Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 1254-69. 2008.
Ethnomedicinal Study of Vegetables Mentioned in the Holy Qura�n and Ahadith
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat�, Muhammad Aslam Khan� and Fazal-ur-Rehman�
� �Assistant Professor Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies & Research
������ �Lecturer Faculty of
The present research work is based on nine
herbaceous plant species:� Agaricus campestris
L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.,
L. Citrulus lennatus, Cucumis sativus L.,
Lagenaria siceraria, Trigonella foenum- graceum L. and
Zingiber officinale Rroscoe. mentioned in Holy Quran and Ahadith. These plants
were collected from Dera Ismail
Khan District, NWFP,
Key words: Ethnomedicinal study,
������������ Vegetables are those herbaceous plants whose part or parts are eaten as supporting food or main dishes and they may be aromatic, bitter or tasteless. The nutrient contents of different types of vegetables vary considerably and they are not major source of carbohydrates compared to starchy foods which form the bulk of food eaten, but contain vitamins, essential amino acids as well as minerals and antioxidants. Vegetables are included in meals mainly for their nutritional values; however some are reserved for sick and convalescence because of their medicinal properties (Mensah et al., 2008).������������
����������� Life and diseases go together where there is life, diseases are bound to exist. Dependency and sustainability of man and animal life has been revolving around plants through their uses as food, fibers and shelter, but also plants have been used to control and ease diseases, therefore, the use of plants as medicines is an ancient and reliable practice (Arshad and Rao, 2001).
����������� Cure of diseases through medicinal plants is always a salient feature of Islamic teaching and preaching. Islamic medicine started from Hazrat Adam (A.S.) and was completed at Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) but search and compiling of these medicines is still continued through out the world (Nasr, 1976).
����������� The Holy Quran is the eternal and everlasting basis of Islam. It contains signs and verses which have been leading people of different ages and of different academics and intellectual background to believe in Islam. The Holy Quran from the very start has a claim that it covers every aspect of life and is full of wisdom. It speaks �We have neglected nothing in the Book� (Khan, et al., 1994).
of Islamic medicine in its true context can thus be defined as a body of
knowledge of medicine that was inherited by the Muslim in the early phase of
Islamic history (40-247 AH/661-861 AD) from mostly Greek sources but to which
became added medical knowledge from,
����������� Ahadith [the sayings of Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)] have also described the importance of many plant species. Farooqi (1998) in his book �Ahadith Mein Mazkoor Nabatat, Adwiyah Aur Ghizaen� in English �Plants, Medicines and Food Mentioned in Ahadith�� has reported about 70 plants and plant products.�
����������� Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal flora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work was conducted to investigate ethnobotanical uses and create awareness about the plant species enlisted in Holy Quran, Ahadith for the welfare of human communities throughout the world.
����������� The research work was conducted by
reviewing the Holy Quran, Ahadith
and Islamic books. Comprehensive and detailed information about 9 herbaceous
vegetable plants of ethnobotanical importance
mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith
were collected from these sources. Plants species were arranged in systematic
order of botanical names in alphabetic order followed by family, Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, habit and
distribution, part used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic
books. Correct botanical names, their families and identification of plants
were done by using flora of
Present findings were confined to 9 herbaceous vegetable plant species
belonging to 8 genera of 7 families enlisted in Holy Quran,
Ahadith and Islamic literature. These plants are Agaricus campestris
L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.,
L. Cucumis sativus L.,
Lagenaria siceraria, Trigonella foenum-graceum L. and
Zingiber officinale Rroscoe. �which are used
Agaricus campestris L.�
English Name:����������� Mushroom
Local Name:�������������� Khumbi
Arabic Name:������������ Esh El-Ghorab
Habit & Habitat: ������ Fleshy fungus, terrestrial and moist places
Part used:������ ����������� Whole part
Medicinal uses:��������� Eye diseases, clear eyes, physical strength, germicide, arthritis,
����������������������������������� paralysis, parknesis, muscle pain, headache and Dizziness
References from Ahadith������
� Saeed bin Zaid (R) narrates that I heard the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) saying, "Truffles are like Manna (i.e. they grow naturally without man's care) and their water heals eye diseases."(Farooqi, 1998)������������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������
� Sa'id bin Zaid reported: I heard Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) as saying: Truffles are a kind of 'Manna' and their juice is a medicine for the eyes.
� Sa'id bin Zaid reported Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) as saying: Truffles are a kind of 'Manna' which Allah the Glorious and Exalted, sent down upon
the people of Israil,and its juice is a medicine for the eyes (Farooqi,1998).
Hazrat Suhaib (R.A). reported Rasulallah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of 'Manna' which Allah sent down upon Bani Israil and their juice is a medicine for the eyes (Farooqi, 1998).�
Abu Huraira narrates: One day the companions of Rasulullah (SAW) said to Him (SAW), �Truffles are the small pox of the earth�. Upon this Rasulullah (SAW) said, �Truffles are 'Manna' and their juice is the medicine for the eyes (Farooqi, 1998).
Allium cepa L.
English Name:����������� Onion
Local Name:�������������� Piaz
Arabic Name:������ ������Basal
Family: ���������������������� Alliaceae
Habit & Habitat:������� Herbacous,cultivated in the field.
Part used:������������������ Rhizome, leaves and seeds.
Medicinal uses: �������� Antidote, Stomach diseases, cholera, Diarrhoea, throat infection, common cold, cough, fever, influenza, ear pain, improve sperm production, clear face and skin spots, appetizer, headache, hepatitis, piles, eye diseases, baldness, constipation, menstruation and intestinal diseases.
References from Holy Qurn (Verse #. 61, Chapter #.1- Surah Al Baqarah)����������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������And (remember) when you said, �O M�s� (Musa)! we cannot endure one kind food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its F�m (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onions.� He said, �Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? (Al-Hil�l� and Kh�n, 1985).
References from Ahadith�����
� Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "Whoever has eaten garlic or onion should keep away from us or should keep away from our mosque (Farooqi.1998).
ibn Qurrah: The Apostle
of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) forbade these two
plants (i.e. garlic and onions),
and he said: He who eats them should not come near our mosque. If it is
necessary to eat them, make them dead by cooking, that is, onions and garlic (
Ummul Mu'minin: Khalid said: Abu Ziyad Khiyar ibn Salamah
asked Aisha about onions. She replied: The last food which the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) ate was some which contained onions.(
� Mahdan Bin Abu Talah narrates: Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, those who eat onion and garlic should eat them in cooked form (Khan, 2001).
Note: He who eats onion should make its odour die by cooking it well.
Allium sativum L.
English Name:����������� Garlic
Local Name:�������������� Lahson
Arabic Name:������������ Soom
Habit & Habitat:������� Annual cultivated erect herb
Part used:������������������ Rhizome
Medicinal uses:��������� Antidote, wound healer, dog bite, paralysis, digestive problems, asthma, parkensis, intestinal pain worms, cough, histerea, headache, tuber closes.
References from Holy Quran (Verse #. 61, Chapter #.1 - Surah Al Baqarah)��������������������������������������������������� �And when you said O� Moses We will not have patience or We will not endure on food (of) one (kind) so you pray for us (to) your Lord he brings out for us whatever sprouts or germinates (in) the earth of its vegetables or herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions� (Rafai, 1990).
References from Ahadith
� Hazrat Anas bin Malik narrated:� The Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, "Whoever has eaten garlic should not come to our mosque (Farooqi, 1998).
Khalid said: Abu Ziyad Khiyar ibn Salamah
asked Aisha about onions. She replied: The last food which the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) ate was some which contained onions (
Beta vulgaris L.
English Name:����������� Beet roots
Local Name:�� ����������� Chakandar
Arabic Name:������������ Banjar
Habit & Habitat:������� Cultivated vegetable, Terrestrial
Part used:������������������ Roots and leaves
Medicinal uses: �������� Eczema, baldness, liver infection, muscle weakness, skin disease, hepatitis, arthritis, kidney pain, headache, womb diseases and vaginal pain
References from Ahadith:
� Narrated Sahl bin Sad: There was a woman amongst us who had a farm and she used to sow Silq (a kind of vegetable) on the edges of streams in her farm. On Fridays she used to pull out the Silq from its roots and put the roots in a utensil. Then she would put a handful of powdered barley over it and cook it. The roots of the Silq were a substitute for meat. After finishing the Jumua prayer we used to greet her and she would give us that food which we would eat with our hands, and because of that meal, we used to look forward to Friday (Abdullah, 2005).
� Narrated Umm al-Mundhar bint Qays al-Ansariyyah: The Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) came to visit me, accompanied by Ali who was convalescing. We had some ripe dates hung up. The Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) got up and began to eat from them. Ali also got up to eat, but the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said repeatedly to Ali: Stop, Ali, for you are convalescing, and Ali stopped. She said: I then prepared some barley and beet-root and brought it. The Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) then said: Take some of this, Ali, for it will be more beneficial for you (Ahmad. ND).
Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura
English Name:����������� Water melon
Local Name:�������������� Tarbooz
Arabic Name:������������ Al Bataigh
Habit & Habitat:������� Shrub, Terrestrial
Part used:������������������ Fruit and seeds
Medicinal uses:��������� Kidney pain clears the urine and stomach, facial beauty, increase immunity, jaundice and have cold effects.
References from Ahadith:
� Narrated Sahl bin Sad� Al-Sadi: Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used to eat ripe date with water melon (Ghaznavi, 1991).
� Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, �Water melon is diet as well as drink. It washes and purifies the urinary bladder. It increases the sexual power (Farooqi, 1998).
� Hazrat Aisha narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used to eat water melon with fresh dates (Farooqi, 1998).�
Cucumis sativus L.
English name: ����������� Cucumber
Local name:��������������� Khira
Arabic name:������������� Qissa, Khiarun
Family Name: ����������� Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat:���� Trailing annual, terrestrial herb
Distribution:�������������� Cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical counties of the world
Parts used:���������������� Fruit
Medicinal uses: �������� Cooling, diuretic, tonic and vermifuge, diuretic, purgative.
References from Ahadith:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Ja'far
bin Abi Talib: I saw
Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) eating fresh dates with cucumber (Abdullah, 2005).
� Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: My mother intended to make me fat to send me to the (house of) the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). But nothing which she desired benefited me till she gave me cucumber with fresh dates to eat. Then I became very fat (Ghaznavi, 2000).
Lagenaria siceraria� L.
English Name:����������� Squash
Local Name:�������������� Kaddo
Arabic Name:������������ Yakteen, Daba
Habit & Habitat:������� Prostrate with tendrils herb
Part used:������������������ Fruit and leaves
Medicinal uses:��������� Arthritis, Maleness, Headache, fever, Madness, Piles, lungs infection, common cold, kidney and liver disorder and heart diseases.
References from Holy Quran: (As-Saaffat, Chapter # 37, Verse # 146)������������������������ And We caused a plant of gourd to grow over him (Al-Hilali and Khan, 1996)
References from Ahadith
� Narrated Ishaq bin 'Abdullah bin Abu Talha: I heard Anas bin Malik saying, "A tailor invited Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) to a meal which he had prepared.� Anas bin Malik said, "I accompanied Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam0 to that meal. He served the Prophet with bread and soup made with gourd and dried meat. I saw the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) taking the pieces of gourd from the dish." Anas added, "Since that day I have continued to like gourd" (Abdullah, 2005).
� Narrated Anas: I was a young boy when I once was walking with Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). Allah's Apostle entered the house of his slave tailor and the latter brought a dish filled with food covered with pieces of gourd. Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) started picking and eating the gourd. When I saw that, I started collecting and placing the gourd before him. Then the slave returned to his work. Anas added: I have kept on loving gourd since I saw Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) doing what he was doing (Abdullah, 2005).
� Narrated Anas bin Malik: A tailor invited the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) to a meal which he had prepared, and I went along with the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). The tailor presented barley bread and soup containing gourd and cured meat. I saw the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) picking the pieces of gourd from around the dish, and since then I have kept on liking gourd (Ghaznavi, 2000).
� Anas b. Malik reported: A tailor invited Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)� to a meal which he had prepared. Anas b. Malik said: I went along with Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) to that feast. He presented to Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) barley bread and soup containing pumpkin, and sliced pieces of meat. Anas said: I saw Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) going after the pumpkin round the dish, so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day (A�zami and Nadvi,1985).
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
English Name:����������� Fenugreek
Local Name �������������� Maithi
Arabic Name:������������ Helba
Habit: ������������������������Cultivated leafy vegetable
Part used:������������������ Seeds and leaves
Medicinal uses: �������� Throat infection, swelling, body pain, cough, stomach pain, piles, dandruff, baldness, breast pain, lungs infection, diabetes, ulcer, diarrhea and gas trouble. Powerful tonic, back pain, seeds in powder form used for diabetes, lactogogue i.e. to stimulate milk production in mammary glands.
References from Ahadith
� Qasim Bin Abdul Rehman narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)� said, �Seek cure by (using) fenugreek� (Ghaznavi, 1991).
� In another hadith Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, �If my followers (Ummat) knew the importance of the fenugreek then they will buy it by gold of equal weight� (Ghaznavi, 1991).
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
English Name:����������� Ginger
Local Name:�������������� Adrak or onth
Arabic Name: ����������� Zangbeal
Family:������������ ���������� Zingiberaceae
Habit:������������������������� Cultivated herb with underground perennial stem
Habitat & distribution:��
Terrestial & Bangladesh,
Part used:�������������������� Fruit
Medicinal uses:��������� Intestinal pain, anorexia, dyspepsia, headache, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal swelling, dog bite, stomach disorders, sexual weakness, digestive stimulant, cooling effect on body, increase urine production.
References from Quran: (Surah Ad-Dahr Chapter # 76, Verse # 17)����������������������������� �And they will be given to drink there of a cup (of wine) mixed with Zanjabil (ginger)� (Al-Hil�l� and Kh�n, 1985).
References from Ahadith
Abu Saeed Khudri narrated: The rular of
����������� Vegetables are important protective food and highly beneficial for the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. They contain valuable food ingredients which are essential for the proper functioning of the body. Vegetables contain various medicinal and therapeutic agents and are valued mainly for their high vitamin and mineral content. Faulty cooking and prolonged careless storage can however destroy these valuable elements. To drive maximum benefits of their nutrients, vegetables should be consumed fresh as far as possible. Most vegetables are best consumed in their natural raw state in the form of salads (Husain, 2002).������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
time immemorial humans have used plants to alleviate their sufferings from
diseases. Approximately 70% of the homeopathic drugs are prepared from the
fresh plants. Similarly more than 90% of tibbi
medicines are prepared from herbs.
�������� In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the cure of soul through prayers and second the cure of ailments through medicines. The Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various Surahs. Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for cure of common diseases.�
�������� He recommended Agaricus campestris L. (Mushroom � truffle) for eye diseases.����� Saeed bin Zaid (R) Narrates that I heard the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)� saying, "Truffles are like Manna (i.e. they grow naturally without man's care) and their water heals eye diseases."(Farooqi, 1998).
�������� Hazrat Abu Huraira ( R ) collected the water of 3, 5 or 7 mushrooms and put it in a small bottle. He then gave it to a bleared eye maid servant (laundi) to use it for the said eye disease. She cured after using the water of mushrooms (Chughtai, 2005).�����
�Allium cepa although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. It is extensively used as spice, condiment and vegetable in kitchen.�������
�������� The bulbs are stimulant, digestive expectorant and aphrodiasic. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes (Shahidullah, 2000). When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache. The bulb are anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay (pfaf, 2008).
Allium sativum L. has been held in high esteem for its health building qualities for centuries. It contains high percentage of minerals and vitamins. It also contains traces of iodine, sulphur and chlorine. It is regarded as a rejuvenator. It is found to remove toxins and revitalize blood. The ethers in garlic juice is so potent and penetrating that they help to dissolve accumulated mucous in the sinus cavities, in bronchial tubes and lungs. It has been found effective in Asthma. It has an antiseptic effect (Husain, 2002).��������������������� Its bulbs are used as flavouring agent, spice, carminative, aromatic and condiment. It is effective in heart diseases and blood pressure. It dissolve fats. It is used� in folklore and veterinary medicines locally. Its juice is mixed with milk to cure T.B., asthma and whooping cough (Shahidullah, 2000). �Garlic contains a wealth of sulfur compounds; most important for the taste is allicin (diallyl disulphide oxide), which is produced enzymatically from alliin (S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) if cells are damaged; its biological function is to repel herbivorous animals. Allicin is deactivated to diallyl disulphide; therefore, minced garlic changes its aroma if not used immediately. In the essential oil from steam distillation, diallyl disulphide (60%) is found besides diallyl trisulphide (20%), diallyl sulfide, ajoene and minor amounts of other di- and polysulphides. Sulfur compounds of this kind are typical for the onion family (Katzer, 2008).��������
Beta vulgaris (Beet Root) Beet root is
a very useful vegetable. Beet juice is considered as one of the best
vegetable juice. It contains phosphorus, calcium, iron, Vitamin B and C.�������������������������������������������������������������������������
root possesses anti-cancer properties and is thus useful in the prevention of
cancer (Chughtai, 2005).��������������������������������� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Roots
contain leucine, tryptophane,
phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, ornithine, five other amino acide,
0.01% essential oil with farnesol. Leaves contain quercitin glucoside, a vitexin combination with glucose, xylose,
and 3-hydroxytyramine, b-sitosterol, and a suite of organic acids, oxalic-, tricarballyl-, aconitic-, ferulic-. Roots,
herbage, and seeds contain raphanol, and coniferin (C16H22O8), Vit. A, B, and C, and betaine.
Roots contain a crude oil with palmitic-, oleic-, erucic-, and gamma-aminobutyric
acids, free and bound invertase and pectolytic enzymes (James, 1983). Due to its high iron
content it regenerates and reactivates Red Blood Cells (
Citrullus lanatus. The seed is demulcent,
diuretic, pectoral and tonic. It is sometimes used in the treatment of the
urinary passages and has been used to treat bed wetting. It is a good vermifuge and has a hypotensive
action. A fatty oil in the seed, as well as aqueous
or alcoholic extracts, paralyze tapeworms and roundworms.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
The fruit, eaten when fully ripe or even when almost putrid, is used
as a febrifuge.����������� It is
diuretic, being effective in the treatment of dropsy and renal stones. It
contains the substance lycopine (which is also
found in the skins of tomatoes). This substance has been shown to protect the
body from heart attacks and, in the case of the tomato at least, is more
effective when it is cooked.
Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) is another plant that has many
references in Holy Quran and Ahadith.
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: My mother intended to make me fat to send me to
the (house of) the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). But nothing
which she desired benefited me till she gave me cucumber with fresh dates to eat. Then I became fat as she
desired Ghaznavi, 2000).��������������������������������������������������������������������
The seed is cooling, diuretic, tonic and vermifuge.
25 - 50 grams of the thoroughly ground seeds (including the seed coat) is a
standard dose as a vermifuge and usually needs to
be followed by a purgative to expel the worms from the body.
It is believed that cucumber helps in reducing swelling around the eyes or the big dark circles under your eyes. This is world-wide treatment which is being used to its maximum extent.����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
A close look at checklist of medicinal flora tell us that these plants are not of Arabic origin but The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam), gave the references of such plants that are not only grown in Arab countries but exist through out the world. This shows that the Holy Prophet was light for the entire world.��������������������������������������������
Lagenaria siceraria (gourd) was liked very much by The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam).����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Narrated Anas bin Malik: A tailor invited the Prophet to a meal which he had prepared, and I went along with the Prophet. The tailor presented barley bread and soup containing gourd and cured meat. I saw the Prophet picking the pieces of gourd from around the dish, and since then I have kept on liking gourd. (Abd-us-Saboor, 1999).� Narrated Aisha: Rasullulah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said to me, �O Aishah when you are going to cooke (prepare) a meal from cure meat add to it gourd, because the gourd strengthens the sad hearts� (Chughtai, 2005).� The gourd has special importance according to Ahadith. It is eaten eagerly. The experienced hakims have been advising the use of gourd oil (Roghan-e-Kaddu) for the treatment of diseases of brain and blood pressure for years.���
The pulp around the seed is purgative. A poultice
of the crushed leaves has been applied to the head to treat headaches. The
flowers are an antidote to poison. The stem bark and the rind of the fruit
are diuretic. The fruit is antilithic, diuretic,
emetic and refrigerant.
foenum-graecum has got great importance in Ahadith.������������������������������� Qasim Bin Abdul Rehman narrates
that Rasulullah (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wassallam) said,
�Seek cure by (using) fenugreek� (Ghaznavi,
In another hadith Rasulullah
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, �If my followers (Ummat)
know the importance of the fenugreek then they will buy it by gold of equal
weight� (Ghaznavi, 1991).�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fenugreek is much used in herbal medicine. It has a wide range of
medicinal applications. It is a powerful tonic. It is useful for Back pain
(backache). Seeds in powder form are used for diabetes (Ahmad, 2003).���������������������������������������������������������������������
of one teaspoonful of the powder of its seeds daily is recommended locally
for the treatment of gout and diabetes. A paste of seeds and leaves is
applied to reduce swellings and inflammation. Seeds are soaked in water to
get mucilage, which is locally used to keep the skin
soft (Shah, 2007).��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
The powder of seeds can be used externally as a poultice for
abscesses, boils, burns etc.
Zingiber officinale Rosc.� It is another herbaceous plant which has a
reference in Holy Qura�n. �And they will be given
to drink there of a cup mixed with Zanjabil�.
Verse: 17, Surah Ad-Dahr.
According to Yousaf Ali the word Zanjabil
literally means Ginger. In eastern medicine ginger is administered to give
warmth to the body and zest to the taste. Now a days
there is much interest in medicinal plants through out the world including
developed countries like
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Table 1.� Phytogeography and Key to the Identification of vegetables