belonging to 80 families. Bulk of these plants exhibit multiple uses. The local population is entirely rural and poor. They are primarily dependent on the forest resources for their necessities.

Key words: Manikhel forest; Plant resources; Folk uses

 

Introduction

Manikhel forests can be traced in the tribal belt between latitude 33� 41' and 33� 43' North and longitude 70� 05' and 71� 10' East, near Pak-Afghan border. It forms an integral part of the tribal economy residing inside and all around it. The basic needs like energy in the form of food, feed, fuel wood, torchwood, water for drinking and water mills are directly or indirectly got from these forests. The material of day to day use like wood for construction, logging, furniture, medicine, trade and goods for cottage industry are harvested from these forests.

The area is devoid of major civic amenities. Recently it has got a metal road and is communicated with digital telephone. Electricity, schools and health facilities, which bring changes in the local culture, are scarce in the area. This paper is an attempt to provide an insight to the unreported hardship area of the region, which will hopefully provide a base for sustainable development of the floral resources of the area.

Results

Data collected regarding the ethnobotanical survey of the area is summarized in Appendix No. 1 and briefly discussed here as under.

1.�������� Potential plant resources

The area lies in the extension belt of Sino-Japanese region and within the widespread Irano-Turanian region in the south and east. It also has an influence of Indian region as well. Thus the area has accumulated a variety of plant types ranging from tropical to subtropical and upto temperate regions on the northern aspects. Both the elements of moist and dry temperate regions are there. All these facts give special identity to Manikhel forest. A wide variety of plants are there but this report includes only those species whose common use is either known locally or they are in daily use for various purposes.

This report includes 172 species belonging to 80 families. There local uses can be split in to 45 categories as given in Table 1. The details of plants, their local use and their local names are presented in Appendix 1. It is beyond the scope of this report to discuss each and every plant individually, a brief commentary of the locally most important species are discussed here:

2.�������� Bush food:

Bush food (Falconer, 1992) in its broader sense can be used for all the edible wild plants and animals and their products like waxes, honey etc. The plants used in Manikhel forest in the form of wild fruits, Pot herbs, brevages, spices, cash plants, dry fruits, fodder and forage species supply a fraction of thefood requirements of the people. Species involved in food supply from Manikhel forest is given in Appendix 1. Though it seems to have little economic importance, yet it forms an integral part of the local economy and culture. Socially serving guests with bush meat or morals is a sign of prestige and the use of local herbs and spices gives taste and quality to the dishes served to be.

 

The availability of bush food varies from season to season and there are some locals who can very easily guide the ethnobotanists (through the toponyms) for its easy accessibility. For example if any one who wants to observe blue pines, the local in this regard direct him to Nakhtarro Ghar (Nakhtar: Blue pine, Ghar: Hill). Hence exploiting local knowledge in this regard will minimize the wastage of time, energy and money.

In spring the forest bottom flourishes with the costly Karkachoks (Morchella esculenta) and a variety of soil and arboreal mushrooms (locally called Shishtaryae). The soil also flourish a variety of culinary herbs among which the young fronds of male ferns and shoots of Medicago and leaves of Rumex nepalensis and flowers of Bauhinia variegata (karyal) are used by most of the families as vegetable. The tasty fruits of Reptunia buxifolia (Gwargwaryea), Pistacia Khinjak (Shinayae), Rubus ulmifalius (Manzakha), Ficus palmata, Ficus glomerata, Grewia optiva (Pasthawonyae), Celtis australis (Tagha), Carissa ophaca (Khkar Meeva), Olea cuspidata (Khawand), Juglans regia (Ghwaz), and Zizypus jujuba (Bera) provide subsistence food, spices and a source of precious vitamins to the local communities, especially coming to the forest for resource collection or livestock herding. The delicious pot herb which we observed is Phytolacca lithania whose fruits are also boiled in water and used locally as ink.

Some of these products e.g. honey, morals, fruits of walnuts, Reptonia, Ficus, and the flowers of Bauhinia are collected and sold in the local market, thus providing earning base especially to the poor community.

3.�������� Herbal Medicine:

Herbal medicine, their pharmacognastic characterization and their rational uses are actually the cultural assets lying viable and remained preserved in the remote cut off areas like Kohi Sufaid. In Pakistan 80% of the people belonging to the rural areas still depends upon the herbal medicines (Anonymous, 1997). Manikhel area has an immense potential of herbal medicines preliminary survey of the medicinal plants of the area are presented in Appendix 1. Traditionally the Sikh inhabitants of the area are considered more knowledgeable and serve the community as local healers.

 

People of the local community have some mythical beliefs regarding some of the medicinal plants found locally. The two myths we commonly heard were about Makhkak (Valeriana wallichii) and Mamera (Corydalis stewartii). According to the local beliefs both the species has divine potential of healing injuries. According to one legend a gentle man injured on his foot, found nothing for first aid so he put tightly the leaves of the nearby herbs on his bleeding wound. On return to home he reopened the leaves dressing and it is told that there was no mark of the wound visible. The second legendary plant is Corydalis stewartii and according to local people the young of �Thora thethi� a black bird cannot open their eyes until they are administered by the twigs of Mamera. Both Mamera and Makhkak are locally used in 0pthalmic diseases and in healing wounds respectively. Makhkak is also administered against body weight. The dried powder of Randa jok (Alkana tenctoria) rhizomes are applied as topical antibiotics and are applied to chronic wounds. It is also considered as tonic in small amounts and is taken orally.

The area is malarious and is locally treated by taking fresh Shna Sperkayea ( Plectranthus ragosus) shoots, though its excess sometime causes injurious effects. The gastric flatulence and allergies are locally treated by the oral administration of powder of Tora Baiza (Adhatoda vasica). Norr-i-Alam (Polygonatum verticillatum) and Kukar Mar (Arisaema utile) are legendary herbs used as aphrodisiac, the latter needs special preparations whereas the former is of common use especially in the older people for enhancing sex capabilities. The root extract from Kaskye (Indigofera gerardiana) is given in dyspepsia. The latex of Aq Tandoryae (Calotropis procera) is used for regeneration of hairs specially in ploughing bulls. Thymus serphyllum, Ricinus communis and Aleovera (common herbs in the area) has broad medicinal applications but the local community has little knowledge of its use.

4.�������� Construction Material:

Most of the settlements in Manikhel are katcha (Made of mud). The people live a semi-nomadic life style and their houses vary according to the prevailing conditions and duration of stay. For example the houses in the villages are mostly katcha, with typically wider stories, clay wall having bunkers inside. In high mountains meadows the houses are generally made of stone walls with the supporting woods inside, whereas in the southern plains the villages are generally in the form of caves inside the cliff arcs. These caves are locally known as Garyae, and really present a marvelous way of primitive life standard in the 21 century. Houses in the villages and in high mountains needs wood for their construction, but in Garyae no construction wood is needed except a hedge in its front to avoid the entrance of livestock or wolves at night time. For making houses the order of preferences varies with the function and availability/accessibility of wood. For pillars the most preferred wood is Olea followed by Oak, yew, walnut, blue pine and the least preferred is that of celtis and Bauhinia. For beams the order of preference remains the same. But for smaller cross beams the most preferred wood is that of Yew followed by Blue pine, Parroitopsis, Olea, Juglans, Quercus and others. For course packing the shoots of Olea, Oak and Taxus are the first preferences which are then covered with a layer of bushes like Plectranthus ragosus, Indigofera, Sophora, Peroskia and ferns in the descending order of preference locally.

Traditionally the houses in the Orakzai has the same basic plan of roofing i.e. a layer of fine bushes just below the clay cover, a layer of branches from trees, a layer of small cross beams and large beams supporting the whole roof

5��������� Fuel Wood:

Fuel wood is one of the most important basic needs in Orakzai Agency. It is exclusively fulfilled from the forests. The most preferred wood in the area is oak followed by Olea, Yew, bird cherry, willow, mulberries and walnuts etc. In Manikhel area felling in the forest is completely banned. Women go early in the morning to the forest and bring the lopped wood specially that of Oaks for their daily use. Besides these each and every plant which is otherwise useless is generally exposed to burning as fuel wood .Fuel wood selling provide earning base to the local community.

6��������� Cottage Industry:

Mazaryae (Nannorohps ritchieana) is the very important forest species used for making mats, hand fans, ropes and baskets. It is used in local practice or is collected and sold in the nearby markets as raw. A variety of grasses are used for the formation of baskets and decoration pieces locally.

 

 

 

7��������� Cash earning species:

Karkachoks (Marals) are generally collected by women and children from the forest, and sold in the market with handsome earning. The sweet fruits of Gurgoryae (Reptonia buxifolia) are collected and sold locally or supplied to Kohat and Peshawar. Similarly the walnuts are also sold with better rewards in the market.

8��������� Furniture and Agricultural tools:

For furniture walnuts are the most preferred wood, whereas the doors and windows etc. are generally made up of blue pine and cheer pine. Willows are used for making sleeping beds. Celtis wood is preferred for making yokes, whereas, most of the parts of the plough other than yokes are made of oaks i.e. for sticks and handles etc. Parroitopsis and cotoneaster are generally preferred.

9��������� Fodder species:

Livestock keeping is one of the vital economic source forming integral part of the traditional tribal community. It provides calories in the form of animal fats, milk, and its products and the essential proteins for the livelihood of the local people. It also yield earning through its trade and selling its products. A large number of plant species are used as feed by the domestic like sheep, goats, cattles, and donkeys (Appendix 1).

Traditionally the people have rotational system of grazing, forage production area and complete reserves, managing the ecosystem operational and productive.

10������� Green Pesticides:

Pest control though expensive is inevitable for it hinder health and food production. It is an international problems and approximately one third of the world�s agricultural production is consumed annually for pest control (Agrios, 1978; Mc. Even, 1978), causing severe damages to the ecosystem locally and mankind globally. Millions of people exposes to the pesticide toxicity annually causing thousands of deaths and severe health losses to the remaining (Dinham, 1993). It was therefore, imperative to observe and record the traditional bio-technologies and local green pesticides for supplementing the synthetic pesticides on one hand and minimizing the health and economical losses on the other hand.

Orakzai people are still living with simple lives. The people are unaware of the use of synthetic pesticides for agricultural use. People traditionally use some plants for controlling pests. One of the most common green pesticides is a labiate locally known as Sensobyae (Peroskia artplicifolia). The rooms cleared with its broom repel the insects specially beats to stay there. The aqueous extract of Darshool (Chenopodium botrys) is applied to hairs for killing lice. The latex of Aq Tandoryea(Calotropis procera) is considered as topical fungicide and is widely applied against the ring worm�s locally. Its latex is applied to the necks of bulls for the regeneration of hairs. The shoots of Vitex negundo is locally considered as a strong insecticide. It is placed within the stored grains and successfully avoids store grain insects without causing losses to the stores grain quality. Most of the veterinary pathogens are traditionally treated with local herbs.

 

Table 1: Key to the plant use description as given in appendix I.

 

AT

Agricultural Tools

FN

Fish Poison

S

Spice

B

Beverage

FC

Fishing Check

SA

Snuff Ash

BE

Beeds

FU

Furniture

R

Resin

BR

Broom

GP

Green Pesticide

RS

Root Stock

BA

Bee Attractants

HP

Hedge Plant

SB

Soil Binder

C

Construction

I

Ink

SF

Soil Fertility

CH

Charcoal

IP

Incense/Perfume

SP

Shade Plant

CP

Cash Plant

L

Light

SH

Sticks/Handles

D

Dye

M

Miswak

SR

Soil Reclamation

DF

Dry Fruit

MP

Medicinal Plant

SM

Smoking Medicine

F

Fence

O

Ornamental

T

Timber

FO

Forage

P

Paper

U

Utensil

FP

Fodder Plant

PH

Pot Herb

WB

Wind Break

FS

Fiber Species

PN

Poison

WF

Wild Fruit

FW

Fuel Wood

PR

Packing/Rope

WC

Wood Carving

 

 

 

Discussion

The use of plants for the existence of human being is as old a practice as the human race itself. The accumulation of knowledge of plant use however co-evolved with human civilization through the experiential use of plants, generation after generation. The people of Manikhel area like most other people would have remained exposed to epidemic, endemic and chronic diseases, besides acute ailments. They would have also experienced variety of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases causing damages to them, their crops and livestock. They were therefore forced to adopt preventive measures of seasonal transhumance on one hand and on the other hand the traditional system of local recipes has been evolved. Centuries of experience of management of natural resources of the people of the area has developed indicators to monitor changes in vegetation/floristic and have thereby changed their habits accordingly. The religious and cultural norms of the area have also contributed much to the health and environment of the area.

Historically the forest resources of the area are distributed among various clans of Orakzai, Manikhel is one of them, are lucky enough who have conserved their forest upto a larger extent. The conservation measures called �BANDANR� and �rotational grazing� employed for the sustainable utilization in traditional ways has proved quite helpful in maintaining the nature intact. The ideal sites for recording the compositions of bio-diversity in the forests are the area near Garoo Toi (995m) and Adidar forests (2400m) on the south and north aspects respectively.

The practices of sustainable utilization of natural resources with the passage of time are diffused in the local culture and are locally respected in emotional and religious zeal.Religious norms in this area have also provided some protection to the local forests of Mehrab Shahi hills are protected due to sacredness of the area where a local Buzarg (saint) had spent a part of his life in this forest. Due to this reason entry into the forest is very limited and it is only exploited for bush foods such as Karkachok (morals), wild fruits, seeds, leaves flowers, rhizomes, honey, and Shishtaryae (mushrooms) etc., but spiritually it is completely banned for its exploitation in the form of bush meat and forest trees. Hence the Mehrab Shahi forest exhibits a best resource of non timber forest products locally.

Besides the religious exercises the traditional cultures has a great influence in maintaining the local ecosystem. For example rangelands observed during this survey have luxuriant growth of grasses which were banned for grazing as well as for forage extraction. Some selected areas are used for grazing and still other for forage production and all of these areas change their position after the declared period of rotation and hence when it becomes necessary, the conservation practices are employed and are then respected and observed sacredly due to the traditional norms. During the survey period it was realized that as BANDANR was employed on cutting Sraf (Taxus buccata) and Ghouz (Juglans regia) it is observed strictly. For example no one can cut these trees and its rotting wood is also banned for use by the local community. The branches of Sraf can be used only for the construction of roofs of communal places such as Hujras and mosques. Though both the species are the first priority for construction and furniture respectively, but due to the complete ban on walnut trees, it can only be observed in older constructions whereas Yew branches can only be seen in the roofs of Hujras and mosques.

The people are too simple, straightforward and dedicated to their tribal decisions and their committed ness can be realized from a decision when Manikhel sold the Walnuts in their forests for Rs.0.9 million for the extraction of root bark without damaging the trees. The contractor collected Dandasa (root bark) from the roots of wild walnut trees though causing no apparent damage to the trees at that time, but the countless walnut trees felled in the proceeding winter causing damage to other flora as well. The forest is still felled with the rotting wood of walnuts. The local people only take its advantage in the form of mushroom collection growing on it. The dried decaying wood of walnut is still banned for everyone providing recycling base for the forest flora and shelter & food for the forest fauna.

 

References

Agrios, G.N.1978. Plant Pathology. Academic press, New York.

Anonymous. 1997. Herbal Medicines, the Networks 6(3):1-2.

Falconer, J. 1992. Non Timber Forest Products in southern Ghana, a summary report. ODA forestry series No 2. ODA94 victoria street, London.

Hamayun, M. 2003. Ethnobotanical studies of some useful shrubs and trees of District Buner, NWFP, Pakistan. Journal of ethnobotanical leaflets, SIUC, USA.

Hamayun, M., A, Khan and M. A. Khan. 2003. Common medicinal folk recipes of District Buner, NWFP, Pakistan. Journal of ethnobotanical leaflets, SIUC, USA.

Hamayun, M., M. A. Khan and S. Begum. 2003. Marketing of medicinal plants of Utror-Gabral Valleys, Swat, Pakistan. Journal of ethnobotanical leaflets, SIUC, USA.

McEven, F.L. 1978. Food production: The challenge of pesticides, Bioscience 28:773-777.

 

Appendix 1: Ethnobotanical information regarding the potential species of Mani-khel forests

 

Sl.#

Botanical Name

Local Name

Family

Folk Uses

1.       

Acacia modesta wall

Palosa

Mimosaceae

FW, FP, MP, HP, F

2.       

Acacia catechu wall

Kikar

Mimosaceae

FW, FP, HP, F

3.       

Acer caesium Wall.ex.Brand

Shanda wanyae

Aceraceae

O, FW

4.       

Achyranthus aspera L.

Buch Kanda

Amaranthaceae

MP, FP

5.       

Albezia lebbeck (L) Benth

Srekh

Mimosaceae

FW, FP

6.       

Adhatoda vasica Nees.

Bezya

Acanthaceae

FW, MP

7.       

Adiantum cappillus veneris L.

Bar sumbal

Adiantaceae

MP, SP, U

8.       

A. incisum Forsk

Barsumbal

Adiantaceae

MP, SB

9.       

A. venustum D. Don

Bbozayae

Adaintaceae

MP, SB

10.   

Agaris campestris L.

Kholkae

Acgaricaceae

PN, S, R

11.   

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Asli shandai

Simarubaceae

FW, FP, SB, WB, FU, F

12.   

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex. Benth

Soor Boutai

Lmiaceae

MP,

13.   

A. parviflora Beth

Tarkha booti

Lamiaceae

MP, FN,

14.   

Allium ascalonium L.

Piazakae

Alliaceae

MP,S

15.   

Aloe vera Mill

Zahar boutyae

Liliaceae

MP

16.   

Onosoma sp.

Ratan Jok

Boraginaceae

MP

17.   

Amaranthus caudatus L.

Chalwai

Amaranthaceae

PH, FP, FO

18.   

Anethum sowa Roxb. Ex. Flem

Sawah

Umbeliferaceae

MP

19.   

Anthoroxan pronodes Steud.

Gaya

Poaceae

FP, FO

20.   

Arisema utile Hook.fex.Schott

Kukar mar

Araceae

MP, PN

21.   

A. tortuosum

Kukar mar

Araceae

MP, PN

22.   

Artimisia miritima L.

Tarkha

Astraceae

MP, PN, GP, SB

23.   

A. scopania L.

Jaokae

Astraceae

MP, GP, BR, FW

24.   

Aristida adscensionis

Mashkar

Poaceae

FP, FO, BR

25.   

Asparagus adscendens

Thindorae

Liliaceae

M, MP

26.   

Astragalus anisacanthus

Mamol

Liliaceae

MP, M

27.   

A. phyrrhotrichus Boiss.

Mamol

Liliaceae

MP, M

28.   

A. psilocentros Fisch

-

Liliaceae

MP, M

29.   

Atropa accuminata Royle ex. Lindl.

Barkak

Solanaceae

MP, PN

30.   

Avena Fatua L.

Jamdarae

Poaceae

FP, FO

31.   

Bauhinia varriegata

Karyal

Caesalpinaceae

PH, FW, SP, FU

32.   

Berberis vulgaris

Zark

Berberidaceae

MP, F, FW

33.   

Berberis lycium

Zark azghayae

Berberidaceae

MP, F, FW

34.   

Berginia ciliata (Haw) Scernb.

Gat panra

Saxifragaceae

MP, O

35.   

Brumus japanicus Thum ex. Murr

Jaokae

Paceae

FP, FO

36.   

Buxus wallichiana Baill.

Shamshad

Buxaceae

MP, FW, U

37.   

Calendula arvensis L.

Ziar Gulae

Astraceae

MP

38.   

Calendula officinalis L.

Ziar Gulae

Astraceae

MP

39.   

Calotropis procera (Wild) R.Br.

Ak Thandorayae

Aecelpediaceae

MP, PN

40.   

Cannabis sativa L.

Bang

Cannabidaceae

MP, SH, FS

41.   

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik

Bambesa

Brassicaceae

FP, MP

42.   

Carrisa ophaca

Khkar Mewa

Carricaceae

WF, FP, FW, HP, F

43.   

Carthamus oxycantha L.

Kareza

Astaraceae

MP

44.   

Celtis australis L.

Tagha

Ulmaceae

MP, AT, FU, SP

45.   

Celtis leavigata Wild.

-

Ulmaceae

WF,U

46.   

Chrysopogon aucheri

Spin wakha

Poaceae

FP, FO, PR

47.   

Chrysopogon montanus Trin.

Spin wakha

Poaceae

FP, FO, PR

48.   

Chinopodium album L.

Sarmae

Chenopodiaceae

PH, MP, FP

49.   

Chenopodium botrys L. (Trev) Vis.

Darshool

Chenopodiaceae

MP

50.   

Cenchrus pennisetiformis (Hoechest) Stued

Pisho Lamyae

Poaceae

FP, FO

51.   

Cenchrus cilliaris

Pisho Lamyae

Poaceae

FP, FO

52.   

Cichorium intybus L.

Shin guluk

Astraceae

PH, MP

53.   

Clematis orientalis L.

Zelai

Ranunculaceae

MP

54.   

Corydalis stewartii Fedde

Mamera

Papveraceae

MP

55.   

Cotoneaster affinis (Lindl.) Schn

Kharawa

Rosaceae

MP,FW

56.   

Cotoneaster microphylla Wall.

Kharawa

Rosaceae

MP, FW, WF

57.   

Cotoneaster numularia Fisah Mey.

Mamanra

Rosaceae

MP, FW

58.   

Cotinus coggyria Scop.

Miswakae

Anacardiaceae

MP, FW, SB

59.   

Crataegus oxycantha HK. F

Ghwanza

Rosaceae

MP, FW, F

60.   

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Nela Danai

Convolvulaceae

GP, FP

61.   

Cynodon dactylon

Kabal

Poaceae

FP, FO, O

62.   

Dicliptera blupiroides Nees.

Oodi gulae

Acanthaceae

FP, FO

63.   

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Shawa

Papilionaceae

FW, R, C, U, FU

64.   

Daphne papaveracae

Leghonae

Thymeleaceae

MP, FW

65.   

Datura stramonium L.

Tura

Solanaceae

MP

66.   

Datura metal

Tura

Solanaceae

MP

67.   

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf.

Drab

Poaceae

FP, FO

68.   

Diospyrus lotus

Amlok

Ebenaceae

FW, AT, SP, F, FU

69.   

Dodonia viscosa (L>) Jacq

Ghwarawonyae

Sapindaceae

FW, PR, F

70.   

Elaeguns umbellata Thumb

Ghanamranga

Elegnaceae

WF, FW, MP, F, HP

71.   

Euphorbia hirta

-

Euphorbiaceae

MP

72.   

Euphorbia prostata

Warmaga

Euphorbiaceae

MP

73.   

Ficus glomerata

Urmal

Moraceae

WF

74.   

Ficus palmata

Inzar

Moraceae

WF, FP, FW

75.   

Fragaria indica Andrews

Tha Bouti Manzakha

Rosaceae

MP, WF

76.   

Fragaria nubicola Lindl.

Tha Bouti Manzakha

Rosaceae

WF, MP

77.   

Fraxinus excurlsior L.

Khang

Oleaceae

FP, WF, HP

78.   

Fumaria indica (Haussk) Pugsly.

Papra

Papaveraceae

MP, FP, FO

79.   

Grewia optiva Drum Ex. Burret

Pastha Wanyae

Tiliaceae

FP, WF, FW, C, F

80.   

Gymnosporia spinosa (Forsk.) Fiori (Syn G. royleana Wall)

Gandejareyae

Celastraceae

HP, FW, FS

81.   

Hedra hilex L.

Prewatyae

Araliaceae

FP, MP

82.   

Hypericum perforatum L.

Shin chai

Guttiferaceae

B, MP

83.   

Impatiens brachycentra Kar & ker

Thor lakayae

Balsaminaceae

FP, MP, D

84.   

Impatiens edgeworthii Hook

Thor lakayae

Balsaminaceae

D, FP, MP

85.   

Impatiens flemingi

Thor lakayae

Balsaminaceae

D, FP, MP, WF

86.   

Indigofera weithii

Ghwareja

Papiolionaceae

FP

87.   

Jasminium humile.

Prewatyae

Oleaceae

FW, D, O, IP

88.   

Jasminum officinale

Prewatyae

Oleaceae

FW, D, O, IP

89.   

Juglans regia L.

Ghouz

Juglandaceae

WF, FP, MP, FS, AT, SP, S, O, DF, M, SM

90.   

Malva neglecta Wallr.

Panerak

Malvaceae

FP, PH, FO

91.   

Malva sylvestris

Panerak.

Malvaceae

FP, PH, FO, MP

92.   

Matricaria chmomilla L.

 

Astraceae

MP

93.   

Mallotus philippensis Muell Arg.

Kambela

Euphorrbiaceae

FP, MP, FW, SP, FU

94.   

Malvastrum coramondilianum

Gaya

Malvaceae

MP, FW, FP D

95.   

Melia azedarech L.

Draka.

Meliaceae

F, MP, FW, SP, FU

96.   

Mentha longifolia

 

Lamiaceae

MP

97.   

Mentha spicata

Nanalyea.

Lamiaceae

B, MP, S

98.   

Mentha sylvestris

Nanalyea.

Lamiaceae

B, MP, S

99.   

Micromeria biflora (Ham) Bth.

Narey Shamakey.

Lamiaceae

MP, BA

100. 

Morus alba L.

Baidanaa.

Moraceae

WF, FP, MP, FW, AT, WB, SP, F, FU

101. 

Morus nigra

Thoot.

Moraceae

WF, MP, FP, FW, AT, FO, F, FU

102. 

Myrsine africana

Maraghoneyea.

Myrsinaceae

MP, FW, C

103. 

Nanorrhophs ritchieana H. Wendl.

Mazaryae

Palmaceae

WP, PR, FU, BR, U

104. 

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Sharyea.

Brassicaceae

PH, FP, MP

105. 

Nasturtium microphyllum Boen.ex.Reichb.

Sharyea.

Brassicaceae

PH, FP, MP

106. 

Olea ferruginea Royle

Khona.

Oleaceae

WF, FP, FW, AT, SP, C

107. 

Onopordeum acanthium L.

Wrejakai.

Asteraceae

FP, MP

108. 

Origanum vulgase L.

Shamakai.

Lamiaceae

MP, C

109. 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Manzakin Tarokey.

Linaceae

FP, S, IP

110. 

Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Done) Rehder.

Pechoo

Hamamelidaceae

FW, PR, SH, C

111. 

Peroskia artiplicifolia Benthg

Sensobyae

Lbiateae

GB, MP, BR

112. 

Phragmites communis Trin

Sharghashyae

Poaceae

U

113. 

Pimpinella diversifolia (Wall) DC

Desi Zankai

Pinaceae

MP, S, FU

114. 

Pinus roxberghii

Nakhtar

Pinaceae

FW, WF, L, SB, O, T, R, F

115. 

Pinus wallichiana

Nakhtar

Pinaceae

FW, L, SB, O, T, R, F

116. 

Pistacia integerrima Stewart

Shnai

Pistaciaceae

FP, MP, FW, F

117. 

Pistacia khinjik

Shnai

Pistaciaceae

WF, F, FW, FP

118. 

Phytolacca lathenia (Mog) Walt.

Tamakoo saag

Phytolocaceae

PH, MP, D, I

119. 

Plantigo lanceolata L.

Jabbai

Plantaginaceae

MP, FP

120. 

Plantigo major L.

Chawayo Jabai

Plantaginaceae

MP, FP

121. 

Plectranthus ragosus

Spina baiza

Lamiaceae

MP, FP, BA

122. 

Polygonum amplexicaul

-

Latiaceae

 

123. 

Polygonatum verticillatum All

Nooi Alam

Latiaceae

MP, FP

124. 

Podophyllum emodi Wall.

Soor Marchakai

Podophyllaceae

MP

125. 

Polygonum aviculare

Palpolak

Polygonaceae

MP, FN

126. 

Prangos pobularia Lindl.

Kamasla Zankai

Umbillefereae

MP

127. 

Portulaca oleraceae L.

Warkharai

Portulaceae

PH, MP

128. 

Prunus cornuta

Nangawar

Rosaceae

FW, F, DF

129. 

Punica granatum

Anangorae

Punicaceae

WF, FW, F

130. 

Pteridium equilinum (L) Kuhn.

Kwanae

Dennstaediaceae

PH, CP

131. 

Pyrus pashia

Tanga

Rosaceae

RS

132. 

Quercus ilex

Khara serai

Fagaceae

FW, F, CH, C

133. 

Quercus dilatata Lindl.

Ghwara serai

Facgaceae

WF, FP, FW, F, CH, C

134. 

Rananculus muricatus

Quazi ban

Rununculaceae

MP, FP

135. 

Ricinus communis

Asila harhanda

Euphorbiaceae

FW, SB, F, HP

136. 

Robinia pseudocaciaL.

Kikar

Papilionaceae

FP, FW, F, HP

137. 

Rosa brunonii Lindl (Syn. R. moschata J. Herrm)

Thandorayae

Rosaceae

HP, FC

138. 

Rubus fruticosus

Karwara

Rosaceae

WF, MP, F, FU

139. 

Rubus sanctus

Largai manzakha

Rosaceae

WF, MP, F

140. 

Rumex acetosa L.

Tarokai

Pohygonaceae

PH, MP

141. 

Rumex dentatus

Shlkhi

Pohygonaceae

PH, MP

142. 

Rumex nepalensis

Zanda

Pohygonaceae

PH, MP

143. 

Sacchrum monja Roxb.

Nal

Poaceae

SB, HP, U

144. 

Sacchrum spontaneum L.

Sharghashae

Poaceae

SB, U

145. 

Salix babylonica L.

Asila wala

Salicaceae

SB, SP, FP, FW

146. 

Salvia lanata Roxb

-

Lamiaceae

MP

147. 

Salvia mubicala

-

Lamiaceae

MP

148. 

Sarcococca saligna

Ladanr

Buxaceae

MP, FW

149. 

Sedum ewersii Ledeb.

The Gat warkharae

Crasulaceae

MP

150. 

Solanum nigrum L.

Tore ninae

Solanaceae

PH, MP

151. 

Solanum xanthocarpum (Schard & Wendl.)

Mara ghoonae

Solanaceae

MP

152. 

Soncus asper L.

Shawda pai

Leguminaceae

FP

153. 

Sorghum helepense (L.) Pers.

Dadam

Rosaceae

FP, FO

154. 

Stychus parviflora Benth

Sper bootae

Labiataceae

MP, FW

155. 

Taraxucyn officinale Weber.

Ziar gwalae

Tamaricaceae

MP

156. 

Taxus buccata L.

Srap

Taxaceae

FP, FW, AT, C

157. 

Tecoma crucigera (L.) Bureau

Lowar

Begnonicaceae

FW, O

158. 

Thalictrum faleoneri

Mamera

Combritaceae

MP

159. 

Thalictrum minus

Mamera

Combritaceae

MP

160. 

Thymus helepens

Pannay/Mray

 

MP

161. 

Tribulus terristris L.

Markoondai

Zygophyllaceae

MP

162. 

Utrica dioca L.

Lewane seznak

Utricaceae

PH, MP

163. 

Utrica pilulefora L.

Sezoonkai

Utricaceae

MP

164. 

Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Makhkak

Velerianaceae

MP

165. 

Varbascum thapsus L.

Khar dag

Scrophulariaceae

MP

166. 

Veronica ciburia (L.) Less

Shamakae

Scrophulariaceae

MP

167. 

Viburnum cotinifolium Wall ex.D.Don

Ghamzewa

Caprifoliaceae

WF, MP, F, HP

168. 

Viola serpens Wall

Banafsha

Violaceae

MP, PH

169. 

Vitex negundo L.

Marwandai

Verbenaceae

MP, GP

170. 

Withania sommifera Dunal

-

Solanaceae

MP, PN

171. 

Xanthium strumarium L.

Gishkae

Asteraceae

MP, FW

172. 

Zizypus jujuba Lam

Bera

Rhamnaceae

WF, HP, FW, AT