Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1382-1400, 2009.

 

 

Medicinal Plant Resources of Puttaparthi Mandal: Taxonomic Overview and Need for Conservation

 

R. Basavaraju*, J. Vennel Raj and P. V.Bhiravamurthy

 

Department of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai University,

Prasanthi Nilayam � 515134, A.P. (India)

*Corresponding Author: ramabasavaraju@gmail.com

 

Issued November 01, 2009

 

Abstract

 

Puttaparthi Mandal is situated to the south of Anantapur town in the Sri Sathya Sai taluk of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. A broad taxonomic overview of the medicinal flora of Puttaparthi Mandal is presented herein � 185 medicinal plant species are distributed among 132 genera and 55 families in this region. These resources are under threat due to over exploitation by the local people for firewood, fodder, medicinal plants, reclamation of forest land for agriculture purpose, urbanization and heavy incidence of grazing. If steps for proper conservation and management of plants are not taken in near future these resources may be lost forever.

Key words: Biodiversity; medicinal plants; taxonomy; Puttaparthi Mandal; conservation; resources

Introduction

�������������� Plants are a vital component of the world�s biodiversity and essential natural resource for human well-being (Gadgil 1996). Besides sustenance, the plants have been used as therapeutic aid for alleviating human ailments from very ancient times (Sullivan and Shealy 1997). Such plants commonly referred to as medicinal plants, have been one of the valuable tools in the traditional system of medicine and are also known to provide ingredients for formulations of new medicines in pharmaceutical industry. In fact, WHO has listed over 21,000 plant species to be of medicinal use around the world. More than 60 % of the world�s human population relies on plant medicine for primary health-care needs (Singh 2002).

���������� Worldwide, extensive bioprospecting programmes are being carried out to identify plant-based biochemical compounds that may provide effective treatments for various human diseases (Pushpangadan and Nair 2001). The increasing demand for raw medicinal plants by various processing industries (pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, perfumery and many others) has resulted in the market expansion. During the year 1999, the world market for herbal remedies was US $19.4 billion with an annual growth rate of 10 %. India is a major exporter of raw medicinal plants and processed plant-based drugs (Singh et al. 2002). Exports of the medicinal plants and their products were valued at US $67 million during the year 2000 (Kumar 2004). The traditional healthcare systems- Ayurveda, Unani, Sidda and Homeopathy (AYUSH) - operate alongside the modern healthcare system. About 2,500 plant species in India are used by traditional healers (Utkarsh et al. 1999).

������������� The present work envisages to provide a detailed account of the medicinal plant flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India along with relevant details regarding their medicinal applications.

Materials and Methods

Area of study

������������ Puttaparthi Mandal belongs to Sri Sathya Sai taluk of Anathapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Anantapur district is situated at the south western corner of Andhra Pradesh lies between 13� 41 and 15� 14 North latitudes and 76� 47 and 78� 26 East longitudes.The climate is tropical semi-arid with average rainfall of 538 mm, soil is of red and gravelly type, derived mostly from disintegrated rocks. The hillocks in and around Puttaparthi vary in their height from 100 to 200 feet. The elevation of the hill ranges of Vengalammacheruvu and Ammagondapalem are 950 ft. The climate can be described as tropical semi arid with more number of sunny days.

Plant collection and identification

�������������� In the present study, the plant species used in the traditional as well as modern medicine have been recognized as medicinal plant species (MPS). The study includes the MPS belonging to the flowering plants from the Puttaparthi Mandal.A data base of the MPS has been generated on the basis of perusal of relevant literature published during the last half century, supplemented with our field observations while working on the flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal during the last decade. The information on medicinal uses of plants was gathered with consultation with the local informants, herbal healers, shepherds, Natuvaidulu (Quacks), Sugalis (Local tribes) etc.

Statistical analysis

����������� The following indices were used for data analysis among the first ten larger families.

1. Parthi Prop (Puttaparthi proportionalrepresentation) =number of speciesin the family in the region divided by the total number of species in the region. The total number of flowering plant species in the Puttaparthi Mandal has been found to be 464 species.

2. Med Prop (proportional representation in medicinal flora) = number of MPS in the family from the region divided by the total number of MPS from the region.

3. Med Rat (medicinal plant species ratio) = number of MPS in the family from the region divided by the number of flowering plant species in the family from the region.

Results and Discussion

Classification of medicinal plants

������������ At the present stage of enquiry, our studies on the flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal indicate that nearly 185 plant species find their use as medicinals. These medicinal plant species (MPS) are distributed within 132 genera and 55 families of Angiosperms. The Dicots constitute 128 genera and 175 species, whereas monocots include 4 genera and 10 species (Table 1). Herbal MPS are very significant, numbering 94, followed by trees - 40, shrubs - 35 and climbers - 16. Ecologically, majority of them are mesophytes and few are xerophytes, hydrophytes and parasites.

Statistical analysis

������������� In terms of number of the MPS, the family Euphorbiaceae contributes 19 MPS to the total medicinal flora (Table 2). It is followed by Caesalpinaceae (12), Asclepiadaceae (9), Amaranthaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), Solanaceae (8), Acanthaceae (7), Apocynaceae (7), Asteraceae (6) and Boraginaceae (6). The representation of the MPS within the families is highly skewed, with just ten larger families contributing 50 %, while the remaining 50 % by the other 45 families.

 

Table 1: Number of genera (G) and Species (S) per family in the medicinal flora of Puttaparthi Mandal.

 

Family

No. of

Species

Family

No. of species

Acanthaceae

7

Meliaceae

1

Agavaceae

1

Malvaceae

5

Aizoaceae

2

Mimosaceae

6

Amarantaceae

8

Menispermaceae

1

Annonaceae

2

Moraceae

2

Apocynaceae

7

Moringaceae

1

Asclepiadaceae

9

Nyctaginaceae

1

Aristolochiaceae

1

Oleaceae

1

Asteraceae

6

Onagraceae

1

Boraginaceae

6

Oxalidaceae

1

Bignoniaceae

1

Papaveraceae

1

Cactaceae

1

Passifloraceae

1

Caesalpiniaceae

12

Plumbaginaceae

1

Capparidaceae

5

Portulacaceae

2

Combretaceae

5

Poaceae

4

Convolvulaceae

6

Rhamnaceae

2

Cucurbitaceae

1

Rubiaceae

3

Cyperaceae

2

Rutaceae

4

Ebenaceae

2

Salvadoraceae

1

Erythroxylaceae

1

Santalaceae

1

Euphorbiaceae

19

Sapindaceae

3

Fabaceae

8

Scrophulariaceae

1

Flacourtiaceae

1

Solanaceae

8

Lamiaceae

6

Verbenaceae

4

Liliaceae

3

Violaceae

1

Lythraceae

1

Vitaceae

2

Myrtaceae

1

Zygophyllaceae

1

 

Table 2: The first ten families in medicinal flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal

(In terms of number of MPS).

 

S.No

Family

MPS

01

Euphorbiaceae

19

02

Caesalpiniaceae

12

03

Asclepiadaceae

09

04

Amarantaceae

08

05

Fabaceae

08

06

Solanaceae

08

07

Acanthaceae

07

08

Apocynaceae

07

09

Asteraceae

06

10

Boraginaceae

06

 

On the basis of Med Prop, the percentage of first ten large families in the medicinal flora is as follows: Euphorbiaceae (10.2%) > Caesalpinaceae (6.5%) > Asclepiadaceae (4.9%) > Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae (4.3%) > Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae (3.8%) > Asteraceae and Boraginaceae (3.2%).However, on computing the Med Rat, the family Euphorbiaceae with value of 73% is the largest, followed by Solanaceae (72%), Asclepiadaceae (69%), Apocynaceae (63%). In other words, more than half of the species in the family Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, from Puttaparthi Mandal are MPS. The families on the basis of Med Rat. the sequence of first ten large number of families is as follows: Euphorbiaceae (73%) > Solanaceae (72%) > Asclepiadaceae (69%) > Apocynaceae (64%) > Caesalpinaceae (63%) > Boraginaceae (54%) > Amaranthaceae (50%) > Acanthaceae (36%) > Fabaceae (28%) > Asteraceae (19%). The Euphorbiaceae, which tops on the basis of absolute number of MPS, also tops in the ranking of Med Rat (Table 3).

 

Table 3: Parthi Prop, Med Prop, and Med Rat computed for the first 10 large families in the medicinal flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal.

 

Family

Parthi Prop.

%

Med Prop.

%

Med Rat.

%

Euphorbiaceae

5.6

10.2

73

Caesalpiniaceae

4.0

6.5

63

Asclepiadaceae

2.8

4.9

69

Amarantaceae

3.4

4.3

50

Fabaceae

6.3

4.3

27

Solanaceae

2.4

4.3

72

Acanthaceae

4.0

3.8

36

Apocynaceae

2.4

3.8

63

Asteraceae

6.6

3.2

19

Boraginaceae

2.4

3.2

54

 

 

The complete list of medicinal plants is presented after the references section (Table 4) with their scientific name, family, vernacular name, parts used and medicinal applications. Plant resources of Puttaparthi Mandal are endowed with various medicinal properties for human well being. Most of them are mentioned in the Ayurveda, Folk, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy systems.

Threats to medicinal plant resources of Puttaparthi Mandal

Some of the major threats to the depletion of medicinal plant resources are:

  1. Intense and unrestricted grazing by cattle and goats.
  2. Excess forest fires cause loss of regeneration potential of the species.
  3. Demand of medicinal plants and illegal trade practices
  4. Lowrain fall and high temperature during summer (40 -46oC)
  5. Unsustainable extraction ofyoungplants and mature seeds from forests
  6. Cutting of plants forfire wood and leaves for fodder by local villagers
  7. Lack of interest from state forest department to conserve the medicinal plant resources available in this region.
  8. Lack of awareness among local people about the potentiality of medicinal plants and their uses.
  9. Urbanization and expansion of the Puttaparthi town.

Recommendation for sustainable management of medicinal plants

�������������� In this alarming situation, conservation of medicinal plants is very important; some species have been disappeared from the deforested region of Puttaparthi. Therefore, sustainable utilization of medicinal plants is an urgent need of the hour. The following management steps could be taken immediately for conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants:

  1. Establishment of community based home gardens and nurseries.
  2. Identification of villagers/farmers for on-farm pilot propagation and cultivation trials of medicinal plant to reduce pressure from wild populations.
  3. Piloting of farmer based cultivation trails for selected and important medicinal species on the edge of forest and in home gardens.
  4. Community mobilization and creating awareness on sustainable harvesting of plant parts among the local people of the surrounding villages.
  5. Promotion of alternative village incomes linked to maintaining the integrity of resources of medicinal plants.
  6. Establishment of Village Knowledge Centers (VKC) with specific focus on the medicinal plants. Local herbal healers (vaidyas) should associate in teaching other people about the importance of medicinal plants.
  7. Establishment of various types committees to protect the forest from denudation.
  8. Promotion of participatory research in breeding and knowledge management involving villagers, scientists, NGOs, government officials and tribal families.
  9. Establishment of linkages with markets, so that the cultivation of medicinal plants becomes market driven, with assured income security for local people and tribal families.

Conclusion

������������ Taxonomic information is the foundation stone for advanced studies in every discipline of biological sciences (Khushoo, 1995). The present study provides a broad taxonomic overview on the medicinal flora of the Puttaparthi Mandal. From our study, it can be concluded that about 39% of the flora has been known for their potential medicinal value. Most of the MPS belong to the Dicotyledons; the Euphorbiaceae having the highest number of MPS in absolute terms, possess the highest number of MPS in relative terms. Such type of studies can provide vital insights in the formulation of policies for the assessment, monitoring and conservation of medicinal plant resources of the region (Moerman et al., 1999; Dhar et al., 2000) and also for biological and biotechnological studies (Basavaraju, 2004)

���� ��������Conservation of medicinal plant resources is gaining importance with the overexploitation of available resources on the rise. Villagers, traders, processors, non-governmental organizations, government officials should work together for sustainable management of medicinal plant resources which lead to the biodiversity conservation. These above mentioned steps, if properly implemented will not only protect the medicinal plants, but also help in boosting the economy of the rural people who mostly depend on the nature for their livelihood.

References

Basavaraju, R. 2005. Plant tissue culture in plant biotechnology, Proceedings of AP Academi of Sciences 9(3):193-200.

Dhar, U., Rawal, R. S. and Upreti, J. 2000. Setting priorites for conservation of medicinal plants � a case study in the Indian Himalaya. Journal of Biological Conservation 95:57-65.

Gadgil, M. 1996. Documenting diversity: An experiment. Current Science 70(1):36-44.

Gamble, J. S. and Fisher C.E.C. 1915-1935. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Reprinted by Botanical Survey of India 1957, Calcutta.

Khushoo, T.N. 1995. Census of India�s biodiversity: Tasks ahead. Current Science 69:14-17.

Kumar, P. 2004. Valuation of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical use. Current Science 86:930-937.

Moerman, D. E., Pemberton, R. W., Kiefer, D. and Berlin, B. 1999. A Comparative analysis of five medicinal floras. Journal ofEthnobotany. 19:49-67.

Prajapati, N.D.,Purohit, S. S., Sharma, A. K., Kumar, T. 2004. A Handbook of Medicinal plants � A complete source book. Agrobios, Jodpur.

Pullaiah, T. and N. Yesoda. 1989. Flora of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh. India. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Publishers, Dehra Dun.

Pushpangadan, P. and Nair, K. N. 2001. Future of systematic and biodiversity research in India. Current Science 80:631-638.

Singh, J. S. 2002. The Biodiversity crisis: A Multifaceted Review. Current Science 82:638.

Singh, N. P., Mudgal, V., Khanna, K. K. and Srivastava, S. C. 2002. Medicinal plants. In Singh, N.P.and Singh, D.K. (eds.), Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India, Vol. IV. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India.

Sullivan, K. and Shealy, C. N. 1997. Complete Natural Home Remedies. Element Books Limited, Shafterburg, UK.

Utkarsh, G.M., Gadgil, M. and Rao, P. R. S. 1999. Intellectual Property rights on biological resources: Benefiting from biodiversity and people�s knowledge. Current Science 77:1418-1425.

 

Table 4: Medicinal plants of Puttaparthi Mandal.

 

Name of the plant

Family

Telugu name

Parts used

Treatment for/used as

Abrus precatorius L.

Fabaceae

Guruginjaa

Seed

Asthma

Abutilon indicum L. Sweet

Malvaceae

Thuthurubenda

Root, wholepart

Internal injury of chest

Acacia catechu Willd.

Mimosaceae

Nalla sandra

Bark, heart wood

Diabetes, BronchialAsthma

Acacia farnesiana Willd.

Mimosaceae

Kasturi thumma

Bark, heart wood

Asthma

Acacia nilotica Willd.

Mimosaceae

Nalla thumma

Gum

Diabetes

Acacia tomentosa L.

Mimosaceae

-

-

-

Acalyphaindica L.

Euphorbiaceae

Kuppintaku

Plant leaf juice with oil, salt or lime

Asthama, applied in snake bite

Acanthospermum hispidum D C

Acanthaceae

-

Plant

Used in skin diseases

Achyranthes aspera L.

Amaranthaceae

Uthareni

Plant, seed, flower tops, leaf paste, root

Asthma, cardiac disorder, snake bite, bites of poisonous insects, wasp, bees etc

Adhatoda zeylanica Medik

Acanthaceae

Addasaramu

Leaves, flowers and roots

Bronchitis and Astma

Aegle marmelos (L.)Corrrea

Rutaceae

Maredu

Tender leaf, ripe fruit

Asthma, Diabetes, brain and Cardio tonic

Aerva lanata L.

Amaranthaceae

Kondapindi

Plant root

Diabetes, Cardiac diseases

Agave americana Roxb.

Agavaceae

Kalabanda

Leaf, seed, rhizome

Cancer, Hydrophobia, Filaria

Ageratum conyzoides

Asteraceae

Pumullu

Decoction of the herb

Diarrhoea and Dysentery.

Albizia lebbeck L. Willd

Mimosaceae

Sirisamu

Seed, leaf, bark, flower

Asthma, snake bite, food and other poisoning

Aloe vera L. Burm.f.

Liliaceae

Chinna kalabanda

Leaf pulp

Liver and skin disorders

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.

Amaranthaceae

Ponagantikura

Stem and leaf

Applied for snake bite

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranthaceae

Mullathotakuraa

Whole plant, root

Snake bite, cholera

Amaranthus tricolor L.

Amaranthaceae

Chirikura

Whole plant, root

Snake bite, cholera

Amaranthus viridis L.

Amaranthaceae

Chilakathotakura

Whole plant

Febrifuge and Diarrhoea

Ammannia baccifera L.

Lythraceae

Agnivednapaku

Leaves

Rheumatic pains

Andrographis paniculata Wall. Ex Nees

Acanthaceae

Nelavemu

Plant, Plant extract

Diabetes, Malaria, Typhoid, Filaria

Anisomelos malabarica L.

Lamiaceae

Megabeera

Plant

Snake bite and scorpion sting

Anogeissus latifolia Wall. Ex Guill.& Perr.

Combretaceae

Sirikarra

Bark

Asthma, Diabetes, Scorpion sting, Snake bite

Argemone Mexicana L.

Papaveraceae

Brahmadandi

Seed whole plant, latex ,seed

Asthma, Scorpion sting

Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer

Convolvulaceae

Chandrapala

Leaves

Eczema, Antiseptic.

Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.

Aristolochiaceae

Gadida-gadapaku

plant

Snake bite, Scorpionsting

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Liliaceae

Pilligaddalu

Root , leaf Root

Diabetes, Tuberculosis

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Vepa, Yapa

Bark , leaf ,seed

Diabetes, Measles,

Chicken Pox

Asima tetracantha Lam.

Salvadoraceae

Tella Uppi

Leaves

Asthma, Rheumatism

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel

Scrophulariaceae

Sambrani chettu

Plant

Asthma, cardio tonic

Barleria prionitis L.

Acanthaceae

Mullugorinta

plant

Mouth wash and tooth ache

Bauhinia racemosa Lam.

Cesalpiniaceae

Are chettu

Leaves

 

Diarrhoea, Dysentery

Bauhinia variegate L.

Cesalpiniaceae

Devakanchanamu

Root and bark Dried buds Root Bark

Diabetes, Tumors, Antidote to snake bite Malaria

Boerhavia diffusa L.

Nyctaginaceae

Atika mamidi

Root and Plant

Asthma, Cardiac disorder

Borreria articularis Will.

Rubiaceae

Madanaka

Leaves

Head ache and Tooth ache

Cadaba fruticosa L. Druce

Capparidaceae

Adamorinika

Roots, leaves

Skin diseases and body pains

Calotropis gigantea (L.)R. Br

Asclepiadaceae

Tella jilledu

Powdered root

Root, bark, leaf

Flower , latex, paste of root bark

Asthma, Snake bite, rat bite,

Elephantiasis

Calotropis Procera (L.)R. Br

Asclepiadaceae

Jilledu

Bark. Latex

Asthma, Snake bite, rat bite

Elephantiasis

Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thoms

Annonaceae

ApoorvaChampakamu

Flower, oil

Gout, Opthalmia and Astma

Canthium perviflorum Lam

Rubiaceae

Balusu

Leaves and fruits

Diarrhoea, diphtheria

Capparis spinosa

Capparidaceae

 

Buds and fruits

Paralysis, tooth ache

Capparis zeylanica L.

Capparidaceae

Aridonda

Bark and Leaves

Stomach ache and piles

Cardiospermum halicacabum L

Sapindaceae

Buddakakara

Root and leaf

Tumors

Caralluma adscendens Grav. & Mayur

Asclepiadaceae

Kundelu kommulu

Herb

Inflammation

Caralluma umbellata Haw

Asclepiadaceae

Kundetikommulu

Stem

Stomach disorders

Caesalpinia bonduc L. Roxb

Caesalpiniaceae

Gacchakaya

Leaves and seeds

Diarrhoea, Asthma and Filaria

Celosia argentea L.

Amaranthacea

Gurugu

Leaves, flowers

Scorpion sting, Dysentery

Carissa carandus L.

Apocyanaceae

Wakkayalu

plant

Antiscorbutic and Cooling

Cassia alata. L

Caesalpiniaceae

Sima avise

Leaves

Skin diseases

Cassia auriculata L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Tangedu

Bark, leaves

Skin disease and Liver disorder

Cassia occidentalis L

Caesalpiniaceae

Kasinda

Plant

Typhoid, Asthma

Cassia fistula L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Rela

Fruits

Leprosy and Jaundice

Cassia italic Lam

Caesalpiniaceae

Nelaponna

Leaves

Ulcer and burns

Cassia pumila Lam

Caesalpiniaceae

Nallajiluga

Seeds

Purgative

Cassia tora L

Caesalpiniaceae

Tellakashinda

Plant

Skin disease

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Billa ganneru

Root leaf and whole plant

Cancer, Diabetes, Cardio tonic

Cleome gynandra L.

Capparidaceae

Vamonta

Leaves

Rheumatism

Cleome viscose L.

Capparidaceae

Kukkavaminta

Leaves

Wounds and Ulcers

Chloroxylon swietenia DC.

Rutaceae

Billu

Bark

Rheumatism

Chrozophora rottleri Sprl.

Euphorbiaceae

Erramiriyam

Leaves

Dermatitis

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Vitaceae

Nalleru

Stem paste, shade dried root

Bone fracture

Cissus pallid Planch.

Vitaceae

Nallateega

Roots

Rheumatism

Clitoria ternatea L.

Fabaceae

Sankhapushpam

Whole plant

 

Asthma, Sterility in female,

Snake bite

Coldenia procumbens L.

Boraginaceae

Hamsapaduka

Leaves

Rheumatism and for digestion

Cordia dichotoma Forst. F.

Boraginaceae

Chinnanakkeru

Fruit

Chest and urinary infections

Crotalaria retusa L.

Fabaceae

Potti giligicha

Plant

Cardiac disorders

Croton bonplandianum Baill

Euphorbiaceae

Galivana chettu

Leaves

Skin diseases

Cymbopogon caesius Stapf

Poaceae

Kamanchi gaddi

Leaves, roots and rhizomes

Fever, cold and gonorrhea

Cymbopogon flexuosus Watson

Poaceae

Nimma gaddi

Leaves

Leprosy

Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.

Poaceae

NImma gaddi

Leaves

Skin disease and cholera

Cymbopogon martinii Watson

Poaceae

Kamakshi kasuvu

Leaves

Bronchitis and leprosy

Cyperus esculentus L.

Cyperaceae

Musta

Tubers

Cardio tonic

Cyperus rotundus L

Cyperaceae

Tunga

Tubers

Cholera, Scabies

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Fabaceae

Sissoo

Wood

Skin disease

Datura metel L.

Solanaceae

Ummetha

Root ,leaf, flower

 

Asthma, Scorpion sting,

Snake bite

Datura innoxia MIll.

Solanaceae

Ummetha

Plant

Anaesthetic

Delonix elata L. Gamble

Caesalpiniaceae

 

Leaves

Rheumatism

Delonix regia Raf.

Caesalpiniaceae

Agnipoolu

Flowers

Dysmenorrhoea

Digera muricata Mart.

Amaranthaceae

Chenchalikura

Plant

Urinary disorders

Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb

Ebenaceae

Tumki

Fruit, Bark

Diarrhoea and Dyspepsia

Diospyros Montana Roxb

Ebenaceae

Gatugata

Plant

Hypertension

Dodonaea viscose Jacq

Sapindaceae

Bandaru

Leaves

Bone fractures

Echinops echinatus Roxb.

Asteraceae

Brahmadandi

Plant

Histeria, dyspepsia, Opthalmia

Eclipta prostrate L.

Asteraceae

Guntagalagara

Herb

Spleen disorders,

Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb.

Erythroxylaceae

Adivi Gorinti

Bark and wood

Diuretic and Diaphoretic

Euphorbia antiquorum L.

Euphorbiaceae

Bommajemudu

Whole plant

Diabetes

Euphorbia caducifoliaL.

Euphorbiaceae

-

Latex

Antispasmodic

Euphorbia hirta L

Euphorbiaceae

Reddivarinanubalu

Plant

Asthma, Anti tubercular activity.

Euphorbia heterophylla L.

Euphorbiaceae

-

Roots and aerial parts

Haemostatic and purgative

Euphorbia indica Lam

Euphorbiaceae

-

plant

Diarrhoea and Dysentery

Euphorbia thymifolia L

Euphorbiaceae

Reddivarinanubalu

-

Antimicrobial and in bowel complications.

Euphorbia tirucalli

Euphorbiaceae

Kalli, Sanna jamudu

Latex

Rheumatic pains

Evolvulus alsinoides L.

Convolvulaceae

Vishnu krantamu

Plant

Bronchitis, tuberculosis and

Asthma

Feronia limonia

Rutaceae

Velaga

Fruits

 

Ficus recemosa L.

Moraceae

Medi

Bark, leaves

Diarrhoea, Dysentery and Diabetics.

Ficus religiosa L.�������

Moraceae

Aswathamu, Raavi

Bark

Diarrhoea, Dysentery and skin diseases

Flacourtia indica Merr.

Flacourtiaceae

Pulivelaga

Fruits

Jaundice and diuretic

Gisekia pharnaceoides L.

Aizoaceae

Isaka dasari kura

Herb

Antihelmintic

Gloriosa superba L.

Liliaceae

Adavi nabhi

Rhizome paste

Snake bite, scorpion sting

Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.ex Schult

Asclepiadaceae

Podapatri

Leaf powder

Root

 

Cardiac stimulant, Asthma, snake bite, Diabetes

Heliotropium indicum L.

Boraginaceae

Nagadanthi

Plant

Stings of insects

Heliotropium ovalifolium Forsk.

Boraginaceae

-

Plant

Diarrhoea and vomiting

Heliotropium Subulatum Hochst.

Boraginaceae

-

Plant

Snake bites and insect stings

Hemidesmus indicus R.Br

Asclepiadaceae

Sugandhipala

Whole plant

Asthma, diabetes

Holarrhena pubescence Wall.ex.G.Don

Apocyanaceae

Palakodisa

Bark, seeds

Asthma, Cardiac disorders

Hybanthus enneaspermus F.Muell

Violaceae

Ratnapurusha

Plant

Leprosy and eye diseases

Hygrophyla schulli M.R. & S.M. Almeida

Acanthaceae

-

Whole plant, roasted seed

Diabetes

Indigofera tinctoria L.

Fabaceae

Nili

Roots, stem and leaves

 

Asthma, cardio disorders, Nervous disorders, Scorpionsting, dog bite

Ipomea nil Roxb.

Convolvulaceae

Kolli - vottulu

Seeds

Purgative

Ipomea pes-tigridis L.

Convolvulaceae

Chikunuvvu

Herb

Dog bite, Pimples and sores

Ipomea quamoclit L.

Convolvulaceae

Kasiratnamu

Plant

Bleeding piles

Ipomea sepiaria Koen. ex. Roxb.

Convolvulaceae

Lakshmana

Plant

For rejuvenating

Jasminum auriculatum vahl

Oleaceae

Adavi teegamalle

Roots, flower

Skin diseases, cardio tonic

Jatropa curcas L.

Euphorbiaceae

Adavi aamudamu

Root, leaf and seed

 

Rat bite, Antidotfor poisoning

Jatropa glandulifera Roxb.

Euphorbiaceae

Adavi mudamu

Seed and seed oil

Snake bite, rheumatism

Jatropa gossypifolia L.

Euphorbiaceae

Nela amudamu

bark

Stomach ache, Leprosy

Lantana camera L.

Verbenaceae

Pulikampa

Leaf

Malaria

Lowsonia inermis L.

Lythraceae

Gorintaaku

Leaves, flowers

Skin deseases.

Lepidagathis cristata Wild

Acanthaceae

Mullabanti

plant

Skin disorders

Leptadenia reticulate Wight & Am

Asclepiadaceae

Mukku tummudu

Leaves and Root

Cardiac diseases, skin diseases and tuberculosis

Leucas aspera Link.

Lamiaceae

Thummi

Leaf, flower and Root

Snake bite, Astama

Ludwigia adscendens Hara.

Onagraceae

 

Plant

Snake bites, burns, scalp diseases and antibacterial.

Mimosa pudica L.

Mimosaceae

Attipatti

Root, stem and leaf

 

Diabetes, Asthma and scorpion sting

Momordica charantia L.

Cucurbitacea

Kakara

Fruit

Diabetes, Healing wounds, Rheumatism

Morinda pubescens J.E.Smith

Rubiaceae

Maddi Chettu

Leaves

Diarrhoea, Dysentery

Moringa pterigosperma Gaertn

 

Moringaceae

Munuga

Plant

Blood pressure, cardiac disease, Bronchitis, Asthma

Oscimum americanum L

Lamiaceae

Kukka Tulasi

Leaves

Dysentery, Bronchitis.

Oscimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Bhutulasi

Leaves

Brohchitis, Skin disease, Dysentery

Oscimum tanuiflorum L.

Lamiaceae

Krishna Tulasi

Leaves

Cough, Respiratory disorders

Opuntia stricta Haw.

Cactaceae

Nagajemmudu

Plant

Gonorrhoea,opthalmia

Oxalis carniculata L.

Oxalidaceae

Pulichintaku

Entire plant

Cardiac disease

Passiflora foetida L.

Passifloraceae

Tellajumiki

Plant

Astma, Eczema

Pavonia zeylanica

Malvaceae

Chitti benda

Plant

Vermifuge, Purgative

Pergularia daemia Chiov

Asclepiadaceae

Jithupaku

Leaf

Astma, Diarrhoea

Peristrophe paniculata Brummitt

Acanthaceae

Chebeera

Root

Fillariasis

Phyla nodiflora Greene

Verbenaceae

Bokkenaku

Plant

Astma , cardiac disorders

Phyllanthus acidus Skeels

Euphorbiaceae

Chinna Usiri

Fruit

Bronchitis, Piles,

Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn

Euphorbiaceae

Nelausiri

Leaves

Diabetes, Jaundice

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Euphorbiaceae

Usiri

Fruits

Asthma, Brochitis

Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.

Euphorbiaceae

Nella Usirike

Leaves

Head ache

Phyllanthus reticulates Poir.

Euphorbiaceae

Nallapurugudu

Plant

Diuretic, Cooling

Physalis minima L.

Solanaceae

Budda budama

fruits

Spleen disorders

Plectranthus barbatus Andr.

Lamiaceae

Pashana bhedi

Tuber

Cancer and Asthma

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Plumbaginaceae

Tella Chitramoolam

Roots

Asthma , ulcer, skin disorders

Plumeria rubra L.

Apocynaceae

Deva Ganneru

Bark

Rheumatism, Diarrhoea.

Polyalthia longifolia Thw.

Annonaceae

Ashoka

Bark

Respiratory and cardiac problems

Pongamia pinnata Pieree

Fabaceae

Kanuga chettu

Root, leaf, flower, seed oil

Snake bite, Diabetes

Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulacaceae

Pappukura

Seed, leaf

Cardiac diseases and diabetes

Portulaca quadrifida L.

Portulacaceae

Payala kura

Herb

Asthma, Skin diseases

Premna tomentosa Willd.

Verbenaceae

Kampu gummadi

Leaves, Bark

Diarrhoea

Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

Fabaceae

Yagisa

Heart wood

Diabetes and Astma

Santalum alba L.

Santalaceae

Chandanamu

Heart wood

Cardiac diseases, tuberculosis

Sapindus emarginatus Vahl.

Sapindaceae

Kunkudu

Fruit

Asthma and cholera

Sida acuta Burm. F.

Malvaceae

Nelabendaa

Leaf juice and leaves boiled in oil,

Root and leaf

Relives chest pain, Elephantiasis and tuberculosis

Sida cordata Borssum

Malvaceae

Gayapaku

Herb

Urinary disorders

Sida cordifolia L.

Malvaceae

Chirubenda

Root

Asthma, cardiac disease

Solanum indicum L.

Solanaceae

 

plant

Anti Cancer

Solanum nigrum

Solanaceae

Kamanchi

Leaves

Tuberculosis, Asthma, Hydrophobia

Solanum torvum Swartz

Solanaceae

Chundaikai

Root bark

Malaria

Solanum xanthocarpum

Solanaceae

-

-

-

Syzygium cumini Skeels

Myrtaceae

Neredu

Root, bark and leaf

Diabetics

Tabernaemontana divaricata Roem & Schult

Apocynaceae

Nandhivardanamu

Root, flowers and leaves

Tooth ache, Skin disease

Tecoma stans H.B.K

Bignoniaceae

Pachagotla

Leaves

Diabetes

Tephrosia purpurea Pers.

Fabaceae

Vempali

Roots

Asthma

Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn

Combretaceae

Tellamaddi

Bark, leaf, fruits

Asthma, Diabetes

Terminalia bellirica Roxb

Combretaceae

Tani

Fruit

Astma and cardiac disease

Terminalia datappa L.

Combretaceae

Badam

Leaves, fruit

Skin disorders

Terminalia chebula Retz

Combretaceae

Karagkaiaa

Fruit

Asthma

Thevetia peruvianna Merr.

Apocynaceae

Pacchaganeru

Seeds

Rheumatism

Tinospora cardifolia Hook. F. & Thoms

Menispermaceae

Tippateega

Plant

Asthma , cardiac disorder, Snake bite, Diabetes

Tuddalia asiatica Lam.

Rutaceae

Kondamirapa

Root bark leaf

Asthma tuberculosis

Tragia involucrata L.

Euphorbiaceae

Theegaduradagunta

Roots

Cold and body pains

Trianthema portulacastrum L.

Aizoaceae

Galijeru

Leaves

Kidney disorders

Tribulus terestris L.

Zygophyllaceae

Palleru

Root and fruit

Asthma and cardiac disorder

Trichodesma indicum R.Br

Boraginaceae

Guvvagutti

Plant

Snake bite

Tridax procumbens L.

Asteraceae

Gaddi chamanthy

Leaves

Dysentery, Diarrhoea, Anti coagulant.

Tylophora indica Merr.

Asclepiadaceae

Kukkapala

Plant

Asthma, snake bite, hydrophobia

Vernonia cineria Less.

Asteraceae

Ghariti Kamini

Plant

Malaria and scorpion sting

Vitex negundo L.

Verbenaceae

Tella vavili

Root bark leaf flower

Asthma, anti-cancer activity

Withania sominifera Dunal.

Solanaceae

Ashwagandha

Plant

Sedative, Nervous disorders

Wrightiatinctoria R.Br.

Apocynaceae

Ankudu

Leaf

Stomach ache

Xanthium strumarium L.

Asteraceae

Marlu mathangi

Leaves

Cancer treatment and malaria

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.

Rhamnaceae

Regu

Leaf,fruit and seed

Asthma and chest troubles

Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.

Rhamnaceae

Pariki

Bark,fruit

Healing of wounds and in stomach ache.