Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 52-70. 2007.
Ethnobotanical Studies on Some Rare and Endemic Floristic
Elements of Eastern Ghats-Hill Ranges of South
Dowlathabad Muralidhara Rao and Thammineni Pullaiah
Department of Botany (SKU Herbarium),
Sri Krishnadevara University, Anantapur. 515003
Hilly area from the River Krishna to near about Madras, covering the Andhra
Pradesh districts of Krishna (Kondapalli range), Kurnool (Nallamala ranges),
Cuddapah (Yerramala,Palakonda ranges), Nellore (Veligonda range), and
Chittoor and Cuddapah (Seshachalam-Lankamala-Nagari-Kambakkam ranges), represents
the middle Eastern Ghats.The low hilly area runs in a West - South-West
direction meeting the high mountain ranges of the Western Ghats in the
Nilgiri belt, covering the Tamilnadu districts of North Arcot (Javadi Hills),
South Arcot (Gingee hills), Salem (hills of Shevaroy,Kalrayan), Namakkal
(Kollimalai, Bodamalai, Nainamalai, Chitramalai), Dharmapuri (Melagiri
hills), Tiruchirapalli (Pachamalai hills) represents the Southern–Eastern
Ghats.. The average elevation of the
highest peak in
varies considerably with altitudes and shows a distinct zonation of
1. Scrub Jungles – to 400m (foot hills)
2. Deciduous forest – 300 to 900m (slopes)
3. Evergreen forest - 800 to 1300m (Plateau)
4. Sholas - 1200 to 1600m
the basis of dryness, Ahmedullah and Nayar (1986) divided
to Legris and Meher-Homji (1982, 1984), seven main vegetation types have been
recognised in Easterns Ghats i.e., (1) Albizia
amara Series (A Thorn Forest Community); (2) Cochlospermum, Gyrocarpus, Givotia altitudinal ecotone;
According to the classification of Champion and Seth (1968), vegetation in Eastern Ghats can be broadly classified into (1) Evergreen forests, (2) Tropical semi-evergreen forests, (3) Tropical moist deciduous forests, (4) Southern tropical dry deciduous forests, (5) Northern mixed dry deciduous forests, (6) Dry Savannah forests, (7) Scrub forests, (8) Tropical dry evergreen forests and (9) Tropical dry evergreen scrub.
Gonds are a tribal community living in Orissa. Gonds largely depend on their traditional sources (82%), which is not only due to the non-availability, non-affordability and lack of usable knowledge of modern medicine.
population of Andhra Pradesh is 3,176,001 and the tribes mainly inhabit the
plains and the hilly areas along the
to 1981 census, the tribal population of Andhra Pradesh is 3,176,001 of 33
tribal communities. This constitutes 5.93 per cent of the total population of
the state. Of these 27 tribal communities are confined to the isolated hills
and adjacent plains of
of Srikakulam district are believed to be descendents of the Sabaras referred
to in the Aitareya Brahmana and Ramayana. Srikakulam presents a picturesque
but varied landscape. The sun drenched sea-coast is followed by a vast
expanse of land interspersed with densely populated river-valleys. The lush
plains abruptly end with the commencement of the confused hill ranges of the
Tribes in Tamil Nadu Hills
Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Frular Kadar, Kommara, Kanikaran, Kanikkar, Kaniyan, Kanyan, Kattunayakan, Kochu, Velan, Konda Kapus, Konda reddis, Koraga, Kota, Kudiva, Melakudi, Kurichchan, Kurimbas, Kurumans, Maha Malassar, Malai Arayan, Malaivedan, Malakkuravan, Malassar, Malayali (in Dharmapuri, North Arcot, Pudukotti, Salem, South Arcot and Thiruchirapalli districts), Malaye Kandi, Mannan, Mudugar, Mauduvan, Muthvan Palleyan, Palliyan, Palliyar, Paniyan and Sholaga Tada (Shasi, 1994).
Economic activity of tribals in forests of
tribal groups of
The native tribal people of Shevaroys are called Malayalis. As per 1981 census, the tribal population was 32,746. They are living in nearly 100 conically shaped huts scattered in various parts of the plateau. They are cultivating different kinds of grains, or fruit trees and breeding cattle. The ethnic group of Pacchamalais is also called Malayalis and their mother tongue is Tamil. As per 1991 census calculation nearly 10,006 tribals are living in this area. Of these, in Thenparanadu revenue village 3024 tribals are living in 998 families, in Vayanadu revenue village 4041 tribals are living in 946 families; in Kombi revenue village 1820 tribals are living in 427 families; in Thalngai 336 tribals are living in 67 families, in Sobanapuram revenue village 292 tribals are living in 56 familes; in Sookalampatti revenue village 493 tribals are living in 90 families. Most of them are labourers.
tribal people of Sirumalai group of hills are either Malayalis or Pariars. In
Sirumalai alone there are ten tribal villages mainly working as labourers or
collecting minor forest produce like gallnut, Indian Gosseberry,
The focus of the study was to register the ethnopharmacological knowledge possessed by tribal people, especially the elders who crossed 60 years. During the initial survey one person tribal people, especially the elders who crossed 60 years. During the initial survey one person had been introduced by the villagers became the key person, who led the way to introduction to other knowledgeable informants. The person from each area of the study accompanied to the field showed the plants, and they have provided the local names and information as to which health conditions the plants and they have provided the local names and information as to which health conditions the plants were used, and the method of preparation and administration of remidies. The ethnobotanical information of the drug yielding plants recorded following the standard methods of Schultes (1962), Jain (1981), Croom, (1983) and Martin(1995). The extensive and intensive exploration of medicinal plants in the study area, conducted during 1997 to 2001,yielded 122 species of medicinal importance, related to skin diseases.
The voucher specimens for each species was collected in quadruplicates, which were carefully tagged with field numbers after making a critical observation on the habit, habitat, colour and odour of flowers, phyto-association, occurrence and other relevant ecological features, which cannot be discerned from dried herbarium specimens.
tribal people accurately recorded flowering and fruiting periods in the field
notebooks along with vernacular names and relevant information on their
utility. The specimens were identified with the help of Gamble’s “Flora of
Presidency of Madras”(1915-35) and other
local/regional floras, recent monographs using salient features, recorded in
field notebooks. The identification was further confirmed by the comparison
with that of authenticated specimens, housed at Central National Herbarium
Clematis roylei Rehder in J. Arn. Arb. 22: 575. 1941; Rau in
pubescent climbing shrub, up to 4 m long; branches villous. Leaves
in shaded places in forests along banks of rivers or streams in
Medicinal importance : Leaf paste applied to skin diseases like leucoderma.
Bisu Puram-Galikonda (VSKP), DMR 21178; Minumuluru (VSKP), GVS 29612 (MH).
Clematis smilacifolia Wall. Asiat. Res. 13: 402. 1820; FBI 1:3.
1872; Gamble 1: 3. 1915; Rau in Flora of
Large climber up to 5 m long, stems and branches glabrous. Leaves simple, ovate or elliptic-ovate, 2.6-7 x 1.3-6 cm, base broadly cordate, margin entire, apex subacute or mucronate, or rarely obtuse, glabrous, petiole twining 2-15 cm. Flowers creamish-white or purple in axillary panicles. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 2.2 x 1.2 cm. Achenes ovate, compressed, hairy with 3.5-7 cm long feathery styles.
Rare twiner in moist valleys. Fl.: June-Aug.; Fr.: Oct.-Nov.
hills (GJ), DMR & KSP 24097; Vizag hills, Kori road (VSKP),
GVS 22669 (MH); Madgole-Minumuluru GVS 29562 (MH), way Gudem to
Chintapalli (VSKP), JLE 9147 (MH); Sapparla Gadda (VSKP), GVS
42778 (MH); Dariugabadi (GJ), CAB 1387 (MH); Yarlagadda (EG), VNS
Medicinal importance: Rhizome paste mixed with breast milk, administered orally to infants to cure stomach-ache.
INDIA: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa.
Clematis wightiana Wall. ex Wight &
Arn. Prodr. 2: 1834; FBI 1: 5. 1872; Gamble 1: 3. 1915; Rau in Flora of
woody climber, up to 4 m long branches covered with pale grey or golden brown
hairs. Leaves pinnately 3-5-foliolate, leaflets oblong-ovate, 3-5.4 x
Rare in moist valleys. Fl.: Dec.-Mar. Fr.: Jan.-May.
Medicinal importance: The leaves pounded with black pepper, garlic and castor oil, made into paste and applied externally to treat rheumatism.
Minumuluru (VSKP), DMR 24369; Mahendragiri hills (GJ), Srivastava & Party 66961, 66967 (LWG).
Michelia champaca L. Sp. Pl. 536. 1753; FBI . 1872; Gamble 1: 9. 1915.
Densely foliaceous, evergreen tree, up to 20 m tall; bark grey, thick, smooth; wood light olive-brown or yellowish, even-grained; branches ascending, spreading, forms a close crown. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, 10-19 x 6-9 cm, glabrescent and shining above, minutely puberulous beneath, base sub-acute, margin wavy, apex long acuminate, secondary nerves 10-18 pairs, petiole 1-8 cm long. Flowers pale yellow, fragrant, solitary, 6 cm across, axillary. Fruit dark brown, an aggregate of follicles, laxly arranged, woody, ovoid, white speckled; seeds numerous, brown, subglobose, 8-10 x 5-7 mm, angular, enclosed by scarlet red aril.
Planted in cool valleys, near and around temples and gardens for the sake of flowers. Fl.: Mar.-May. Fr.: July.
Shrub, up to 2 m tall, stem dark brown, terete, young branches pubescent. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate, 5-7 x 2-2.5 cm, base rounded, apex acute- acuminate. Flowers dark pink, solitary, axillary, bisexual, fragrant. Sepals 3, 1 mm long. Petals 6 (3+3), 1-2 cm long. Ripe carpels many, subglobose, red.
Rare in Seshachalam hills. Fl. & Fr.: April-June, Fr.: Aug.-Sept.
Medicinal importance: 1. Leaf juice used to cure fever one spoon daily for three days.
Polyalthia korinti (Dunal) Thw. Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 398. 1864; FBI
1: 64. 1872; Gamble . 1915;
Debika Mitra in Flora of
Small tree, 3-5 m tall, spreading; bark grey, young branches glabrous or subpilose. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 3-10 x 1.8 - 5 cm, glabrous, glossy, base acute, margin entire, apex acute to shortly acuminate, secondary nerves 4-6 pairs, tertiary nerves more prominent; petiole 4-8 mm. Flowers bright green, solitary, rarely 1-3, axillary, 1.4-1.8 cm dia; stamens numerous Monocarps numerous, bright crimson, 5 x 4 mm, ellipsoid or subglobose; stalk to 8 mm, seed 1, smooth, shiny grey.
Rare in hills of Seshachalam, Kambakkam and Viskhapatnam. Fl. & Fr.: Apr.-May.
Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook.
f. & Thoms.
Twiner, up to 5 m long. Leaves triangular-ovate, deltoid, elongate-ovate, 5-13 x 4-7 cm, truncate, base obtuse or subcordate, margin entire, apex acuminate, apiculate, pilose above, pubescent beneath, 5-nerved; petiole 2-4 cm. Male flowers: green in panicles of congested cymes, 2 cm long, puberulous, peduncled, green; Calyx campanulate, sepals 5-7, connate, unequal. Petals greenish, 4-7, connate; stamens 4. Female flowers in axillary pseudoracemes, bracteoles ovate-lanceolate. Sepal 1, linear. Petal 1, subulate, style 3-fid. Drupe obovoid, 3 x 4 mm.
Rare in Kolli hills, Araku hills and Seshachalam hills. Fl.: Nov-Jan. Fr.: Mar-June.
Medicinal importance: Leaves dipped in castor oil, mildly heated and applied on boils and blisters.
Sunkaramitta (VSKR), DMR 24012; Tirumala (
Note: A rare climber up to 1300 m, small galls observed on inflorescence; often pollinated by green colour butterfly.
Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merril in Sunyatsenia 1: 193. 1934;
Pramanik in Flora of
Large fleshy climber, stem puberulous, leaf scars distinct. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, 6-12 x 5-10 cm, base abruptly truncate or cuneate or subcordate, apex acutely acuminate, membranous, sparingly pubescent above, pilose beneath; petiole 4-8 cm. Flowers in pseudo-racemes. Male flowers: Sepals 6, yellowish green, glabrous. Petals 6; stamens 6. In female flowers, pedicels 3-7 mm long.. Drupes globose, red scarlet or orange red, 9-12 mm across, endocarp tuberculate.
Rare climber in Mahendragiri hills.
Medicinal importance: 1. The stem or root paste applied over
for snake bite or scorpion sting.
2. Tuber extract given for stomach ulcers.
Paniganda (GJ), DMR 18570 Bramham & Saxena, RRL-B 3000.
Capparis nilgiriensis Subba Rao et al. in J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 78: 146. 1981; Sundara Raghavan in Flora of
tree up to 15 m; branches many from the base. Leaves oblong-lanceolate,
4.5-10 x 2-4 cm, coriaceous, glabrous, base obtuse-round, margin
entire. Flowers 2 or 4 on lateral axes. Sepal 4 (2 + 2), glabrous, apex
acute. Petals 4, white.
Rare in Melagiri hills in Shola forests. Fl.: March-April, Fr.: May.
Medicinal importance: 1. Leaf decoction given in early stages of fever. 2. Root paste applied on wounds of cattle
Rare in Melagiri hills in Dharmapuri district.
Capparis olacifolia Hook. f. & Thoms. in
FBI 1: 178. 1872; Gamble .
1915. Mooney Suppl. Bot. Bihar & Orissa 21. 1950; Jacobs in Blumea 12:
475. 1965; Sundara Raghavan in Flora of
Shrub or small tree up to 4 m tall; young branches pubescent. Leaves 3-9 x 1.5-2 cm, ovate, base rounded-subacute, apex mucronate, or acuminate, chartaceous, petiole 5-7 mm. Flowers white, solitary, axillary or in pairs. Sepals lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate. Petals ovate-oblong; stamens many. Fruit globose, 8 mm across, rugose, shiny.
Medicinal importance: Root bark boiled in gingely oil (Sesamum
indicum) is squeezed into the ear to cure pain and pus formation.
Capparis roxburghii DC. Prodr. 1: 247. 1824; FBI 1: 175.
1872; Gamble 1: 46. 1915; Sundara Raghavan in Flora of
Armed scandent shrub, 2-4 m tall, young shoots glabrescent, older shoots glabrous, purplish, spiny. Leaves 5-6 x 1.7-2.7 cm, petiole glabrous, base cuneate, apex obtuse, petiole 1.2 cm. Flowers white in terminal corymbs on long pedicels. Sepals four, concave, two seriate, caducous, glabrous, 10 x 9 mm. Petals four, white, caducous, obovate; stamens many. Fruit globose, about 5-6 cm across, seeds embedded in a pulpy viscous endocarp, reddish brown.
Rare, along rocky slopes in dry deciduous forests up to 600 m. Fl. & Fr.: Apr.-Aug.
Medicinal importance: Leaf paste along with castor oil (Ricinus communis) applied on burns.
species has a comparatively wider distribution but is mostly confined to the
deciduous forests of
Note: Roxburgh originally used the binomial Capparis corymbosa in Hort. Beng. and described it later in his Flora Indica. As C. corymbosa Roxb. was a later homonym for C. corymbosa Lamk., an African plant, De Condolle proposed the new name C. roxburghii in his Prodromus basing it on a specimen in the Banks Herbarium with the manuscript of C. agula. Incidentally ‘agula’ is also the vernacular name used by Roxburgh under “C. corymbosa” in his Flora Indica.
Hypericum gaitii Haines in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. n.s. 15: 311. 1919 & Bot. Bihar
& Orissa 1: 52. 1925; Saxena & Brahmam Fl. Orissa 1: 111. 112.
1994; Biswas in Flora of
Much branched glabrous shrub, 0.8-2 m tall, stem chartaceous, terete, reddish brown. Leaves simple, opposite, elliptic-oblong, to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-6 x 0.3-1.8 cm, glabrous, pale and black glandular beneath, base subamplexicual, margin entire, apex subacute to acute. Flowers yellow, bisexual, 2-5 in dichotomous cymes. Sepals 5, green, 8-10 x 4-6 mm, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, persistent in fruit. Petals obliquely obovate, 3 x 1.7 cm; stamens numerous. Capsule ellipsoid or conical, dehiscing along placenta, 1.2-1.5 cm long, seeds many, brown, 1 mm long.
Rare on slopes of exposed hills. Fl.: Feb.-May. Fr.: Apr.-Jun.
Medicinal importance: Leaf paste or juice used for skin diseases like eczema and herpes.
Galikonda hills (VSKP), KSM 21945 & 21956.
Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. f. ex T.
And. in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 1: 269. 1874; Singh
in Flora of
Moderate sized tree, 15-20 tall; bark blackish or dark grey, exfoliating in small round flakes. Leaves thick coriaceous, variable in shape, linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 25.5-34.5 x 6.5-11 cm, obtuse, base rounded or acute, margin entire, apex acuminate. Flowers white in axillary fascicles. Berries 7 cm in dia, subglobose, dark yellow, seeds brown, 1-4.
Vathangi (EG), JSG 12677 (MH).
Medicinal importance: Stems crushed and mildly heated, gently massaged for muscle pain.
Mammea suriga (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm. Comm.
For. Res. Inst.
A large evergreen tree with harded wood. Leaves oblong to lanceolate. Flowers white or rose; stamens numerous. Fruit 2.5 cm long.
Cultivated. The flowers are used in Hindu worship.
Shorea tumbaggaia Roxb.
Deciduous tree, up to 20 m tall; bark dark brown, thick, rough, longitudinally fissured; wood brown, branchlets tomentose. Leaves ovate, thick coriaceous. 6-18 x 3-10 cm, ovate, glabrous on both surfaces, base cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate, petiole 1.5-5 cm, secondary nerves 8-10 pairs. Flowers white, fragrant, in 15-20 cm long terminal panicles. Capsules yellowish, white, belly (seed part) 2 cm long, ovoid, pubescent; wings unequal, spathulate, to 5 cm long.
species is distributed in Seshachalam and Veligonda hills in Cuddapah and
Tirupati hills of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh to
Medikus, Malv. 46. 1787; Borssum in Blumea 14: 90. 1966; Paul in Flora of
Herb, up to 2.5 m tall, covered with hirsute hairs. Leaves extremely variable in shape and size, 4.5-7 x 4-10 cm, 3-6 palmilobed to palmipented, upper leaves narrow, lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse, base 5-9-nerved; stipules 2-10 mm long, linear to filiform, hairy, petiole 4.5 cm. Flowers yellow with narrow centre, axillary, solitary and in terminal racemes. Calyx 2-3 cm long. Corolla yellow with dark purple centre; petals obovate, rounded at apex. Capsules 5-10 x 2.5 cm ovoid to globose, seeds many, 3-5 mm, black with musk scented.
Tender fruits used as vegetable. seed oil is used to treat muscle diseases externally.
Gundlabrahmeswaram (KNL), DMR 24353, JLE 22228 (MH).
Note: Seed oil is
used as an adulterant for animal musk and in perfume. The plant is also
cultivated for its seeds in different plains and hills of
T.K. Paul & Nayar in Geobios New Rep. 2: 156. 1983 and in Fasc. Flora of
shrub. Young stems and branches pubescent with light yellowish brown stellate
hairs. Leaves 8-13 x 5-8 cm, ovate-oblong, base subcordate, apex acute,
obtuse or truncate, subcordate at base, both surfaces densely stellate
velutinous, upper surface dark, light brown, lower surface yellowish brown in
colour, 5-7-nerved at the base, middle nerve with a small gland at the base;
petiole 1.5-2 cm long. Flowers yellow, solitary, axillary, calyx 5-lobed;
lobes connate below middle,
to Seshachalam hills of
Fiber yielding plant.
hills (CDP), DMR 24069; KS 6878 (
Note: Differs from D. rufa Craib in having larger (8-13 x
5-8 cm), ovate or oblong leaves, petiole length about one eighth to one tenth
of the lamina and longer sepals (1.6-2 cm); whereas in D. rufa Craib the leaves are smaller (3.5-7.5 x
Swamipadhalu-Kodur (CDP.), dated 23.7.1962, J.L. Ellis 14332 (Holotype) (
Decaschistia rufa Craib, in
Kew Bull. 25. 1912; Gamble 1: 94. 1915; Paul in Flora of
young branches pubescent with brown hairs. Leaves 3.5-7.5 x 4-7 cm, almost
rounded, base subcordate or rounded, apex shortly acuminate, acute or
subcordate, densely pubescent on both surfaces, 5-6-nerved at base; petiole
Fiber yielding Plant.
strict endemic to
Note: Decaschistia rufa is endemic to peninsular
Conservation must be necessary for this species.
Dunn in Kew. Bull.
1915: 1915; Gamble 1: 109. 1915; Malick in Flora of
Tree, 4-5 m tall; young branches pubescent, bark greyish red. Leaves orbicular-cordate, 6-11.5 x 5-9.5 cm, base cordate, margin irregularly shortly dentate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, stellate-hairy above, white-tomentose beneath. Flowers yellow, about 2 cm long in axillary, 2-3-flowered racemes, about 8 cm long. Calyx 1.8 cm long, 5-partite, pubescent within, tomentose outside. Petals 5, obovate, 2 cm long, clawed at base, tomentose; stamens 10-12. Capsules ovoid, ca 3.5 cm long, woody; seeds many, winged on one side at top.
Medicinal importance: plant to use as antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting.
Nallamalais (KNL), DMR 19092; Potharajupenta (KNL), SSR 15987; Chelama (KNL), JLE 16714 (MH); Rollapenta (KNL), JLE 42284 (MH).
INDIA: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
type collection was made by Lushington from the Nallamalai hills in
Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott & Endl. Melet.
Bot. 33. 1832. Malick in Flora of
tree, up to 20 m tall; bark smooth, wood silverish white; branchlets angular,
warty. Leaves reniform or deeply cordate, 9.5-11.5 x 8-11 cm, glabrous, base
deeply cordate, margin entire, apex long-acuminate,
7-nerved, lateral nerves
rare in dry deciduous forests in
Kona (ATP), DMR 24187; Ankalamma Konda (
Stem yields Fiber
Note: In Chendrayuni Kona (ATP), it is associated with Gyrocarpus americanus in rocky areas. Inhabitants of that area used this plant for rope making.
Ealeocarpus lanceifolius Roxb. (Hort. Beng. 42. 1814, nom.
up to 20 m tall; wood soft, light brown; branchlets pubescent. Leaves
lanceolate, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, 7-15 x 2-5 cm, thinly
coriaceous-chartaceous, glabrous above, margin distantly crenate-serrate,
apex acuminate, petiole 7-15 mm. Flowers white, 6-9 mm across, pubescent in stiff
racemes. Drupe green, oblong-ovoid to ellipsoid,
Rare in evergreen forests of Viskhapatnam district (Gamble). Fl.: Mar.-Aug. Fr.: Oct.-Dec.
Medicinal importance: 1. Leaf or root extract filtered and
administered for malarial fever.
2. Leaves ground with turmeric (Curcuma
longa) and applied on cuts, wounds and
Sloanea sterculiacea (Benth.) Rehder & Wilson in Sarget, Pl.
Wilson 2: 362. 1915; Coode in
evergreen tree, 20-25 m tall, often buttressed; branchlets glabrous or
tomentose. Leaves ovate or elliptic 11-22 x 4.5-10 cm, glabrous, tomentose
beneath, cuneate, rounded or subcordate, serrulate margin, apex acute to
short acuminate, petiole to 4 cm. Flowers creamy white in axillary, solitary
or few-flowered fascicles. Capsule red, globose, covered with straight,
sharp, subulate hispid, persistent spines,
in moist deciduous forests, above 1000 m in
Sapparla (VSKP), SSR 15965; Minumuluru (VSKP), GVS 30043 (MH).
Impatiens diversifolia Wall. ex Wight
& Arn. Prodr. 139. 1834; FBI 1: 446. 1874; Gamble 1: 146. 1915;
Vivekananthan et al. in Flora of
Annual diffuse herb with succulent stems, glabrous. Leaves opposite, elliptic-oblong, 1-4 x 6.5-2 cm, lower ones shortly petiolate, base cordate, margin serrate, sessile. Flowers solitary pink to white. Lateral sepals linear, acuminate. Spur filiform, 1-1.5 cm long. Capsules ellipsoid, ca 8 mm long; seeds globose, dark-brown, smooth.
Rare in masshy places. Fl. & Fr.: Sept.-Oct.
Medicinal importance: 1. Plants boiled in water used for bathing
valley (VSKP), NPBK 608 (
Citrus medica L. Sp. Pl. 782. 1753; Narayan Nair & Nayar in
Shrub or small tree, 4-8 m tall; spines stout; wood white, fine grained. Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate-oblong, 8-15 x 3-8 cm, glabrous, base obtuse or rounded, margin serrate or crenate, apex obtuse. Flowers white, often unisexual, ca 1.5 cm long. Calyx 4 or 5-lobed, each lobe ca 4 mm long. Petals 4 or 5, oblong or oblanceolate, 2-3.5 x 1 cm. Fruit ovoid or oblong or obovoid, yellow, 10-20 cm long, with pale greenish, acidic or sweetish pulp, seeds white, small.
Korai Road (VSKP), GVS 22631 (MH).
Medicinal importance: 1. Leaf paste mixed with a pinch of fresh lime
is applied on the wounds.
2. Pounded leaves bandaged to the head for
head ache. 3. Leaf juice applied for tooth-ache.
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex
Benth. in Hook.
tree, up to 6 m tall; branchlets pubescent to tomentose. Leaves
imparipinnate, leaflets 7-13, alternate, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or
ovate-oblong, 5-10 x 1.5-3 cm, base oblique, apex
obtuse or acuminate, notched at tip, petiolules slender
Medicinal importance: Leaf paste with turmeric powder used to skin diseases like eczema.
hills (SM), KMM 13952 (
Note: Molino (1994) who united
the Indo-Sri Lankan C. dentata with the tropical African C. anisata
recognised two varities in it. C. anisata var. anisata
Clausena austroindica Stone & K.N. Nair in Nord. J. Bot. 14.
491. 1994; Narayan Nair & Nayar in Flora of
Shrub or small tree, up to 10 m tall; branchlets glabrous. Leaves up to 40 cm long; leaflets sub-opposite to alternate, lanceolate or obovate, 5.5-16 x 2.5-6 cm, base attenuate to cuneate, margin crenate or undulate, apex acuminate, obtuse or rounded. Flowers white in terminal, axillary panicles. Calyx lobes 0.5 mm long, lobes rounded, deltate. Petals 5 (4), imbricate, elliptic, obtuse, 3-5 x 1.5-3 mm, with obscure glands, white; stamens 10. Berries globose, glandular and greenish.
Medicinal importance: Root bark extract poured into ears for ear infection.
Note: This species was previously included in Clausena heptaphylla (Roxb.) Steudel., by Gamble (1915). In general, C. austroindica resembles C. heptaphylla. The most distinctive characters that distinguish C. austroindica from C. heptaphylla include the presence of a cylindric-obovoid, conspicuously glandular-papillate, 5-locular (rarely 4-locular) ovary with two collateral ovules in each locule, style shorter than the ovary, and a capitata stigma which is dinstinctly broader than the style.
Melicope lunuankenda (Gaertn.) T. Hartley in Sandakania 4: 61.
1994; Narayanan Nair & Nayar in Flora of
Evergreen tree, up to 15 m tall; bark corky, smooth; wood greyish white. Leaves 3-foliolate, rachis to 10 cm long; leaflets ovate, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, 4-17 x 3-7.5 cm, glabrous, shiny above, pale beneath, base obtuse or acute, apex acute or acuminate, entire at margin,. Flowers cream, fragrant, 4 mm across, unisexual, 4- merous in dense axillary cymes. Fruits light brown, globose; seeds black, oblong, 3.5 x 2 mm, shiny muricate.
in Rampa hills of
Medicinal importance: Two to three spoons root decoction mixed with black pepper and salt is given for asthma and bronchitis.
(EG), JSG 15996 (
Small tree, up to 8 m tall; branchlets unarmed. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets ovate to elliptic-oblong or obovate, 4-17 x 2-7.5 cm, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous, margin distantly crenate, base acute to cuneate and slightly oblique. Flowers white, 5 mm across in dense paniculate cymes with alternate branches. Male flowers: sepals 4, triangular, ca 1 mm long. Petals white, 4, elliptic oblong, obtuse, 2-3 mm long; stamens 4. Female flowers: sepals and petals as in male flowers. Fruit solitary, ovoid or subglobose, 5 mm in dia, glabrous, seeds black, globose, shining, smooth.
Medicinal importance : 1. Seed powder mixed with pepper (Piper nigrum) given for constipation. 2. Root juice used as poultice for swollen joints.
Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. et Henry in J. Bombay Nat. Hist.
Soc. 58: 546-548. 1961; Chitra & Henry in Flora of
Deciduous tree, up to 12 m tall; bark greyish, branchlets red coloured, glabrous. Leaves imparipinnate, about 15-18 cm long, leaflets 5-13, coriaceous, ovate or elliptic-ovate, 2.5-3.5 x 1-2.5 cm, glabrous, glaucous beneath, base inequilateral or rounded, margin entire, apex obtuse; secondary nerves 8-12 pairs, reddish, stamens 10. Flowers greenish white, in monochasial cymes on 15 cm long, much branched panicles. Drupes 3-gonous, pyrenes 3, 1.5 x 0.8 cm; seeds winged and compressed.
Rare and strict endemic to Seshachalam hills and Nallamalais at 600 - 900 m. Fl.: Dec. - Feb. Fr.: Apr.-June. Vern.: Tel. Konda sambrani.
Stem Bark used as best Mosquito repellent
RF (CDP), SSR 16143; Tirupati (
Note : Balakrishnan and Henry reported this species from Tirumala hills. Beddome also collected from Nallamalais. But Ellis in his ‘Flora of Nallamalais’ said that he could not trace the new species from Nallamalais of Kurnool district; may be Beddome might have collected it slightly further south of Nallamalais in Cuddapah and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh which form type locality of new species - the major collecting centres of Beddome.
Authors are highly thankful to
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