The present ethno-botanical explorations conducted in
forest areas of Nizamabad resulted in the information about traditional plant
uses of 77 plants species belonging to 39 Angiospermic families. Of these, maximum
species belongs to Euphorbiaceae with 7 species, 6 species to Asclepiadaceae
and Fabaceae each. Information
gathered from Nizamabad district indicates that the tribals, and other village
people of this region possess good knowledge of herbaldrugs, but their continuous and progressive
exposure to modernization may result in extinction of the such rich heritage
of knowledge in the course of time. Diseases / ailments found
prevalent in the area are skin diseases, kidney stone, tooth ache, fever and
wounds. Majority of
preparation are from leaves and some are of underground parts (like root,
rhizome, tuber, etc). Following data includes botanical name of
species, vernacular name family, plant part used method of medicine and
details about its application.
Among the plant parts used in different formulations, leaves are abundantly
used which is followedby stem and
Nizamabad district is situated in the
northern part of the Andhra Pradesh and is one of the 10 districts of
Telangana region in the state ofAndhra Pradesh. It lies between 18-5' and 19' of the northern latitudes,
77-40' and 78-37' of the eastern longitudes. The district is bounded on the North
by Adilabad district, East by Karimnagar District, South by Medak district
and West by Bidar District of Karnataka and Nanded district of
geographical area is 7956 Sq. km’s i.e. 19,80,586 acres spread over 923villages in 36 mandals. Major
rivers, such as, Godavari
Nizamabad district with some other streams Kalyani, Kaulas, Peddavagu also
exist in the district.
Forests: The forest is covering area of 1.67 lacs hectares
(4,18,450 acres) forming 22% of the total geographical area of the
district.The forests fall under the
category of Southern Tropical dry deciduous type. Thick forest belt produces
major population of Dalbergia, Tectona,
Terminalia, Rhynchosia species.The forest produce, which includes timber, fuel, bamboo and Diospyros leaves, yieldsgood revenue.Mangoes and Custard apples grow well in
Forest Dwellers: As per 2001 census the total population of the
district is 23.55 lacs. Of these tribal population is 1.65 Lacs. Lambada, Naikpod, Yerukalas are major tribal
groups in the area. Of these, Lambada is found most abundant throughout the
area. Besides these tribal groups, several other communities are residing as
documentation of ethno-botanical information and collection of plant
material, several tours were undertaken during the period 2007 - 2009. Data
presented here is based on personal observations and interviews with traditional
healers (Viz. medicine men, hakims and old aged people)and methodology used is based on the
methods available in literature(Jain
1989) and (Jain and Mudgal1999).
information gathered was documented in datasheets prepared. For collection of
plant material, local informer accompanied to authors. Plant identification
was done by using regional flora and flora of adjoining districts (Pullaih
and Rao 1995), (Cooke 1958) and Herbarium specimens are deposited at the
Herbarium Department of Botany, DeogiriCollege, Aurangabad.
of plants were compared with major published literature(Ambasta1992), (Anonymous 1948-1976), (Asolkar
et.al. 1992), (Chopra et. al.1956 & 1969), (Jain
1991), (Jain1996), (Jain 1999), (Kapur
2001), (Kirtikar & Basu 1933), (Pradhan et. al. 2005), (Reddy et.
al. 2007 & 2008), (Reddy 2008) and (Sharma & Singh 2001).
Uses which are not mentioned in the
mentioned literature are considered as uses less known in India and are
marked by asterisk in the present paper.
ethno-botanical explorations conducted in forest areas of Nizamabad resulted
in the traditional plant uses of 78 plants species belonging to 42 families.
Following data includes botanical name of species, vernacular name, family,
plant part used, method of preparation of medicine and mode of administration
and details about its application. Name of the tribal group who has provides
the information is given in parenthesis after each use. In case if the
informer is non tribal he has been put in category of forest dweller.
Botanical Name family and local Name
Uses & tribe of the informer in parenthesis
*4-5 Leaves and small root piece taken orally for a week
*Leaf juice 3 to 4 tablespoons aretaken early morning for 15 days (Lambada)
Crushed leavesare applied (Lambada)
Abutilon indicum (L.)
Leaves crushed with jaggary and tabletsof approximately of 1gm are made, and
taken 3 tablets once (Lambada )
are applied (Lambada)
Acacia farnesiana (L.)
paralysis in primary stage,
*Leaf extract made with
alcohol is taken 20-30 ml once a day for 6days (Lambada)
Ten to twenty ml leaf extract
is also given twice a day for 15 days. (Lambada)
Acalypha indica L.
scabies, itch, ring worm
Acalypa indica and
Momordica charantia whole plants
taken in 1:1 ratio & extract is given for 10 days Doses of 5 and 3
table spoonsfor adult and children
The leaf juice can be applied
Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae)
wounds and cuts
anti-dote for poison of snake and dog bite
Root extract with goat milk is
given once on alternate day for 10 -15 days (Lambada)
Crushed leaves are applied
The seeds are used anti-dote
for poison of snake and dog bite.(Lambada)
Root is used
as tooth brush (Naikpoda, Lambada)
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.ex Schult(Amaranthaceae)
Plant extract with Cuminum cyminum fruitsand sugar is given for
10 – 15 days (Lambada)
Curry of plant leaves can also
be eaten ( Yarakula, Naikpoda)
*The whole plant is used to prepare tablets which are
given thrice a day for 12 -15 days (Lambada)
Decoction of leaf and stem is given. (Lambada)
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.(Balanitaceae)
*Tablets is prepared from
roots mixed with ‘Hing’ powder( Ferula asafoeitida), by addingPiper
betleleaf juice are taken once
with water for 9 days, soon after the menstruation, to avoid unwanted
Beta vulgaris L.
Daily two glass of rhizome
juice for seven days (Lambada)
Blumea mollis (D.Don)
*One teaspoonful of leaf juice
for 3 – 4 weeks reduces asthma in children. (Yarukala)
Calotropis gigantea (L.) Ait.(Asclepiadaceae)
Fl & Lf
black marks on face
Flowers warmed and tied on
feet overnight (Lambada)
*Latex applied to reduce
pimples and black marks on face. (Lambada)
Flowers and leaves are kept on
head and warmed utensil used for messaging head. (Lambada)
Cassia auriculata L.
Gum & lf
reduces body heat
Gumand dried leaves and flowers are
givenone teaspoon. (Lambada)
*Leaf decoction once a day.
‘Tilasu’ ‘tageri chettu’
Leaf juice applied. (Lambada,
Root paste with lemon juice
controls ringworm. (Lambada)
roseus (L.) G.Don(Apocynaceae)
Eating 4 to 6 leaves daily.
Catunaregam spinosa (Thumb.) Tirveng.(Rubiaceae)
Lf, st, rt, & fr
Leaf, stem, root, andfruit are useful in reducing poison in
the body and also useful in treating dog bite.(Lambada)
Flowers are used like hair
tonic in case of hair fall occurs in patches. (Lambada)
1gm of powdered stem mixed
with sugar or ghee taken for weeks.(Lambada)
Root juice put in the nose
control head ache.(Yarukala)
Cocculus hirsutus (L.)
wounds and cuts
Leaf juice is applied
externally on forehead. (Lambada)
Leaf crushed with water and
Leaf crushed and applied
*Leaf directly consumed.
Cordia macleodii (Griff.) (Boraginaceae)
‘Irikichattu’ ‘Banka chattu’
*Stem pieces tied to join the
broken bones. (Lambada)
*Leaf juice 5 -10 ml regularly
for 10 days .(Lambada)
Root juice 10 ml twice a day.
amoebiasis, skin diseases, and bleeding piles
plant extract 10 -20 ml taken orallyfor 8 -10 days . (Lambada)
‘Roti’ prepared by mixing
plant powder and Triticum astivum floor. (Lambada)
Datura metel L.
(Solanaceae)‘Nallamanti aku’ ‘Ummatha’
Leaf dipped ‘Ricinus
communis’ oil warmed and is applied externally. (Naikpod)
The fruit roasted in burning
ash and applied .(Naikpod)
paste applied externally to cure pimples (Lambada)
Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Etting.
*Tender twigs with Ficus
racemosa bark power crushed with
mixed with goat milk is taken 20 -30 ml. (Lambada)
Leaves crushed and applied to
1gm honey and one gm flower
paste for 8 – 10 days is recommended for asthma and tuberculosis. (Lambada)
Diplocyclos palmatus(L.) C. Jeffrey.
Half teaspoon of seeds taken
once a day for 10 -15 days.(Lambada)
Fruits and jaggary taken in
same proportion crushed and mixed taken as anti allergic. (Lambada)
Fruits taken as digestive.
(Lambada, Naikpod, Yarukala)
Euphorbia geniculata Orteg.
(Euphorbiaceae) Sarnik’ ‘Gamalkota’
Eating leaf curry.(Yarukala)
wounds and mouth ulcers
Crushed leaf are applied.
tonic for children
Latex mixed with turmeric
powder and tablets prepared.(Lambada)
*’Khajur’ (Phoenixdactylifera dried fruit), seeds
are taken out and plant latex is filled kept overnight and taken 2 fruits
daily for about 15 days topromote
permatogenesis and reduce sterility. Same is also considered as a tonic.
*Latex is useful to cure foot
*Tender prop roots are useful
as tonic for children. (Lambada, Naikpod)
Ficus hispida L. F
2-3 gm of stem bark powder
taken twice a day for 5-7 days. (Lambada)
Stem bark powder taken twice a
day for 10-12 days.(Lambada)
Tablets of approximately
of2 gms are prepared by using stem
bark powder with leaf juice and taken twice a day for 5 – 6 weeks.
Single leaf with 4 Piper nigrum seeds and plant juice
of Achyranthes aspera is taken 30-40 ml thrice to treat
snake bite. Three doses are to be given after the interval of 30 minutes.
Results and Discussion
Information gathered from
Nizamabad district indicates that the tribals, and other village people of
this region possess good knowledge of herbaldrugs, but their continuous and progressive exposure to modernization
may result in extinction of the such rich heritage of knowledge in the course
of time. The collective efforts of ethno-botanists, phytochemists, pharmacognostists,
and pharmacologists are needed to document and evaluate the efficacy and
safety of the claims.
of the species used are from families Euphorbiaceae and Asclepiadacae and
majority of preparation are from leaves (53), root (21), stem (18), fruits
prevalent diseases/ailments found in the areas are skin diseases and wounds
(13 plants each), 9 kidney stone, 8 jaundice, 7 joint pain, etc.
To test the scientific validity of
the herbal preparations or drugs, clinical studies are required, which can
establish therapeutic properties of these preparations for safe use.
Authors are thankful to the University
Grants Commission for financial assistance and to the Principal of College
and Secretary, M.S.P. Mandal, Aurangabad
for support and facilities.
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