Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 63-71. 2006.

 

 

Check List of Medicinal Plants of Siran Valley Mansehra-Pakistan

 

Ghulam Mujtaba Shah And Mir Ajab Khan*

 

Department of Botany, Govt Post Graduate College, Abbottabad 

*Department Of Plants Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad-Pakistan

 

Issued 27 February 2006

 

ABSTRACT

This study was carried in Siran Valley district Mansehra. (Pakistan). The method adopted for documentation of indigenous knowledge was based on questionnaire   consisting of semi-structured interviews employing a checklist of questions and direct observations. The aim of the study was to collect indigenous knowledge of local inhabitants about the use of native plants, which were being utilized by the people for the treatment of different diseases. The ethnomedicinal uses of 80 plant species belonging to 49 families were recorded during field trips from the research area. The cultivated medicinal plants consists of 21 species. The check list and ethnomedicinal inventory was developed alphabetically by botanical name, followed by local name, family, part used and ethnomedicinal uses. Plant specimens were collected, identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited in the Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad for future references.

Key words: Medicinal plants, ethnomedicinal uses, Siran Valley-Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION

            The study area is located in the Hazara Civil Division of the North West Frontier Province, (NWFP), Pakistan. Mansehra district was formed on 1st of October 1976. It consists of three tehsils viz. Balakot, Mansehra and Oghi. Mansehra district is located between 340-15/ to 350-12/ North latitudes and 720–50/ to 740-07/ East longitudes. Total area of the district is 5957 Sq km. The Siran River catchments area is commonly known as, Siran Valley”. It is situated between 34o 33/ 35// and 34o 44/ 30// North latitude, and between 73o 13/ 38// and 73o 22/ 40// East longitude. The tract is bounded on the north by Allai Valley, on the south by Lower Siran, on the west by the Konsh Valley and on the east by the Kaghan Valley. The Siran River is 130 km in length joining the Indus at Tarbala in Hazara Division. The total area of the tract is 5284.2 km. The climate of the tract is moist temperate with very marked seasonal periods of snow, rain and drought. Snowfall is considerable and occurs any time from later half of November to the end of March. Snow often remains to the end of May. Most of the rain occurs during monsoon viz. July- August between these two seasons of snow and rain, the Spring and Autumn months are   periods of less rain and drought.

According to standard classification of forest types of Pakistan (Champion, Seth and Khattak 1965) the forests fall under the major type “Montane temperate forests” a very small part of these forest also fall under group 8 viz. These forests are predominately coniferous with some broad-leaved species. Chir (Pinus roxburghii) forests form transitional stage between the Montane temperate and Dry tropical vegetation around about the elevation of 763 and 1830 m. “Chir” covers small area and is confined to lower limits .On upper limits Chir pine is mixed with blue pine (Pinus wallichiana.) The dominating species are few forming pure or mixed associations. The occurrence of species depends upon the aspect, altitude and local habitat conditions. Abies pindrow in northern aspects or moist slopes, Pinus wallichiana with Taxus wallichiana as an understorey and occasional Cedrus deodara on dryer hotter slopes. Broadleaved trees include Aesculus indica, Ulmus wallichiana, Juglans regia, Quercus floribunda, Acer caesium   A. stercuuliaceum and Prunus cornuta the shrub layer comprises Vibernum grandiflorum, Berberis lycium, B. ceratophylla, Rosa brunonii, Skimmia laureola and Lonicera  webbiana.  Herbs include many species of Impatiens and Euphorbia as well as Viola, Fragaria and Gentiana.  Climbers include Hedera nepalensis, Clematis grata and Clematis montana. At lower elevations shrubs like Punica granatum, Nerium oleander., Vitex negund., Colebrookea  oppositifolia., Debregeasia salicifolia., Otostegia limbata.,   Dodonaea viscosa.,  Justicia adhatoda ., Jasminum sp., Sageretia  brandrithiana., Rumex hastatus., Mallotus philippensis., Indigofera  gerardiana., Woodfordia fruticosa   and Rosa sp. are fairly common. The herbaceous flora is represented by Verbascum thapsus., Fumaria indica , Solanum sp. Salvia moorcroftiana., Senecio sp., Inula  cappa., etc. Spring flora like Colchicum luteum, Tulipa stellata, Gagea lutea, Medicago sativa., Lathyrus sp. Crotalaria madicaginea., Capsella bursa-pastoris., Lamium amplexicaule., Viola odorata, Galium  aparine.,  Dicliptera roxburghiana., Oenothera rosea., Oxalis corniculata., Bupleurum sp., Ajuga bracteosa., Evolvulus alsinoides., Chenopodium album and Macromere sp. are common.

            The herbal medicines occupy distinct position right from the primitive period to present day. The ethnobotanical pharmacology is as old as man himself. In Indo-Pak first record of plant medicine were compiled in Rig Veda between 4500-1600 BC and Ayurveda between 2500-600 BC. This system traces its origin to Greek medicine, which was adopted by Arabs and then spread to India and Europe. About 80% population of the world depends on the traditional system of health care (Ahmad 1999). These medicines have less side effects and man can get it easily from nature. Unani system is dominant in Pakistan but the ethno medicinal plants use is also seen in the remote areas. (William 2002).

The indigenous traditional knowledge of herbal plants of communities where it has been transmitted orally for many years is fast disappearing from the face of world due to transformation of traditional culture. The people, who are native to the area in which the plants occur, use around 90% of the medicinal species. This is indicative of the vast repository of knowledge of plant medicine that is still available for global use, provided of course that it does not get lost before it can be tapped or documented. Traditional and indigenous medical knowledge of plants, both oral and codified, are undoubtedly eroding. Keeping in view the importance of medicinal flora of Siran Valley, the study was confined to collect and document the indigenous knowledge of local people about medicinal uses of native plants .The present study was aimed to document the traditional knowledge of Siran Valley. 

                                                

                                    

METHODS AND MATERIAL

 

Plant Collection and Preservation

 

            Frequent field trips in different seasons were arranged in order to collect information about the ethnomedicinal uses of plants by the local people from January 2001 to January 2003. The main target sites in Siran Valley were Baffa, Shinkiari, Banda Piran, Dhodial, Dadar, Jabori, Jacha, Mandagucha, Panjul, Kund Bungla, Shaheed Pani, Khori, Bakki, Jabbar and Musa- Ka-Musallah. Plant specimens were collected, pressed, dried, preserved, mounted and identified through the available literature (Nasir & Ali, 1971- 2001). The specimens were deposited in the Herbarium, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid -i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan (ISL). The data taken in the field was transferred to the slip pasted on the herbarium sheets. The plants were identified with the help of taxonomic literature, manuals and floras. Stereomicroscope was used for critical examination of the material.     

 

Survey of Traditional Knowledge

 

Questionnaire method was adopted for documentation of   folk indigenous knowledge .The interviews were carried out in local community, to investigate local people and knowledgeable persons  (Hakims, Women and Herdsmen) who are the main user of medicinal plants About 200 informants have been interviewed on random basis. A female student was involved to interview the women community of the area. First of all, the focal area; Siran Valley has been surveyed. The indigenous medicinal plants having traditional knowledge of utilization among the people have been selected as reference specimens. The traditional knowledge about the indigenous medicinal plants has been checked from other sites (Jabori, Hilkot, Jacha, Mandagucha and Shaheedpani)

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The data on ethnomedicinal of 80 plant species belonging to 49 families, different season were collected. Information regarding their botanical name, vernacular name, family, part used and their ethnomedicinal uses are listed in the Check List (Table.1). The cultivated medicinal have also been reported. (Table 2).

            Herbal medicine, there pharmacognostic characterization and their rational uses are actually the cultural assets lying viable and remained preserved in the remote cut off areas like Siran Valley. Pakistan has a diverse flora containing about 6000 species of phanerogams. Estimates indicate that around 700 plant species are used as medicinal and aromatic plants (Pei, 1992). In Pakistan 80% of the people belonging to the rural areas still depends upon the herbal medicines (Anonymous, 1997) In the recent years, more efforts have been made to document the traditional knowledge  .In this regard traditional utilization of 160 plants have been described, collecting the knowledge form Margalla Hills National Park. The conservation status has also been discussed (Shinwari & Khan, 2000). About 58 species of medicinal plants have been preliminary listed from Ayubia National Park-Galliat (Shah, 2001). Indigenous knowledge of about 25 medicinal herbs from Kahuta-Rawalpindi district has been reported (Qureishi and Khan, 2001). Similarly traditional uses of about 77 species have been recorded from Shogran valley, Mansehra (Matin et al., 2001). Ethnobotanical importance of about 48 species has been documented from Kaghan valley, Mansehra (Shinwari et al., 1996).

The people of the Valley are entirely rural and mostly poverty-sticken, undernourished and illiterate. The have to cut forests to sell as timber and fuel wood. As a result forests of Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Juglans regia, Pinus roxburgii, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana and Taxus wallichiana are disappearing at an alarming rate. Fraxinus excelsior“ Sum” was a valuable broad leaved tree of the forests of Siran Valley but due to heavy exploitation of this tree for furniture, today it is found only in some graveyards or road side plantations near Govt. Post Graduate college Mansehra. No big tree has been found in the forests. Forest department should reintroduce this tree.  A number of medicinal plants like Podophyllum emodi, Paeonia emodi, Skimmia laureola and Bergenia ciliata are on the verge of extinction due to over exploitation. The conservation programme can protect the medicinal plants by help of local people Regeneration of plants is also badly affected due to heavy grazing. The local people and researcher face the challenging task of not only recording knowledge of plants, but also applying the results of their studies to biodiversity conservation and community development. (Ahmad et al., 2003). Most of the species are under severe pressure due to their extensive uses in many fields. The community people collect these plants with an unmechanized method and sell them in the local markets. The forests belong to community, as a result there is no check to conserve and protect the forest and the precious plant resources. The area is highly disturbed and degraded due to biotic factors. Man is the prime source in removing the vegetation for fuel wood and the degradation of vegetation through slashing and burning particularly at higher elevation. However, sustainable use of plant resources is required in the area, as ruthless use of these plant resources will result in the loss of valuable flora and fauna. If the interferences could some how, be controlled, the local vegetation will definitely take a turn toward improvement.

 

Table 1.  Medicinal Plants of Siran Valley.

 

S.

No.

Botanical Name

Vernacular Name

 Family Name

Parts used

Ethnomedicinal Uses

1.    

Abutilon indicum

Kangi

 Malvaceae

 L, fl

Expectorant, diuretic, oral contraceptive, abortifacient, antiasthmatic.

2.    

 

Acacia modesta

Phulai

 Mimosaceae

 L

Dental cavities, rheumatism, snake bite, diuretic, hemostat

3.    

Acacia nilotica

Kikar

 Mimosaceae

R

Cardiotonic, diuretic, skin diseases

 

4.    

Achillea millefolium

 Birangesif

 Asteraceae

rh

Carcing, toothache, tonic, dysentery

5.    

Achyranthes aspera

Lainda

 Amaranthaceae

fr

Rheumatism,opthalmia

6.    

Aconitum heteropyllum

 Patris

 Rananculaceae

latex, r

Purgative, toothache, emetic, specific for guinea worms, rheumatism

7.    

Acorus calamus

 Warch

 Araceae

st, r, b, fr

Tonic, astringent, febrifuge, hepatic, dyfunction, laxative, tonic, menorrhagia

8.    

Allium cepa

Thoom

 Liliaceae

gum, r, b

Astringent, styptic, stimulant, ophrodisiac, menorrhagic, antidiabetic.

9.    

Allium sativum

Piaz

 Liliaceae

  L

Antidiabetic

10.        

Aloe vera

Kanvar

 Liliaceae

 L

Phycotropic, stomachic, antispasmodic, sedative, epilepsy, convulsion, cough, cold

11.        

Apium graveolens

 

 Apiaceae

r

Tonic, diuretic, analgesic

12.        

Artemisia absinthium

Chaw

 Asteraceae

 L

Carminative, cold, fever

13.        

Asparagus officinale

Shahghandal/ Nanoor

 Liliaceae

 L

Tonic, antheliminthic

14.        

Asparagus racemosus

Shahghandal/ Nanoor

 Liliaceae

r, w

Chicory, diuretic, stomachic, fever.

15.        

Atropa belladonna

Cheela lubar

 Solanaceae

sd, w

Garden lettuce, sedative, diuretic, antidiabetic

16.        

Bauhinia variegata

Kalyar

 Caesalpinaceae

sd, w

Expectorant, sedative, diuretic, hypnotic pertussis

17.        

Berberis lycium

Sumbal

 Berberidaceae

fl

 Tonic, antiseptic

18.        

Bergenia ligulata

 But pewa

 Saxifragaceae

r

Perfume, stomachic, diuretic, some toxic constituents, skin diseases, cardioactive

19.        

Boerhavia diffusa

Itsit

 Nyctaginaceae 

 L

Antidiabetic, hepatic, stimulant, etc

20.        

Bombax ceiba

Sambal

 Bombacaceae

 L w

Antibacterial, for urinary and renal complainsts, astringent, antidiabetic.

21.        

Calotropis procera 

Ak

  Asclepiadaceae

w

Dodder, purgative and anthelmethic, headache, jaundice, poultice for swelling.

22.        

Cannabis sativa

Bhang

 Canabaceae

r, sd

Anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, antipyretic, antiemetic, diuretic, hypotensive.

23.        

Capparis spinosa

Karir

 Capparidaceae

fr

Cathartic and antheliminthic, red dye, oral contraceptive, skin diseases

24.        

Carum carvi

Kango

 Apiaceae

sd-oil

Caster oil, purgative, contraceptive skin diseases, antidote in food poising

25.        

Cedrus deodara

Diar

 Pinaceae

 L,sd

Bitter, stomachic, antheliminthic, febrifuge.

26.        

Cichorium intybus

Hand

 ASteraceae

w

Sudorific, stimulant, stomachic, carminative.

27.        

Cissampelos pareria

Ghora Sum

 Menispermaceae

sd

Barley, easily digested demulcent dyspepsia, antidiabetic

28.        

Colchicum luteum

 Qaimat-Gula

 Colchicaceae

sd

Rheumatism

29.        

Cuscuta reflexa

Akash Bail

 Cuscutaceae

 L

Rheumatic pain, indigestion

30.        

Cydonia oblonga

Bhai

 Rosaceae

 L

For fever and cough, relief of flatulence, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea

31.        

Cymbopogon cirus

 Baru

 Poaceae

 L

 Carminative, stimulant, emmenagogue

32.        

Cyperus rotundus

Muthar

 Cyperaceae

 L,sd

Pulmonary infections, oil in toothache, rheumatism, oil carminative, stimulant.

33.        

Dalbergia sisso

Talhi

 

gum

Antidiabetic

34.        

Daucus carota

Gagar

 Apiaceae

g

Burns, scalds

35.        

Eucalyptus globulus

Gond

 Myrtaceae

b

Antidiabetic

36.        

Ficus carica

Phagra

 Moraceae

Sd,f

 

Purgative,antiseptic

37.        

Foeniculum vulgare

Sonf

 Apiaceae

 L,sd

antidiabetic

38.        

Fraxinus excelsior

Sum

 Oleaceae

sd

Antidiabetic, digestive disorders, etc

39.        

Fumaria indica

Papra

 Fumariaceae

sd,b

Diuretic, expectorant, poultice

 

40.        

Hedra nepalense

Arbambal

 Araliaceae

bulb

Fever, pulmonary infections, antidiabetic, rheumatism, hypoglycemic

41.        

Hordeum vulgare

Jauo

 Poaceae

L,g

Cathartic, purgative

 

42.        

Hyoscyamus niger

Ajwain

  Solanaceae     

fr

Various uses

 

43.        

Juglans regia

Akhor

 Juglandaceae

r

Antidiarrhoeal, demulcent

 

44.        

Justica adhatoda

Sanatha

 Acanthaceae

sd,  L

 Antiseptic

 

 

45.        

Lactuca sativa

Dodal

 Asteraceae

r

Skin diseases, syphilis, rheumatism

 

46.        

Lactuca seriola

Dodal

 Asteraceae

oil,  L

Applied to burns, poultice for rheumatism and gout, internally for Gonorrhoea and urogenital irritation

47.        

Mallotus philippensis

Kambeela

 Euphorbiaceae

b,  L, sd

Leaves: demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative, et.Bark: astringent, diuretic. Seeds laxative, expectorant

48.        

Malva sylvestris

Sonchal

 Malvaceae

 L

Leaves: demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative

 

49.        

Matricaria chammomilla

   -

 Asteraceae

r

Intermittent fever, heat stroke, colic

50.        

Mentha arvensia

Podina

 Lamiaceae

fr

Emollient, operient, demulcent

 

51.        

Mentha piperita

Podina

 Lamiaceae

b, fr

Antidiabetic,carminative

 

52.        

Morus alba

Toot

 Moraceae

 Loil,r

Insect repellent, oil for burn, antiseptic, respiratory infections, antidiabetic

53.        

Nepeta hindostana

 --------

 Lamiaceae

sd

Root diuretic, laxative, , stomachic, leaf appetizer, alexiteric, seed tonic carminative.

54.        

Nerium oleander

Kaner

 Apocynaceae

fr, l, sd

Antidiabetic,poisonous

 

55.        

Origanum vulgare

 Ban Ajwain

 Lamiaceae

tu

For colic, uterine disorders, epilepsy

56.        

Oxalis corniculata

Khat kurla

 Oxalidaceae

w

Aperient, diaphoretic, diuretic, antidiabetic, enthelminthic

57.        

Papaver sominferum

Posat 

 Papa veraceae

sd

 Narcotic,cooling,tonic

58.        

Papaver sominferum

Posat 

 Papa veraceae

 ft, fr

Latex: narcotic, analgesic, hypnotic,sedative, antispasmodic, abortifacient

59.        

Pisum sativum

  Mattar

 Papilionaceae

Wd

Membrane stabilizing action, carminative, diuretic, immunomodulatoty, diaphoretic

60.        

Plantago ovata

Chmchi pattar

 Plantaginaceae

sd

Emollient, demulcent, laxative

61.        

Plumbago zeylanica

Chmchi pattar

 Plumbaginaceae

r

Diaphoretic, abortifacient, appetizer, diuretic, poultice

62.        

Poeonia emodi

Mamekh

 Paeoniaceae

sd

Demulcent, antidepertieric, refrigerant, antiscorbiotic, diuretic, antiuler, cardiovascular diseases

63.        

Portulaca oleraceae

Lunak

 Portulaceae

Fr

Cholera, diarrhoea

64.        

Punica granatum

Daruna

 Punicaceae

r

Astringent, tonic, fever, cough, dysentery.

65.        

Riccinus communis

Arind

 Euphorbiaceae

fr

Anodyne,digestive, blood purifier, tonic, cough and colds.

66.        

Sassurea costus

Kuth

 Asteraceae

fr

Used in ‘bilious’ affection, astringent.

 

67.        

Smilax china

Bilri 

 Smilacaceae

fr

Demulcent, cardiac tonic, expectorant, astringent

68.        

Solanum nigrum

 Kachmach

 Solanaceae

fr, fl

Antiseptic, tonic in fever, dyspepsia, scabies, skin infection, dental problem

69.        

Solanum surattense

Kindiari

 Solanaceae

r,  L

Root for kidney stones, tuberculosis, liver complaints, leaf: haemostat

70.        

Swertia chirayita

Chirita

 Gentianaceae

w, r

Anodyne, narcotic, mydriatic , diuretic, sedative

71.        

Taraxacum officinale

Hand

 Asteraceae

sd

Analgesic, astringent

72.        

Taxus wallachiana

Burmi

 Taxaceae

fr 

Narcotic, antispasmodic, diuretic, laxative

73.        

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Methi

 Papilionaceae

fr

Chest infections, rheumatism.

74.        

Valeriana jatamansii

Mushk  bala

 Valerianaceae

r, L

Tonic, astringent, adaptogenic leaf: febrifuge

75.        

Withania somnifera

Askand

 Solanaceae

 L

Antispasmodic sedative, emmenagogue, aphrodisiac

76.        

Woodfordia fructicosa

Dhawi

 Lythraceae

fr

Rheumatism, gout, diuretic

77.        

Xanthium strumarium

Katula

 Asteraceae

sd, oil

Carminative, flatulence

78.        

Zanthoxylum armatum

 Timbar

 Rutaceae

fr,  L

Renal diseases, tootheache, abortifacient, antifertility

79.        

Zizyphus mauritiana

Ber

 Rhamnaceae

fr, r

Carminative

80.        

Zizyphus nummularia

Beri

 Rhamnaceae

 L

Carminative, Sedative

 

 

 Key: b=bark, fl=flowers, fr=fruits, g=gum,  L=leave, lt=latex, r=roots, rb=root bark, rh=rhizome, sd=seeds, tu=tuber, w=whole plant, wd=wood.

 

 Table 2. Cultivated medicinal plants.

S.No

Botanical Name

Local Name

Family

1.   

Aesculus indica

Ban Khor

Hippocastanaceae

2.   

Allium cepa 

Piaz

Liliaceae

3.   

Allium sativum 

Thoom

Liliaceae

4.   

Beta vulgaris 

Chakandar

Chenopodiaceae

5.   

Capsicum annum 

Mirch

Solanaceae

6.   

Capsicum frutescens 

Mirch

Solanaceae

7.   

Capsicum fastigatum 

Mirch

Solanaceae

8.   

Coriandrum sativum 

Danyia

Apiaceae

9.   

Curcuma longa

Haldi

Zingiberaceae

10.      

Foeniculum vulgare

Sonf

Apiaceae

11.      

Jglans regia

Akhor

Juglandaceae

12.      

Mentha arvensis

Podina

Lamiaceae

13.      

Mentha peperita

Podina

Lamiaceae

14.      

Morus  alba

Toot

Moraceae

15.      

Nicotiana tabacum

Tamakoo

Solanaceae

16.      

Ocimum basilicum

Niazbo

Labiateae

17.      

Prunus amygoalus

Badam

Rosaceae

18.      

Prunus persica

Aru

Rosaceae

19.      

Punica granantum 

Daruna

Punicaceae

20.      

Vitis vinifera 

Dakh

Dakh

21.      

Vernonia anthelmentica

Kale Ziri

Asteraceae

                                             

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