Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 193-217, 2010.

 

 

Ethnobotanical Observations in the Mornaula Reserve Forest of Kumoun, West Himalaya, India

 

Shreekar Pant* and S.S. Samant

 

Centre for Biodiversity Studies, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology,

Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri-185 131, J&K; and

G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development,

Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu- 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India

* Corresponding author E-mail: shreekarpant.2@rediffmail.com

 

Issued: February 01, 2010

 

 

Abstract

����������� A field trip was undertaken in the Mornaula Reserve Forest of Kumaun, West Himalaya, India. A collection of plants was made from this reserve forest at an altitude ranging from 1500-2200m amsl. Local people were contacted for the local names and uses of plants growing there. They are used as medicine, edible, fuel, fodder, timber, fiber, making agricultural implements and religious ceremonies.

Key words: Ethnobotany, Mornaula Reserve Forest, Indigenous Knowledge, Utilization Pattern.

 

Introduction

������� India is one of the leading countries in Asia in terms of the wealth of traditional knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and blessed with rich and diverse heritage of cultural traditions. The diverse natural habitats all over the Himalayan Region are rich repositories of plant diversity that are used for a variety of purposes i.e., food, fiber, fodder, medicine, spices, dyes, making agriculture implements etc. A large number of plants from the wild/cultivated are widely used in traditional systems of medicine and a few of them having trade values. More than 43% of the total flowering plants are reported to be of medicinal importance (Pushpangadan, 1995) and a large number of them are used in Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Unani systems of medicine. In the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) the use of medicinal plants is still a tradition continued by local people or ethnic communities. Even today the traditional health care practices hold much potential or most of the people depend upon the nearby plant species (Farooquee, 1994 and Maikhuri et al., 2000).��

�������� The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) harbours 18,440 species of the flora (Singh and Hajra, 1996). The rich plant diversity of the region is used for the various purposes such as medicinal, wild edible, fuel, fodder, religious, timber, making agricultural implements, etc. by the inhabitants. This is the fact that 1,748 medicinal plants, 675 wild edibles, 155 plants of sacred belief, 118 essential oil yielding medicinal plants and 279 fodder plants have been recorded from the IHR (Samant et al., 1998; Samant and Dhar, 1997; Samant and Pant, 2003; Samant and Palni, 2000 and Samant, 1998).

������� Several studies have been carried out on the use of the medicinal plants in the IHR in general and Uttarakhand State in particular (Samant et al., 1998; Joshi et al., 1999; Gaur, 1999; Pande and Joshi, 2001; Samant et al., 2001; Tripathi, 2001; Samant et al., 2002; Dhar et al., 2002; Samant and Pal, 2003; Kala et al., 2004; Kala, 2005 and Pant, 2005). But, most of the studies have given focused on inventorisation of the wild plants. Such kinds of studies have not been attempted by any of the workers in Reserve Forests of the Uttarakhand. Therefore, present study has been conducted in the surrounding villages of the Mornaula Reserve Forest (2924�-2930�N to 7949�-7952�E) of the Uttarakhand State to document the ethnobotany of the reserve forest in particular and in general.

 

Materials andMethodology

����� �����The present study is based on the extensive and intensive surveys conducted in 9 villages i.e., Khakar, Bhetuania, Dole, Damar, Tarani, Bercheula, Lohanigaon, Harinagar, and Nartola�� surrounding the MRF from 2002-2004. The old knowledgeable persons including village vaidhyas from each village were interviewed and information was generated on the local names, indigenous uses and traditional practices of the species( Photo 1, 2, and 3) and in some cases we used secondary sources (Jain, 1991). The fresh samples of the species were collected and brought to the Institute for identification with the help of research papers and local floras (Gaur, 1999; Osmaston, 1978; Babu, 1977; Naithani, 1985 and 85; Samant, 1987 and Pangtey et al., 1988). The nativity and endemism of the species have been identified based on the distribution of the species (Anonymous, 1883-1970; Samant, 1993; Samant et al., 2001 and Samant et al., 2002). The species restricted to the IHR have been identified as endemic and those extended to neighbouring countries and States, considered as near endemic.

 

���� information

Photo 1. Information generation on various aspects of resource utilization pattern (author and village vaidhyas).

scan39

B

 
 


Photo2.Traditional practice of thread preparation from the fibers of Cannabis sativa.

 

scan40

Photo 3. Indigenous use of plants as medicine by the inhabitants.

 

Results

Species Diversity and Utilization Pattern

������ The present study recorded 337 economically important species (trees: 75 spp.; shrubs: 69 spp.; and herbs: 193 spp. including pteridophytes: 07 spp.) belonging to 111 families and 260 genera from the MRF. These species have been used as medicine (221 spp.), wild edible/food (114 spp.), fodder (94 spp.), fuel (40 spp.), religious (12 spp.), making agricultural implements (11 spp.), timber (09 spp.), and various other uses (25 spp.). Among the useful species, 144 species had multipurpose utility and 193 species had single utility. The use pattern indicated that leaves of 117 species, whole plants of 79 species, fruits of 68 species, roots of 55 species, aerial parts of 28 species, barks of 27 species, seeds of 21 species, flowers of 18 species, and bulbs/tubers of 16 species were used, while the other parts such as latex, inflorescence, seed oil, bark oil and fronds were widely used for various purposes (Table 1).

Distribution pattern

Altitudinal distribution

 

������ The altitudinal distribution of the economically important species indicated that relatively maximum species were distributed between 1500-1800m amsl zone and minimum species in the zone >1801m. Altitudinal distribution of the economically important species within different use categories has been presented (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Altitudinal distribution of economically important species in MRF.

Nativity and Endemism

������ Among the economically important species (i.e.,337), 44.80 % species were native, 9.19 % species having Indian Origin and 45.99 % species were distributed to other biogeographic regions.

 

Indigenous uses

������ Of the total 337 economically important species, 221 species were used for curing various diseases/ailments. For example, fronds of Adiantum venustum were used in fever; roots of Acorus calamus were used for curing bronchitis, toothache, headache, and pain in neck; and Asparagus racemosus in rheumatism, bleeding from nose, blood from urine, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, gastric complaints, snake bite, menstrual complaints, ulcer on tounge, urinary complaints; whole plant of Artemisia nilagarica in asthma, ear complaints, epilepsy, menstrual complaints, nervous disease, skin disease, stomachache, and as tonic; roots of Bergenia ligulata in kidney stone;roots and leaves of Melothria heterophylla in antifertility, cuts, diabetes, fever, stomatache; roots of Malva verticillata in cough, emollient pectoral complaints, piles, ulcer, and urine complaints. The remaining species are used for the treatment of various diseases/ailments (Table 1).

��������

������� Among all the species, 144 species had multipurpose utility (Table 1), for example, Pistacia integerrima was used for medicine, edible (food), fodder, tannin, timber, and dye; Cornus capitata was used for edible fruits (food), fuel, and animal bedding; Quercus leucotrichophora was used for fuel, fodder and timber; Polygonatum verticillatum was used for medicine, edible (food) and other purposes; Cynodon dactylon was used for medicine, religious and ornamental purposes in lawns; Myrica esculenta as medicinal, edible, fuel, etc.; Grewia oppositifolia for medicine, fodder, fuel, and fibre; andPyrus pashia asmedicine, edible, fuel, fodder, and religious purpose.

 

Table 1. Economically important plants of the MRF, Kumaun, West Himalaya,India.����������

 

Family/Taxa

Local name

Altitudinal range (m)

Life form

Part/s used

Indigenous uses

Angiosperms

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Aechmanthera gossypina (Nees) Nees

-

1500-1800

Sh

AP

Fodder

Barlaria cristata L.

-

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (Anaemia, body pain, headache, swelling legs, toothache); edible

Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees

Kathmul

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Tonic)

Goldfussia dalhoussiana Nees

-

1500-2200

H

AP

Fodder; Making Dye

Justicia adhatoda L.

Adasthodalam

1500-1800

Sh

Rt, Fl, Fr, Lf, Wd

Medicinal (Antipyretic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, asthma, bronchitis, child birth, cold, consumption cough, dislocation of joints, eczema except febrifuge, malaria, pulmonary affect, rheumatism, swelling, venereal complaints); edible

Aceraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Acer cappadocicum Gledt.

Duthkhamia

1800-2200

T

Lf

Fodder

A. oblongum Wall.

Safed putli

1500-2000

T

Lf, St

Fodder; Agricultural tool;Timber; Fuel

Agavaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Agave americana L

Rambas

1500-1700

Sh

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Purgative, emmenagogue, diuretic)

Alliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Allium cepa L.

Lashun

1800-2000

H

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Anti anthelmintic, blisters, boils, bronchitis, piles, ring worm); used as spices

A. sativum L.

Jaubus

1800-2200

H

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Eczema, piles, rheumatic pain, whooping cough); Used as spices

Achyranthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Achyranthes aspera L.

Ultisah ji

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Abortifacient, antifertility in women, asthma, bleeding in delivery, boils, bronchitis, child birth, cold, cough, debility, dropsy, dog bite, dysentery, ear complaint, eye complaints, febrifuge, germicide, headache, hydrophobia, insect bite, laxative leucoderma, liver complaints, pain in ribs, body, piles, pneumonia, reduces hunger, renal complaints, rheumatism, scabies, scorpion bite, skin disease, sore, stomachache, syphilis, tonic, toothache, whooping cough, wounds, veterinary medicinal to expel placenta, eye complaints) ; Edible

A. bidentata Bl.

Adhajhar

1500-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Blisters in mouth, cholera hermicrania, scrofula, scorpion sting, swelling, whooping cough)

Amaranthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Kanta-bhanji

1500-1700

H

WP

Medicinal (Abortifacient, antiemetic, blood purifier, cold, cough, colic, eczema, gonorrhoea, heat in body, laxative, piles, purgative, scorpion sting, snake bite); Edible

Cyathula tomentosa (Roth) Moq.

-

1500-1800

H

Rt, Lf, Px

Medicinal (Skin disease); Fodder

Anacardiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Pistacia integerrima Sw.

Kakrasingi

1500-1800

T

Kr

Medicinal (Tonic, expectorant, cough, phtisis, asthma, fever, appetite, irritability of the stomach, chronic pulmonary affection, dyspeptic vomiting and diarrhoea); Edible; Fodder; Tanning; Timber; Dye

Rhus cotinus L.

-

1500-1800

Sh

Fr, Fl

Tanning, dye yellow

R. javanica L.

-

1500-1600

Sh

Lf

Fodder

R. parviflora Roxb.

Murthi

1500-2000

Sh

Rt, Fr, Bk

Medicinal (Sun burn); Edible

R. wallichii Hk. f.

-

1500-1800

T

St

Agricultural tool

Apiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC.

Kala-ajwain

1600-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Liver complaints)

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

Bramhi

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, blood disease, blood dysentery, brain tonic, cholera, cooling, cough, diarrhoea, diuretic, dysentery, eczema, eye complaints, fever, gastric disease, headache, insanity, leprosy, liver complaints, nervine disease, post natal tonic, respiratory disease, skin disease, stomachache, syphilis tonic tubercular, tumor, boil, urine complaints, wounds); Edible

Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.

Gandharajan

1700-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Leucoderma, menstrual complaints); Edible

Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.

Aulijhar

1500-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Dysentery, indigestion, fever)

Selinum tenuifolium Wall.

Bhutkesh

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Incense, insecticidal, nervine, sedative)

Apocynaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Trachelospermum lucidum (Don) K. Schum

-

1500-1800

Sh

Bk, Lf

Medicinal (Malarial fever); Fodder

Aquifoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ilex dipyrena Wall.

Bhasikaral

1600-2200

T

Lf, Wd

Fodder; Fuel

Araceae

 

 

 

 

 

Acorus calamus L.

Bach

1500-2200

H

Px, Rt, Rh

Medicinal (Bronchitis, Tooth problem, headache, pain in neck)

Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott

Bibanka

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Veterinary); Edible

A. flavum (Forsk.) Schott.

Bang

1600-2200

H

Bb

Medicinal (Skin disease)

A. jacquemontii Bl.

Bang

1700-2200

H

Bb

Medicinal (Ring worm, Skin disease); Edible

Araliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Hedera nepalensis Koch.

-

1500-2200

Sh

Fr, Lf

Medicinal (Cold, cough, Stimulant, diaphoretic, cathartic, rheumatism); Edible

Arecaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Phoenix humilis Royle

Khajoor

1500-1700

T

Fr

Edible

Asclepiadaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. and Schultes

Audita

1500-1800

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Rickets, milk supply); Fiber

Asparagaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Keruva

1500-2200

Sh

Fr, Rt

Medicinal (Anthlemintic, aphrodisiac, rheumatism, bleeding from nose, blood from urine, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, febrifuge, gastric complaints, gonorrhoea, headache, importance, leucorrhoea, menstrual complaints, snake bite, stomachache, tonic, ulcer on tongue, urine complaints, wounds); Edible

Asteraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Ajgandha

1500-1800

H

Lf

Medicinal (Antilithic for kidney stone, antiseptic, boils, burns, cancer, cuts, diarrhoea, flatul in colic, headache, heamostate, leprosy, muscular pain, piles, prolapsus anus, ringworm, scabies, skin disease, snake bite, sores, swell body, tumor, uterine disorder); Edible

Ainsliaea aptera DC.

Karu-buti

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Stomachache)

Anaphalis contorta (D.Don) Hk.f.

Poth

1500-2200

H

Fl

Medicinal (Antibacterial, stop bleeding)

A. triplinervis (Sims.) Cl.

Bukki

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Diuretic)

Artemisia nilagarica (Cl.) Pamp.

Pati

1500-2200

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Abscess, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, asthma, ear complaints, epilepsy, febrifuge haemostatic, headache, menstrual complaints, nervous disease, peptic ulcer, skin disease, sores, stomachache, tonic, vermifuge, wounds); Edible

Bidens pilosa L.

-

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (cough, cuts, diarrhoea, ear and eye complaints, headache, inflammation, leprosy, skin disease, snake bite, sores, wounds); Edible

Blumea lanciniata (Roxb.) DC.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Blood purification)

Conyza stricta Willd.

-

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (Bone fracture)

Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.

Pookiduva

1500-2000

H

Lf

Medicinal (Cuts, injuries, wounds as haemostat, stomachache)

Galinsonga parviflora Cav.

-

1500-2100

H

Lf

Medicinal (Stop bleeding)

Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauv.

Kapasi

1800-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Blood pressure, gastric disorder)

Inula cappa DC.

-

1500-2000

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Senecio nudicaulis Buch.-Ham. ex Don

-

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Cough, cold)

S. rufinervis DC.

-

1600-2100

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Chakor patti

1800-2200

H

AP

Medicinal (Jaundice, gout; liver complaints; tonic)

Tegetes minuta L.

Ban Hajari

1500-2200

H

WP

Oil (Aromatic)

Taraxacum officinalis Webber

Kanphul

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Blister blood purifier, bowel complaints, diuretic, dysentery, gastric, ulcer, headache, kidney disease, liver complaints, tonic, vertigo wounds); Edible

Youngia japonica (L.) DC.

-

2000-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Urine complaints)

Begoniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Begonia picta Sm.

-

1500-2000

H

Lf

Medicinal (Bristles on tongue, ulcer on mouth)

Berberidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis aristata DC.

Kilmora

1500-2200

Sh

Rt, Bk, Fr

Medicinal (Bite of rat, snakes, boils, eye complaints); Edible

B. asiatica Roxb.

Kilmora,Chutar

1500-2200

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Antidote to snake bite complaints, malaria, piles); Edible; Fuel

Betulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Alnus nepalensis Don

Utish

1500-2200

T

Lf, St

Fodder; Fuel; Agricultural tools,

Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex Don

Kat bhoj

1700-2200

T

St

Fuel; Timber

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Treatment of sores in mouth)

Brassica campestris L.

Sarsoo

1500-2200

H

WP, Sd

Edible; Religious

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik

-

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Blood pressure, iarrhea, dropsy)

Cardamine impatiens L.

-

1600-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Stimulant, diuretic)

Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern.

-

1500-1600

H

Sd

Medicinal (Asthma, bronchitis)

Thlaspi arvense L.

-

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Wounds, cuts. Pulmonary infection, swelling)

Buxaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcococa saligna (Don) Muell.-Arg.

Chamlohat

1500-2200

Sh

Lf, Fi

Fodder; Fibre (making fiber)

Caesalpiniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Bauhinia variegata L.

Guiral

1500-1800

T

Bk, Fl, Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Diarrhoea, dysentery, fatness, indigestion, laxative, leprosy, malaria, piles (bleed), scrofula, skin disease, snake bite, syphilis, tumors, ulcers, worms); Edible

Cannabaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cannabis sativa L.

Bhang

1500-2200

H

Bk, Lf, Sd, Fr, Fl

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, appetite, bowel complaints, bronchitis, cold, cough, convulsion, cramp, eye disease, gonorrhoea, laxative, narcotic, nervine stimulant, paralysis of tongue, piles, skin disease, skin eruption); Edible

Caprifoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lonicera quinqulocularis Hardw.

Badkukra

1600-2200

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Viburnum cotinifolium Don

Titmolia

1600-2200

Sh

Bk, Fr, St

Medicinal (Menorrhea); Edible; Fodder; Fuel

V. mullaha Buch.-Ham. ex Don

Titmuya

1600-2200

T

Fr

Edible; Fodder; Fuel

Caryophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cerastium cerastioides (L.) Britt.

Pangein

1700-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Backache, bodyache, headache, renal pain, cough)

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd.

-

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (Asthma, burn, cold, diarrhoea, dysentery, food poison, heavy fever, headache, insect bite, laxative, mouth and tongue sores, pneumonia, skin disease, snake bite, stomachache, vomiting, wounds)

Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Bone fracture); Edible

Celastraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Euonymus pendulus Wall.

Kanki

1700-2100

T

Lf

Fodder

Maytenus rufa (Wall. ex Roxb.) Raju and Babu

-

1500-1800

T

Fr

Edible

Chenopodiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Chenopodium album L.

Bathua

1500-2000

H

Lf, Sd

Medicinal (To revive taste, skin disease, urine complaints); Edible

C. ambrosioides L.

Chisikbol

1500-2000

H

Lf

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, vermifuge)

Combretaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Harar

1600-1800

T

Fr, Bk

Medicinal (Bronchitis, cold, colic, constipation, cough, diabetes, diarrhoea, disuria, dysentery, eczema, eye disease, haematuria, indigestion, measels, menstrual, complaints, pneumonia, purgative, sores in throat, spleen complaints,); Edible

Commelinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Commelina benghalensis L.

Kankaua

1500-1600

H

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Diarrhoea, fever, irritation by bristles of caterpillar, laxative, liver complaints refrigerent, scorpion bite, snake bite, sores, wounds); Edible

C. paludosa Bl.

Patugia

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (on insect stings)

Coriariaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Coriaria nepalensis Wall.

-

1500-2000

T

Fr

Edible

Cornaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cornus capitata Wall.

Bamor

1500-2000

T

Fr, St

Edible; Fuel; Agricultural tools

C. macrophylla Wall.

Khagsoo

1500-2000

T

Fr, St

Edible; Fuel

C. oblonga Wall.

-

1800-2200

T

St

Fuel

Corylaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Carpinus viminea Lindl.

Chamkharik

1500-2200

T

Lf, St, Bk

Medicinal (Stomachache, liver complaints); Fodder; Fuel

Crassulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Kalanchoe pennata (Lamk.) Pers.

Patherchut

1500-1800

H

Lf

Medicinal (Amoebic dysentery, body heat, boils, sores, wounds, gastric complaints, headache, influenza, insect bite, kidney stone)

Cucurbitaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam.

Kaddu

1500-2200

H

Fr, Sd

Medicinal (Intestinal Worms), Edible

Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cong.

Bankakri

1700-2200

H

Rt, Lf, Fr

Medicinal (Antifertility, cuts, diabetes, fever, stomachache); Edible

Trichosanthes tricuspidata

Indraini

1500-2000

H

Lf, Rt, Sd

Medicinal (Burns, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, pneumonia, rheumatism, snake bite, vomiting); Edible

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Carex cruciata Walhlenb.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Fodder

Cyperus compressus L.

-

1500-1800

H

WP

Fodder

C. difformis L.

-

1500-1800

H

WP

Fodder

C. niveus L.

-

1500-2000

H

WP

Fodder

C. squarrosus L.

-

1500-1800

H

WP

Fodder

C. triceps Lindl.

-

1500-1800

H

WP

Fodder

Dioscoriaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Dioscorea belophylla Voigt.

Tarar-ki-bel

1500-1900

H

Tu

Medicinal (boils, jaundice); Edible

D. bulbifera L.

Dhankanda

1500-1800

H

Tu

Medicinal (Abdominal pain, boils, bone fracture, dysentery, piles, jaundice)

D. deltoidea Wall. ex Kunth

Gun

1500-2200

H

Tu

Medicinal (Dysentery, piles); Edible

Droseraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Drosera peltata Sm.

Bachizhar

1700-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Curious, insectivorus); Fodder; Dye

Ehretiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cordia wallichii G. Don

-

1600-2200

T

Fr, Bk

Edible

Elaeagnaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.

Palaga

1500-2000

Sh

Fl, Fr

Medicinal (Sores, ulcer); Edible

Ericaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude

Angyar

1500-2200

T

WP

Medicinal (Boils, pimples, skin eruption, worms, wounds); Fuel

Rhododendron arboreum Sm.

Burans

1500-2200

T

Fl, Lf

Medicinal (Dysentery, fever, headache, rheumatism, wounds); Edible; Fuel

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Daphniphyllum himalayense Muell.-Arg.

Ragarchhanan

1700-2200

T

Lf

Fodder

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Amla

1500-1600

T

Fr, Sd, Bk, Lf

Medicinal (Antiemetic, asthma, bronchitis, burns, cold, constipation, cooling, diabetes, diuretic, dysentery, eye complaints, fever, headache, laxative, liver complaints, madness, purgative, revive taste, scorpion bite, stomach complaints, thirst vaginal complaints, wounds, veterinary stomach disease); Edible

Euphorbia hirta L.

Dudhi

1600-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Abscess, antidote in snake bite, asthma, boils of mouth, breast pain, bronchitis infection, burns, colic, cough, cuts, diarrhoea, dysentery, eczema, excess lactation, eye complains, gonorrhoea, kidney disease, lactation-complaints, pain, postanal complaints, rickets, ring worm, scabies, scorpion bite, skin disease sores on breast, toothache, vomiting); Edible

Glochidion velutinum Wt.

-

1500-1700

T

Lf, St

Fuel; Tanning

Phyllanthus virgatus Frost.

Bhui-amla

1500-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Asbcess, cold and fever, dysentery, gonorrhoea, itch, piles, stomachache); Edible

Sapium insigne Trim.

Chiran

1500-1600

T

La

Medicinal (Germicidal)

Fabaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Crotalaria albida Heyne ex Roth

Ban methi

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Purgative)

Dalbergia sericea G. Don

-

1500-1600

T

Lf

Fodder

Desmodium concinum DC.

-

1500-1800

Sh

AP

Fodder

D. elegans DC.

Bhatul

1500-2200

Sh

St, Lf

Fodder; Fuel

D. gangeticum (L.) DC.

Salpan

1500-2000

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Antidote to snake venom, asthma, bronchitis, cough, dysentery, eye infection, fever, tonic, vomiting); Fodder

D. heterocarpon (L.) DC.

Sarivan

1500-1600

Sh

Rt

Medicinal (Cough, fever, tonic)

D. microphyllum (Thunb.) DC.

Chattomara

1500-1600

H

Rt

Medicinal (abortifacient)

Flemingia fruticosa Wall. ex Benth.

-

1600-2200

Sh

Lf

Fodder

F. strobilifera (L.) Ait.

Chauranga

1500-1600

H

Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Epilepsy); Fodder

F. semialata Roxb.

-

1500-1800

Sh

Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Ulcer, neck swelling, external use); Dye

F. vestita Benth. ex Baker

Ajher

1500-2200

H

Rt, Fr, Tu

Edible

Indigofera atropurpurea Buch.-Ham.ex Roxb.

Sakena

1500-2200

Sh

Lf, Fl

Fodder; Dye

I. cylindrica Wall. ex Baker

Sakena

1500-1900

Sh

Lf, Fl

Fodder; Dye

I. heterantha Wall. ex Brandis

Sakena

1800-2100

Sh

Lf

Fodder

I. pulchella Roxb.

Sakena

1500-1800

Sh

Lf, Fl, Infl

Medicinal (Cough, epilepsy, mennorhagea, swelling face in labour); Edible

Lespedeza gerardiana Grah. ex Baker

-

1500-2000

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Medicago lupulina L.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Fodder

Melilotus indica (L.) All.

Senj

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Plaster for swelling, bowel complaints, infantile, diarrhoea)

Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Wild.) DC.

Ghora-bel, Bilaikand

1500-1800

Sh

Tu, Rt

Medicinal (Abdominal pain, antiemetic, asthma, bodyache, chest pain, cholera, diarrhoea, fever, lactation, mennorhoea, rheumatism, skin disease, swelling, syphilis, tonic, ulcer, veterinary lactation); Edible

Trifolium repens L.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Dandruff)

Vicia sativa L.

-

1500-1800

H

Fr, AP

Edible; Fodder

Zornia gibbosa Span.

Hirankurni

1600-1900

H

WP

Medicinal (Cramps, dysentery, sedative, sores, wounds, spermatorrhoea)

Fagaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Quercus floribunda Thunb.

Kharsu

1500-2200

T

Lf, St

Fodder; Agricultural tools

Q. leucotrichophora A. Camus

Banj

1500-2200

T

St, Lf

Fodder; Fuel; Timber

Gentianaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don

Chiraitu

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Malarial fever)

S. cordata Wall. ex Cl.

Chiraita

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, antiperiodic, Appetite, laxative)

S. paniculata Wall.

Chiraita

1700-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Fever)

Geraniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Geranium nepalense Sw.

Lajari

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Cuts, jaundice, toothache, ulcer, wounds, stomach complaints); Dye

G. wallichianum Don ex Sw.

-

2000-2200

H

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Astringent, ear and eye disease, toothache)

Gesneriaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Didymocarpus pedicellata R.Br.

-

1600-2200

H

Lf, Fl, Sd

Medicinal (Stone in kidney, bladder)

Haemodoraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Mondo intermedium (Don) Bailey

-

1600-2200

H

WP

Fodder

Hippocastanaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Aesculus indica Colebr.

Panger

1500-2100

T

Fr, Bk, Rt, Sd oil, Kr

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, dislocated joints, diuretic, leucorrhoea, skin fissures, cracks, veterinary medicine, wounds); Edible

Hydrangeaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrangea anomala Don

-

1500-2000

Sh

WP

Fodder

Hypericaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Hypericum elodeoides Choisy.

-

1500-2200

Sh

WP

Fodder

H. javanicia Thunb.

-

1500-2000

Sh

Lf

Fodder

H. oblongifolium Choisy.

Gophal

1800-2200

Sh

Lf, Fl

Medicinal (Wounds, boils); Fodder

H. uralum Buch.-Ham.

-

1800-2200

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Hypoxidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Kali-musli

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Abortifacient antidote to poison, asthma, blindness, cough, cuts, dysentery, ear complaints, epilepsy, eye complaints like white spots on ball, filaria, fever, galactagogue, itching, leucorderma, nose bleed, piles, bleed, scorpion bite, skin disease, snake bite, tonic, venereal complaints, wounds veterinary, eye disease); Edible

Hypoxis aurea Lour.

-

1500-2000

H

Tu

Medicinal (Injuries, swelling); Edible

Juglandaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Engelhardtia spicata Bl.

Ripekam

1500-1600

T

Lf

Fish poison

Juglans regia L.

Akhrot

1500-2200

T

Bk, Lf, Fr

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, astringent, frost bite, rheumatism, sores of toes, toothache); Edible, fuel

Lamiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ajuga brachystemon Maxim.

-

1500-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Ascariasis)

A. parviflora Benth.

Tipati

1500-2200

H

Lf, Sd

Medicinal (Ascariasis)

Anisomeles indica (L.) Ktze.

Ramtulsi

1500-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Antidote to poisonous bite, antipyretic, astringent, carminative, fever, muscles pain, nervous complaints, refrigerant, uteric infection)

Colebrookia oppositifolia Sm.

-

1500-1800

H

Px, Lf

Medicinal (Cough, sores, wounds)

Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Bri.

Badda-jari

1500-1900

H

Rt

Medicinal (Blood pressure, constipation, tonic)

Mentha arvensis L.

Podina

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Stomach ache, liver disorder, vomiting)

Ocimum canum Sm.

Tulsi

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Bronchitis, itching, ear complaints, leprosy, fever, ring worm); Edible (As Tea); Religious

Origanum vulgare L.

Bantulsi

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Cold, diarrhoea, fever, hysteria, influenza, menstrual complaints, stimulant, tonic); Edible, Religious

Salvia lanata Roxb.

Gania

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Adulterant)

Thymus linearis Benth.

Banajwain

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, eye disorder, heating effect, labour, postnatal, liver complaints, skin disease, stomach ache, vermicidal); Edible

Lardizabalaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Hoelboelia latifolia Wall.

-

1500- 2200

Sh

Fr

Edible

Lauraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cinnamoum tamala Nees and Ebern

Tajpat

1500-1600

T

Bk, Lf

Medicinal (Heart and throat complaints); Spices

Litsea umbrosa Nees

Putli

1600-2200

T

Lf

Fodder; Fuel

Persea duthiei (King. ex Hk.f.) Kostern.

Kaul

1500-2200

T

Lf

Fuel; Fodder

P. odoratissima Nees

Kaul

1800-2200

T

Lf

Fuel; Fodder

Leeaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale

Kumali

1500-1700

H

Fl, Rt, Fr

Medicinal (Cuts, wounds, rheumatism, snake bite, urine complaints); Edible

Liliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Gloriosa superba L.

-

1500-1600

H

Rh, Px, Rt

Medicinal (Rheumatic pain, leprosy, piles, gout)

Lilium polyphyllum Don ex Royle

Kandmool

1600-2200

H

Bb

Medicinal (Tonic)

Paris polyphylla Sm.

Satwa

1600-2000

H

Rh

Medicinal (Diarrhoea, fever)

Polygonatum verticillatum Wall.

Khol

1500-2000

H

Rh, Bb

Medicinal (Aphrodisiac, appetite, nervine tonic, tonic); Edible

Smilacina purpurea Wall.

-

1700-2200

H

WP

Edible

Trillidium govanianum (Don.) Kunth

Satwa

1800-2200

H

Tu

Medicinal (Dysentery)

Tulipa stellata Hk. f.

-

1500-1600

H

Fr

Edible

Loranthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Dendrophthoe subfalcata (L.f.) Etting

-

1500-1700

Sh

Fr

Edible

Taxillus vestitus (Wall.) Danser

-

1500-2200

Sh

Fr

Edible

Viscum album L.

Raghumola

1500-1800

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Abortifacient, antifertility bodyache, spleen complaints)

Lythraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz.

Dhai

1500-1600

Sh

St, Fl, Rt, Infl

Medicinal (Bleed in pregnancy, bone fracture, burns, cancer, carbuncle, cholera, cooling, cough, diarrhoea, dropsy, dysentery, fever, haemorrhage, injuries, loss of appetite in pregnancy, mennorhoea, muscle pain, nausea, night blindness, fever, rheumatism, skin disease, small pox, sores, spleen complaints, sprain, tonic, ulcer wounds, veterinary sores); Edible

agnoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Michelia kisopa Buch.-Ham.

Chafa

1700-1800

T

Wd

Fuel; Agricultural tools

Malvaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Gossypium arboreum L.

Kapas

1600-1800

H

Fi (Fiber)

Religious

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Gurhal

1500-1900

H

Fl

Medicinal (Kidney disease, Urine complaints); Religious

Malva verticillata L.

Chiroti

1700-2000

H

Sd, Lf, Rt, Sh

Medicinal (Cough, emollient pectoral complaints, piles, ulcer, urine complaints); Edible

Melastomaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Osbeckia stellata Buch.- Ham. ex Don

Handisamba

1500-2000

Sh

Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Cough, digestion, dysentery, nose bleed, snake bite, wounds, stomachache, toothache)

Meliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Melia azedarach L.

Bakain

1500-1600

T

Fr, Lf, Bk, Sh

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, antiseptic, blood purification, hair fall, headache, insecticidal, promote conception, rheumatism, gout, skin disease, vermifuge, wounds); Edible

Toona ciliata Roem.

Toon

1500-1600

T

Bk, Fr, Lf

Medicinal (Antiseptic, dysentery, bronchitis, fever, gastric trouble); Fodder

T. serrata (Royle) Roem.

Dalla

1500-1600

T

St

Agricultural tools

Menispermaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cissampelos pariera L.

-

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (Stomachic, tonic, diuretic and antilithic, astringent, diarrhoea, dropsy, urinary problem)

Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers.

Ganjaroo

1500-1800

H

Tu, Rt

Medicinal (Asthma, body pain, headache, eye and skin diseases, tumor in stomach)

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.

Giloe, Gurch

1500-1600

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Antipyretic, aphrodisiac, asthma, bone fracture, cough, debile, diarrhoea, diphtheria, dysentery, fever, headache, stomachache, tooth ache); Edible

Mimosaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Acacia dealbata Link.

Acacia

1500-1800

T

Bk, St

Timber; Fuel; Tanning

Albizia julibrissin Duraz

Siris

1700-2110

T

Lf

Medicinal (Astringent, leprosy, piles, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea); Fodder; Timber

Moraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ficus nemoralis Wall. ex Mir

Chil

1500-2200

T

Lf, Fr

Edible; Fodder; Fuel

F. palmata Forsk.

Bedu

1500-2000

T

Fr, La

Medicinal (Dysentery, indigestion, laxative); Edible; Fodder

F. religiosa L.

Pipal

1500-1800

T

Lf, Fr, Px, Bk

Medicinal (Abortifacient, asthma, blisters, boils, ulcer, carbuncle, cholera, dysentery, fever, gonorrhoea, haematuria, laxative, rheumatism, scabies, skin disease, small pox, snake bite, sores, sores in mouth, spermatorrhoea, tonic, toothache, uninary complaints, whooping cough); Edible

F. roxburghii Wall.

Timala

1500-2000

T

Lf, Rt, Sh

Edible; Fodder

F. rumphii Bijdr.

Pilik

1500-1600

T

Fr

Edible; Fodder

F. scandens Lam.

Bedhuli

1500-1800

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Morus serrata Roxb.

Keemu

1500-2000

T

Fr, Lf

Edible; Fodder

Musaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Musa paradisiaca L.

Kela

1500-2200

H

Fr, WP

Edible; Religious

Myricaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Myrica esculenta Buch.- Ham. ex Don

Kaphal

1500-2200

T

Bk, Fr

Medicinal (Asthma, cholera, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, indigestion, malaria menorrhoea, rheumatism); Edible; Fuel

Myrsinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Myrsine africana L.

Darimkunji

1500-2200

Sh

AP

Medicinal (Cathartic, colic pain, vermifuge); Broom making

Myrtaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Psidium guajava L.

Amrud

1500-1600

T

Fr

Edible

Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels

Jamun

1500-1600

T

Bk, Lf, St, Sd

Medicinal (Anemia, astringent, blisters in mouth, cancer, colic, diabetes, diarrhoea, digestion complaints, dysentery, piles, pimples, stomachache, tonic); Edible

Oleaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Fraxinus micrantha L.

Angua

1500-2000

T

St

Agricultural tool; Fuel

Jasminum dispermum Wall.

Chameli

1500-1800

Sh

Lf

Fodder

J. grandiflorum L.

 

1600-1800

Sh

Lf, Fl

Fodder, Essential oil

J. humile L.

Sungli

1500-2000

Sh

Rt, Bk

Medicinal (Skin disorder, sinus)

Orchidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Habenaria edgeworthii Hk.f. ex Collett

-

1800-2100

H

Tu

Medicinal (Blood purifier, rejuvenator)

H. intermedia Don

-

1500-2000

H

Tu

Medicinal (Tonic); Edible

Malaxis acuminata Don

Lasania

1500-2200

H

Lf, Rt

Medicinal (Tonic)

M. cylindrostachya (Lindl.) O.Ktze

-

1500-2000

H

Pseudo bulb

Medicinal (Tonic)

Satyrium nepalense Don

-

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Malaria, dysentery and tonic)

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Kahtta-mitha

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Appetite, cooling, corn, cough, cuts, diarrhoea, digestive, dysentery, epilepsy, eye complaints, fever, insect bite, jaundice, refrigerant, scurvy, skin disease, snake bite, stomachache, swelling, wart); Edible

Parnassiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Parnassia nubicola Wall.ex Royle

Nibris

1800-2200

H

Tu

Medicinal (Food poisoning, snakebite)

Plantaginaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Plantago himalaica Pingler

Isabgol

1600-2200

H

Sd

Medicinal (Catarrhoea, gonorrhoea, nephritic, dysentery, diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea, fever, rheumatism, gouty swelling, cough, cold)

P. lanceolata L.

 

Isabgol

1600-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Blood purifier)

P. ovata L.

Isabgol

1600-2200

H

Sd

Medicinal (Catarrhoea, gonorrhoea, nephritic, dysentery, diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea, fever, rheumatism, gouty swelling, cough, cold)

Poaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Apluda mutica L.

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Medicinal (Mouthsores); Fodder

Arundinella nepalensis (Trin.) Hochr.

-

1500-2200

H

AP

Medicinal (Making lotion for washing wounds)

A. pumila (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud.

-

1800-2200

H

AP

Fodder

Avena sativa L.

-

1500-2000

H

AP

Edible; Fodder

Arthraxon lanceolatus (Steud.) Dandy

-

1700-2200

H

AP

Fodder

A. lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst.

-

1700-2200

H

AP

Fodder

A. nudus (Steudr.) Hochst.

-

1500-2000

H

AP

Fodder

Bothriochola intermedia (R.Br.) A. Camus

-

1500-2200

H

AP

Fodder

B. pertusa (L.) A. Camus

-

1700-2200

H

AP

Fodder

Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf.

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Fodder

Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin.

-

1500-2200

H

AP

Fodder

C. serrulatus Trin.

-

1500-2000

H

AP

Fodder

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Doob

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Antifertility, carbuncle, cramps, cooling cramps, dropsy, dysentery, hysteria, headache, menstrual complaints, ophthalmia, piles, snake bite, sores, stop bleed tonic, ulcers in stomach, urinary complaints, vomiting, wounds); Religious

Cymbopogon distans (Nees) Wats.

-

1500-1800

H

Sd

Essential oil

C. martinii (Roxb.) Wats.

Rosha

1800-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Biliousness, rheumatism, skin disease)

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees

Mat, Karil

1500-1700

T

Lf, Rt, Sh, Sd

Medicinal (Antifertility, cough, fever on injuries, tonic, veterinary); Edible

Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk.) Stapf.

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Fodder

Digitaria cruciata (Nees ex Steud.) A. Camus

-

1600-2000

H

AP

Fodder

Drepanostachyunm falcatum (Nees) Keng.f.

-

1500-2200

Sh

Lf

Fodder

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Anamandia

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Fever)

Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv.

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Fodder

Erianthus rufipilus (Steud.) Griseb

Kans ghas

1500-1600

H

AP

Fodder; Religious

Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) Hubb.

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Fibre; Cordage; Matting

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv.

Kher

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Asthma, atrophy, dysentery, emaciation, fever, muscle pain, piles, rabies, dog, jackal bite, scorpion sting, snake bite, toothache)

Isachne albens Trin

-

1500-1800

H

AP

Fodder

Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.

Kangua

1500-2200

H

Sd

Edible

Themeda anathera (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.

-

1500-2200

H

AP

Fodder

Poa annua L.

-

1800-2200

H

AP

Fodder

P. lpine L.

-

1600-2200

H

AP

Fodder

Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb) Ktze.

Aous

1500-1700

Sh

Sd, Fl, Rt, Px, St, Infl

Fodder; Broom

Polygonaceae

-

 

 

 

 

Fagophyrum debotrys (Don) Hara

Jahnkara

1500-2200

H

Rt, Lf, Sd, St

Medicinal (Vermicide); Edible

F. esculentum (L.) Moench.

Ugal

1500-2200

H

Rt, Fr, Lf

Medicinal (Lung disorder, rheumatism, typhoid, urine complaints); Edible

Polygonum amplexicaule Don

Ban-madua

1500-2200

H

Lf, Rh

Medicinal (Cough, dysentery, haemostat, tonic); Edible

P. capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex Don

-

1500-1800

H

WP

Medicinal (Antidote in snake bite, boils, insect stings)

P. hydropiper L.

Jiyanti

1500-2000

H

Infl, Lf

Medicinal (Ringworm, skin disease)

P. nepalense Meissn.

Birsai

1500-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Swelling); Edible

P. recumbens Royle ex Bab.

Vishalaya

1600-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Abscess, blood purification, boil, skin disease, nodule formation)

Rumex nepalensis Spr.

Khuldia

1500-2200

H

Lf, Tw, Rt

Medicinal (Boil, colic, cooling, diuretic, purgative, scurvy, swelling of muscles)

R.hastatus Don

Chalmora

1500-2200

H

WP

Edible

Primulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lysimachia lobelioides Wall. ex Hk.

-

1500-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Snake bite)

Primula denticulata Sm.

-

1600-2200

H

Lf

Religious

Punicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Punica granatum L.

Anar

1500-2200

T

Rt, St, Fr, Lf

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, stop bleeding, child birth, miscarriage, cholera, cooling, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, eye complaints, pimples, stomachache); Edible

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Clematis buchananiana DC.

Veraphul

1500-2200

H

Lf, Rt, St

Medicinal (Skin disease, sores, tumors)

Delphinium denudatum Royle

Nirbishi

1800-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (abdominal pain, anthelmintic, respiratory complaint, toothache, ulcer, vetlice, ticks)

Ranunculus diffusus DC.

Ranunculus

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Boils)

Thalictrum foliolosum DC.

Mamiri

1600-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Abdominal pain, blood purification, boils, earache, eczema, eye disease, fever luecoderma, piles, rheumatism, gout, tonic, toothache)

Rhamnaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Rhamnus purpureus Edgew.

Bakauro

1600-2200

Sh

Fr

Medicinal (Purgative)

R. virgatus Roxb.

Chato

1500-2200

Sh

Fr

Medicinal (Emetic, purgative, affection of spleen)

 

Rosaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cotoneaster microphylla Wall. ex Lindl.

Bakari Chara

1500-2200

Sh

Rh, Lf

Medicinal (Astering); Fodder; Edible

Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focks.

Jangli-haldier

1500-1600

H

WP

Medicinal (Cuts, eye disease, swelling, ulcer on tongue, veterinary); Edible

Fragaria nubicola L.

Bankahal

1500-2200

H

Fr

Edible

Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hk.f.

Bajrdanti

1500-2000

H

Rt

Medicinal (Astering, gum, tooth complaints, tonic)

Prinsepia utilis Royle

Bhainkal

1800-2200

Sh

Sd, Fr

Medicinal (Burns, cuts, rheumatism, wounds); Edible

Prunus armeniaca L.

Khubani

1500-2000

T

Fr

Edible; Fuel

P. cerasoides Don

Paya, Padam

1500-2000

T

Lf, Fr

Fodder; Edible; Fuel; Religious

Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem.

Ghingaru

1500-2200

Sh

Fr, St

Edible; Fuel; Agricultural tool

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex Don

Mehal

1500-2200

T

Lf, Fr

Medicinal (Eye complaints); Edible; Fuel; Fodder; Religious

Rosa moschata L.

Rosa

1500-2200

Sh

Fr

Edible; Fuel; Fodder

Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Hisalu

1500-2200

Sh

Fr

Edible

R. ellipticus Don

Hisalu

1500-2000

Sh

Fr, Rt

Medicinal (Dysentery, malaria, stomachache, worms); Edible

R. paniculatus Sm.

Jogi-hisalu

1500-2200

Sh

Lf, Fr

Medicinal (Diarrhoea, stomach disorder); Edible

Stranvaesia naussia (Don) Dcne.

Garmehal

1500-2200

T

Lf, St

Fodder; Fuel

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Leptodermis lanceolata Wall.

Baramujara

1500-2200

Sh

Rt

Medicinal (Boils, blisters in mouth)

Randia tetrasperma (Roxb.) Benth.

-

1500-1900

Sh

Fr

Edible

Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Flem.

Manjith

1500-2200

H

St, Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Antidote to scorpion bite, snake bite, astringent, chest complaints, lecuoderma, inflammation, jaundice, liver complaints, paralysis, menorrhoea, urine complaints, ulcer, stomachache); Dye

Rutaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Boeninghausenia albiflora (Hk.) Reichb

Nukmman

1800-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (Toothache, wounds, kill flee, lice, other insects)

Citrus limon (L.) Burm.

Nibu

1500-2000

T

Fr

Medicinal (Digestive disorder; headache)

C. medica L.

Nibu

1500-1800

T

Fr

Medicinal (Digestive disorder, headache, liver complaints, gastric complaints)

Skimmia laureola (DC.) Zucc.

Naraya patti

1700-2200

Sh

Lf

Medicinal (Incense); Religious (making dhoop)

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Timur

1500-1800

T

Fr, Sd

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, carminative, cough, cholera, fever, eczema, itching, leucoderma, piles, rheumatism, small pox, snake bite, stomachache, indigestion, tonic, tooth complaints); Edible

Sabiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Meliosma pungens Walp.

Ghosa

1500-2000

T

Lf

Fodder; Fuel

Salicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle

Makal

1600-2000

T

Bk, Wd

Medicinal (Bone fracture)

Saxifragaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Astible rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex Don

Padum

1500-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Blood purification, toothache); Edible

Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl.

Silphor, Pashanbhed

1500-2200

H

Lf, Rh

Medicinal (Asthma, boils, cuts, wounds, burns, fever, liver complaints, piles, kidney stone, urine complaints); Edible

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lindenbergia indica (L.) Ktze.

-

1500-2000

H

Lf

Medicinal (Bronchitis, skin disease, eruption, throat sore, toothache)

Pedicularis bicornuta Klotz. ex Klotz. and Garcke

-

2000-2200

H

Lf

Medicinal (Bodyache, sedative)

Verbascum thapsus L.

Akalveer

1500-2200

H

Sd

Medicinal (Asthma, cough, diarrhoea, inflammation, leucoderma, veterinary)

Smilacaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Smilax aspera L.

Kukaradara

1500-2200

Sh

Rt, Lf, St

Medicinal (Skin eruption, sores, wounds); Fuel

Solanaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cestrum nocturnum L.

-

1500-2000

Sh

WP

Medicinal (Antispasmodic, epilepsy)

Datura stramonium L

Datura

1500-1600

H

Lf, Px, Sd, Fr

Medicinal (Asthma, dislocation of joints, jaundice, rheumatism, stomach complaints, toothache, veterinary lactation)

Solanum indicum L.

Banbhantawa

1500-2200

H

Fr, Rt

Medicinal (Bodyache, fever, toothache, wounds, veterinary, bleeding from nostrils); Edible

S. nigrum L.

Makoi, Ninini

1500-2000

H

WP

Medicinal (Boils, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, ear complaints, eye complaints, fever, goiter, inflame of scrotum, testile kidney bladder, jaundice, liver complaints, nostril complaints, piles, rheumatism, skin disease, sores, stomachache, swelling, throat trouble, ulcer in mouth, urine complaints); Edible

Symplococaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Drace

Lodh

1500-2200

T

Bk, Lf

Medicinal (Astringent, diarrhoea); Fuel; Agricultural tools

Theaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Eurya acuminata DC.

Dhiyar

1500-2200

T

Lf

Medicinal (Dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, stomach disease)

Thymelaeaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Daphne papyracea Wall. ex Steud.

-

1500-2200

Sh

Rt, Lf

Medicinal (Intestinal complaints); Fodder; Fiber (Making)

Wikstroemia canescens Meissn.

-

1800-2200

Sh

Lf, Bk

Medicinal (Piscidal); Fiber (Making)

Tiliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Grewia oppositifolia Buch.-Ham.

Bhimal

1500-1700

T

Lf, St, Bk

Medicinal (Eruption, fever, veterinary, bone fracture as splinter); Fodder; Fiber; Fuel

Ulmaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Celtis australis L.

Kharik

1500-2000

T

Lf, Rt, Bk

Fodder; Fuel

Ulmus wallichiana Planch

Pa Uttis

1800-2200

T

Bk

Medicinal (Bone fracture, Bone dislocation)

Urticaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Debregeasia longifolia (N. Burman) Wedd.

Tushiaru

1500-2000

T

Fr, Lf

Edible; Fodder

D. salicifolia (Don) Rendl.

-

1500-2000

T

Fr, Lf

Fodder; Edible

Girardinia palmata (Forsk.) Gaud.

Bangre-sisnu

1600-2200

H

Bk, St

Fiber

Parietaria debilis Frost

Chiphal-jar

1500-2200

H

Rt

Medicinal (To remove dandruffs)

Pilea scripta (Buch.-Ham. ex Don) Wedd.

Patyu

1500-2200

H

AP

Fodder

Pouzolzia hirta Hassk.

-

1500-1600

H

Lf

Medicinal (Hair tonic)

Urtica hyperborea Jacq. ex Wedd.

Bichhu ghass

1500-2200

H

WP, Lf

Medicinal (Antiseptic, gout, swelling)

U. parviflora Roxb.

Kaniyali, Lovie

1500-2200

Sh

Sd, Lf, Rt, Infl

Medicinal (Astringent, dog bite, wound, kidney disorder, post natal tonic, throat pain, tonic); Edible

Valerianaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Valeriana hardwickii Wall.

Samaya

1800-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Antidote to poisonous insects scorpion, epilepsy, hysteria, neurosis, skin disease); Religious

V. jatamansi Jones

Samayo

1500-2200

H

Rh

Medicinal (Epilepsy, hysteria, urine complaints); Religious

Verbenaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Callicarpa arborea Roxb.

Arhi

1500-1600

T

Lf, St, Bk

Medicinal (Fever, gastric disease, gidding, headache, pneumonia, scorpion sting, skin disease)

Clerodendron serratum (L.) Moon

Bhetkona

1500-1600

H

Rt, Lf, Fl

Medicinal (Anasarca, appetite, bodyache, cholera, cuts, dropsy, cough, eye disease, fever, malaria, rheumatism, snake bite, ulcer, wounds); Edible

Violaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Viola canescens Wall.

Banfasa

1500-2200

H

Lf, Fl

Medicinal (Asthma, bronchitis, cold, cough, eye disease, malaria)

V. pilosa L.

Banfasa

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Antipyretic, biliousness, cold, cough, diaphoretic fever, lung disease)

Vitaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Parthenocissus himalayana (Royle) Planch.

-

1600-2200

Sh

Fr

Edible; Fodder

Vitis lanata Roxb.

-

1500-1800

Sh

WP

Fodder

Zingiberaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Curcuma longa

-

1600-2000

H

Rh, Lf

Medicinal (Cough, fiver, leprosy, insect bite, body swell, wounds)

Globa racemosa Sm.

-

1500-2200

H

WP

Medicinal (Whooping cough)

Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Ban-haldi

1500-2200

H

Rh

Medicinal (Asthma, blood purification, bronchitis, nausea); Fodder

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Adrak

1500-1800

H

Rh

Medicinal (Asthma, cough, cold, liver disorder); Edible

 

Gymnosperms

 

Cupressaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cupressus torulosa D. Don

Surai

1700-2200

T

St

Fuel; Timber

 

Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abies pindrow Spach.

Rago

1800-2200

T

La/Res, Br

Medicinal (Rheumatism, ulcer); Fuel

 

Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

Chir

1500-2200

T

Sd, St, Re

Medicinal (Boils, bone fracture, cracks in sole of feet, leprosy, other skin disease, snake bite, sprain, swelling, ulcers, urine complaints); Edible; Fuel; Timber; Agricultural tools

 

Cedros deodara (Royle ex D. Don) G. Don

Deodar

1700-2200

T

La/Res, St

Medicinal (Anthelmintic, rheumatism, ulcers); Fuel; Timber

 

Taxaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger

Thuner

2000-2200

T

Bk, Bk oil, Lf

Medicinal (Anti cancer); As Tea; Fuel

 

 

Pteridophytes

 

Adiantaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adiantum edgerworthii Hk.

-

1500-2200

H

Frd

Medicinal (Mouth blisters)

 

Adiantum venustum D.Don

Sunraj, Hansraj

1500-2200

H

Frd

Medicinal (Fever)

 

Aspidiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polystichum squarrosum (Don) Fee

-

1600-2200

H

Rh

Medicinal (Fever)

 

Athyriaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.

Dhuskia

1500-2200

H

Frd, St

Medicinal (Constipation); Edible

 

Aspleniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asplenium dalhousiae Hk.

-

1500-2000

H

Frd

Medicinal (Typhoid)

 

Cryptogrammaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Onychium contiguum Wall. ex Hope

-

 

1500-2200

H

Frd

Medicinal (Typhoid, fever)

 

Lygodiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.

-

1600-1800

H

Rh

Medicinal (Skin disease)

 

Ophioglossaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ophioglossum reticulatum L.

Jibhiya

1800-2200

H

Frd

Edible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations used: H=Herb; T=Tree; Sh=Shrub; St=Stem; Fr=Fruit; Rh=Rhizome; Sd=Seed; Res=Resin; WP=Whole Plant; Ap= Aerial Part; Lf=Leaf; Fl= Flower; Infl=Inflorescence; Bk=Bark; Kr=Kernel; AP= Aerial part; Rt=Root; Tu=Tuber; Rh=Rhizome; La= Latex; Frd= Frond; Wd= Wood; Fi=Fiber; and Bb= Bulb; Bk=Bark

 

Discussion/ Conclusion

�������� The present study provides comprehensive information on the indigenous uses and traditional practices of the plants used by the inhabitants of the MRF. According to a report of the World Health Organization (WHO), over three forth of the World population cannot afford the products of the modern medicine and have to rely on the use of traditional medicine of plant origin (Rai et al., 2000). Each plant possesses some intrinsic potency. Traditional medicine has a long history and wide acceptability. The inhabitants of the region use traditional medicine to cure the diseases. They use different plant parts in different ratio to cure disease/aliments. The natural health care system is getting a great attention these days. Therefore, documentation of information on indigenous knowledge and practices will help in conserving the knowledge. Such information for the other parts of the IHR should also be documented; so that a comprehensive database of the plants used in various purposes could be made and information could be disseminated to the new generation for awareness and sustainable utilization of plants.

 

Acknowledgements

�������� The authors are thankful to Dr. L.M.S. Palni, Director, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora for facilities and encouragement. One of the authors (SP) is highly thankful to the Vice-Chancellor of the BGSB University, Rajouri for providing necessary facility and continuous encouragement. Authors greatly acknowledge the support and cooperation received from the local inhabitants during field surveys.��

 

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