Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 27-31. 2007.
Yield of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum
O.T. Mustapha and Y. Mustapha
Department of Biological Sciences,
The performance of four Pearl millet varieties comprising three improved varieties and one local variety was investigated in terms of their yield and response to natural infestation of Downy mildew (DM) and smut diseases. Data on yield parameters, disease score and weather were collected over the two year period of the investigation. The investigation revealed the existence of inherent differences among the four varieties tested and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on some of the yield parameters. The variety ICMN IS 88224 was found to be the most susceptible to DM and smut disease while two improved varieties (ICMn IS series) were found to be tolerant. The local variety, INMV 55 was found to be the most tolerant and as such, ICMN IS 88212 is recommended for this location.
Key Words: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum);
Despite the enormous
uses to which Pearl Millet can be put, there are some constraints which limit
the production of the crop in savanna environment of
It has been
Materials and Methods
Three improved Pearl
Millet varieties, ICMN IS 88210, ICMN IS 88212 and ICMN IS 88224 were
collected from Lake Chad Research institute (LCRI)
The land was cleared and an area of 25x20 metres was measured and divided into 16 plots. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) layout with four replicates was used. The area was ridged and the plots were separated by an area of 0.5m. Each plot comprises four ridges with the two central ridges serving as the plot (sampling rows). Each plot was ragged with code number.
The seeds were sown on
each ridge. Two weeks after sowing,
plants that germinated were thinned to two plants per stand by pulling out
the weaker and less developed seedlings.
Data were collected on
a number of parameters, These include
seedlings emergence, seedling establishment, days to 50% flowering, plant
height, spike length, spike weight, grain yield per plot, disease score,
rainfall and temperature. Grain yield
was determined by lightly pounding the spikes from each plot in mortal and
followed by removal of the husk. The
threshed grains were weighed and the weight recorded as grain yield per
plot. Disease score was taken 10 weeks
after sowing by counting the number of infest plants
Results and Discussion
From Table 1 there is a clear evidence that in the two seasons ICMN IS 88210 and ICMN IS 88224 had higher seedlings emergence value than the other two varieties. Seedling establishment followed the same pattern as seedling emergence as statistical analysis showed no significant difference among the varieties in both years. The differences observed in seedling emergence and seedling establishment shoed that the individual quality of each variety has come into effect despite the underlying environment conditions.
Differences also exist among the four varieties in terms of their time of flowering and the differences have been found to be significant (p < .05). The means show that varieties ICMN IS 88210 and INMV 55 flowered earlier than the other two. On the other hand, the means for yield show that ICMN IS 88210 out yielded the others and it is followed by INMN 55 while the others follow in the order ICMN IS88212, ICMN 88224. This clearly shows that those varieties that flowered earlier recorded higher yields than those that followed later.
1: Mean Values for the effect of
Table 2: Mean GED and smut Incidence for the varieties.
Table 3: Total Rainfall (mm) during the 1992 and 1993 season.
Table 4: Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures (C) during the 1992 and 1993 seasons.
Variation in plant height also exists among the varieties but the differences are not statistically significant. Varietal differences with respect to spike length have been found to be statistically significant. The results for spike weight clearly showed some correlation with that of spike length for varieties that recorded higher values for spike weight. The data generally agrees with the suggestion that longer spikes tend to be heavier than shorter ones.
Among the factors that influence seedling emergence and seedling establishment are soil temperature and soil moisture content (Gupta et al. 1983). In this investigation, data for temperature and rainfall show striking difference five days after sowing (5 DAS) which was the period when data for emergence as taken. It was inferred from this investigation that the combined effect of low rainfall and higher temperature during 1993 season for the period (5 DAS) could have probably resulted in the low values recorded for all the four varieties while the higher rainfall and lower temperature conditions favoured emergence during the 1992 season. The performance of the four varieties in terms of establishment indicates that plants established better in 1993 due to early rains and rather poorly in 1992 due to the late arrival of rains.
The incidence of downy mildew (DM) during the two seasons shows quantitative differences in the four varieties. ICMN IS 88212 and INMV 55 showed a stable resistance in both season (0% and 6.42%) and (7.25% and 0%) respectively while the other two varieties ICMN IS 88210 and ICMN is 88224 showed an intermediate reaction. This investigation reveals that a variety could be found to be susceptible to S. graminicola in one season but resistant in another and vice versa-as also found in earlier works (ICCRSAT, 1989). ICMN IS 88224 is so far the most susceptible to DM and reflected in its yield (low). However, field tests have revealed a near perfect negative correlation between incidence of DM and grain yield while positive correlation was shown between incidence of DM and straw yield and intensity and straw yield (Mayee and Sirasker, 1982).
Smut disease severity is more in 1993 than in 1992. Even though all the four varieties show intermediate reaction to the disease in the 1992 season, only ICMN IS 88212 maintained such a reaction in 1993 while the other three showed susceptible reaction. It has been found that teleuspores remain viable in soil at depth up to 22.50cm for about one year (ICAR, 1961) and as such it is possible that the three varieties that showed a susceptible reaction in the 1993 season were reinfected by teleuspores of the previous season while the fourth variety could be said to have an inherent intermediate reaction to the disease (Bourke, 1963). ANOVA shows a statically significant difference with respect to year which shows that this investigation agrees with the suggestion that smut severity is influenced by location and year of testing (ICRISAT, 1989). Even though frequent rains particularly during the vegetative period (July September) generally increase disease levels in millet due to continuous cloud cover and reduced solar radiation levels (*ICS< 1988), results from this investigation show a higher disease incidence during the 1993 season.
The result of this investigation has revealed that there are inherent differences among the four varieties tested in flowing and spike length. In general, the check variety, INMV 55, was less susceptible to the disease than the new varieties with ICMN with ICMN IS 88224 recording the highest infestation. It is significant however to the check variety and is therefore desirable for this location. The grain yields obtained from the trials were generally low and no significant differences were found in grain yield either between growing seasons or between varieties. It can therefore be concluded that the plant has compensated for the differences observed in other parameter such that at harvest, the grain yield is not affected by such differences observed in other parameters such that at harvest, the grain yield is not affected by such differences. It must also be noted that most of the factors considered interact to produce effects.
Bourke, D.D.D. (1963). The West African Millet crop and its improvement. Sols Africains 8:121 132.
Bruken, J., De Wet, J.M.J. and Harlan, J.R. (1977). The morphology and domestication of Pearl Millet. Economic Bot. 31(3): 163 174.
Countin, R and Harris, K.M. (1968). The taxonomy, distribution, biology and economic importance of the millet grain midge, Geromyia penniseti (Felt). Gren. B., com. N. (dipt., Cecidomyiidae) . Bull of Entom Res. 59: 259 273.
Gupta, G.K., Rao G.V.S. and Sexena M. B. L. (1983). Relationship between meterological factors and the occurrence of ergot disease (Claviceps micorcephala) of Pearl Millet. Trop. Pest Mgt. 29:321-324.
ICAR (1971). Indian Council of Agricultural Annual
(1989). Crop Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropical Annual Report.
ISC (ICRISAT Sahelian Centre).
ICRISAT West African Programmes
Mayee, C.D. and sirasker, R.D. (1982). Relationship between Downy mildew evaluation parameter and Pearl Millet productivity. Current Sci. 51(20): 993.
Selvaraj, J.C. (1978).
Millet diseases in