Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 873-99, 2009.

 

 

 

A Floristic Description of Flora and Ethnobotany of

Samahni Valley (A.K.), Pakistan

 

Tanveer Hussain and Muhammad Ishtiaq Ch.

 

Department of Botany

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, (A.K.) Pakistan

 

Corresponding authors: E-mail: muhammad_ishtiaq2001@yahoo.com;

tanveerajk@gmail.com

 

Issued July 01, 2009

 

Abstract

The present study reveals a description of floristic features like life form, leaf size spectra and ethnobotany of valley Samahni. This study was carried out during the years 2006-2008, in Samahni valley district Bhimber A.K. (Pakistan), using methods consisting of semi-structured interviews employing a check list of questions, questionnaires, direct observations and biological inventories.It provides information about different local plants and their life form and leaf size spectra. 120 plant species recorded belonging to 46 families. Poaceae is the dominating with 14 members. Among these the most of the plants are used to cure common diseases like diarrhea, earache, fever, jaundice, flu, cough and other skin diseases. Snake bite, wound healing and burning of body part are also treated with local herbs. Many plants are used for multiple purposes like as medicines, food, fodder, fuel, furniture and shelter. Due to deforestation vegetation is eliminating rapidly. But the efforts and knowledge about plant wealth conservation is at initial stages. Megaphanerophytes are dominating followed by therophytes. Hemicryptophytes, Nanophanerophytes and Geophytes come after these respectively. All the types of vegetation depend upon presence of trees. In leaf size spectra Microphyllous are dominant followed by Megaphyllous. This work can be the base for advance research in different fields like phytochemistry, molecular biochemistry and antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites. For further research this ethnobotanical work is very important because it has come into existence with large experience of ancient history.

 

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Samahni valley; Muzaffarabad; Microphyllous; Megaphyllous.

 

Introduction

Study area

������� Samahni is a sub-division of district Bhimber and one of the most beautiful valleys of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Scenic valley of Samahni is guarded by high mountains on all sides, offers breathtaking and mesmerizing natural scenes to its visitors, waterfalls come down mountain slopes as well as streams of crystal clear waters. The mountains across the whole valley dressed in jungles of pine trees add an extra touch to the stunning view. The valley holds a peaceful and calm atmosphere with pollution free environment from one end to the other. This valley is connected both with Mirpur & Bhimber through all weather black top roads.

It is located 17km in the North of Bhimber City and 30km in the North-East of Mirpur. Geographically it is located near 33.05� latitude and 74.82 � longitude and falls in sub-tropic zone. The entire valley of Samahni is approximately 55 km long and 10 km wide. It has north facing and south facing high mountains, with 1000 altitude and variable topography. Northern and Eastern North boundary is attached with Indian occupied Kashmir at district Rajory.

visiting sites

����������� Although the whole valley is beautiful and attractive for tourists but some places are especially famous for their watchfulness. Among them Baghser, Jandi Chontra, Peer Gali and Patti hill are remarkable. Indian occupied famous mountain �Reech Pahari� is also present in valley Samahni.

Hydrography

����������� Many seasonal and permanent streams pass through the valley. The main stream originates form Kaman Gosha Hill in Indian occupied Kashmir. After passing through the valley Samahni, Bhimber and Gujrat it joins the river Chanab. The primary sources of water are springs and rain water.

Topography

����������� The area is mountainous and semi-mountainous. Central semi-mountainous and agricultural fields are surrounded by 1000m high Altitude Mountains. The mountains have steep, gentle and moderate slopes.

Climate

����������� The climate is at variance. The average maximum and minimum temperature is 28.9 �C and 15.8 �C respectively. June and July are the hottest months of the year with 38.18�C and 37.18 � C average temperatures respectively. Highest temperature recorded during June and July is 40 degree centigrade. December and January are the coldest months of the year with 6.34�C and 5.22�C average temperatures respectively. Minimum temperature recorded during December is 3.2 degree centigrade (Table: 1).

Rainfall

����������� The total average rainfall is about 1233mm/ year. Average rainfall is 102.8 mm/ month. High rainfall is recorded in July and August, 264.94 and 255.26 respectively. Rainfall is low in October and November, 31.68 and 16.82 respectively. Hails usually occur in February and March (Table: 1).

Humidity

����������� Humidity remains high in rainy season and in winters. And it remains high at morning time than the evening. The average humidity at morning and evening is 69.0 % and 48.75 % respectively. The highest value of humidity is 83.4, recorded in August at morning. The lowest value of humidity is 29 recorded in the month of May at evening (Table: 1).

 

Table 1.Measurment of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall of the Samahni Valley.

Month

Temperature �C

Humidity %

Rainfall (mm)

Max

Min

At 08:00am

At 05:00pm

January

17.38

5.22

79.6

56.6

97.14

February

20.24

8.32

74.4

52.6

138.40

March

26.42

12.84

65.2

43

123.42

April

32.54

17.54

52.6

32.6

44.30

May

36.62

21.98

47

29

46.32

June

38.18

23.38

53.6

34.4

88.04

July

37.18

23.48

76.2

55.6

264.94

August

33.32

22.84

83.4

67.6

255.26

September

32.74

20.64

76.6

58.2

84.48

October

29.66

16.04

71

49.2

31.68

November

23.8

10.74

71

49.8

16.82

December

18.8

6.34

77.6

56.4

42.60

Average

28.9

15.8

69.0

48.75

102.8

 

Ethnobotany

Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: From"ethno" - study of people and "botany" - study of plants. Ethnobotany studies the complex relationships between (uses of) plants and cultures. The focus of ethnobotany is on how plants have been or are used, managed and perceived in human societies and includes plants used for food, medicine, cosmetics, dyeing, and textiles, for building, tools, clothing and social life.

Ethnobotanical knowledge is as old as human civilization but the term ethnobotany was first coined by an American botanist, John Harshberger (1896). Manilal (1989) defines ethnobotany as the term today has come to denote the entire realm of direct relationship between plants and man. According to Arora (1997) ethnobotany in wider context denotes the entire realm of useful relationship between plants and man.

 

Life Form

����������� Plants were categorized into life form classes after Raunkiaer (1934). Christen Christensen Raunkiaer (1934) a Danish botanist devised a system of Classification of Life-form perennating buds, which carry the plants through the unfavourable seasons of the year. Raunkiaer's system is thus based on the position of the buds, or growing points, which renew plant growth.

Raunkiaer's life form classes are as follows:

I. Phanerophytes: A tall, woody or herbaceous perennial with resting buds more than 25cm above soil level, e.g. deciduous trees and shrubs. Phanerophytes are further divided into megaphanerophytes, mesophanerophytes, microphanerophytes and nanophanerophytes.

II. Chamaephytes: perennating shoots or buds on the surface of the ground to about 25 cm above the surface - these buds can be protected by fallen leaves and snow: low bushes.

III. Hemicryptophytes: perennating buds at the surface of the ground where they are protected by soil and leaves: grasses etc and rosette plants.

IV. Geophytes: perennial buds buried in the ground on a bulb or rhizome, where they are protected from freezing or drying.

V. Therophytes: Annuals, with a complete life cycle from seed to seed during one season, surviving unfavourable periods as seeds.

Other specialized life forms which are not classified on the basis of their perennating organs are Succulents, Halophytes, and Epiphytes etc.

Leaf size spectrum

Oosting (1956) described that leaf size may help to understand the physiology of plant communities. Leaf spectra indicate the relationship of plants with area. There is a consistent variation of leaf, leaf size and texture between individual plants communities, these leaf characteristics also differ with various climatic conditions. Therefore leaf shape and size is an important physiognomic characteristic.

The leaf classes are determined according to Raunkiaer�s diagram. There are four major classes. The lower limit of the size class is 25 sq. mm and each class is nine times larger than previous class.

Ashby (1963) reported that in desert climate nanophanerophytes taking the form of the characteristic grey spiny brushes, are more numerous while during the brief rainy seasons therophytes spring up and colour the whole landscape. Therophytes slightly increase at high altitudes while the Geophytes also show the same trend.

��������� Batalha, M. A. & Martins, F.R. (2004) used Raunkiaer�s system to classify the plant from the site of Brazil. The most represented life forms were phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes. The vegetation presents a wide physiognomic variation from grasslands to woodlands. The life form spectrum differed significantly from Raunkiaer�s normal spectrum.

��������� Chapman, R. R. & Crow, G. E. (1981) evaluated the response of ground cover vegetation to prescribed fire in relation to the life form of individual plant species. Chamaeophytes were most severely affected by fire. Hemicryptophytes varied in their response and geophytes best survived the prescribed burn. Within each life form group variability existed in the modes of regeneration and recovery after burning.

Costa, R. C. (2007) studied the flora and life form spectrum in an area of deciduous thorn woodland in northeastern, Brazil. They encountered 133 species belonging to 47 families. The herbaceous/woody ratio was 1.4. The life-form spectrum was characterized according Raunkiaer's system. The life-form spectrum observed was: therophytes (42.9%), phanerophytes (26.3%), Chamaeophytes (15.8%), hemicryptophytes (12.8%), and cryptophytes (2.3%). The present study indicates that the floristic richness of this biome has been underestimated.

��������� Dastagir G. et al., (2000) studied biological spectrum and did comparison of coefficient of communities between plant communities in Mai Dhani Hill Muzaffarabad. He reported that nanophanerophytes and hemicryptophytes increase as altitude increases while the megaphanerophytes decrease with increase in altitude. The tree layer is thinly dispersed and diversity of species decreased in December as compared to April.

���������� Gorsi M. S. & Shahzad R. (2002) documented the ethnomedicinal importance of Dirkot. They forced to start regeneration work to save the traditional knowledge about plants.

���������� Ishtiaq M. et al., (2006 b) stated that plants are indirectly associated to the culture and tradition of the people. They stated 36 plant species used for the treatment of sexual diseases and birth control rate in Samahni valley. The most of the plants used as decoction and infusions. This data shows the dependent of people in villages for their daily life needs and can provide the basis for further research.

������� Ishtiaq M. et al., (2006 a) surveyed for the medicinal plants used only for animals. They provided the useful information about veterinary uses of plants. This ethnobotanical data has key role in life, society and economy of the people of the area and more over it can be initiative for phytochemical and pharmacological investigation about these medicinal plants.

�������� Nazir A. & Malik Z. H. (2006) stated the life form of district Kotli. They reported that qualitatively nanophanerophytes are dominant followed by therophytes, hemicryptophytes and megaphanerophytes. Nanophanerophytes were also dominant. They were followed by megaphanerophytes and hemicryptophytes. Therophytes and geophytes were low in number.

������

Materials and Methods

����������� Frequent visits were made in study area to collect the plants from the different localities of the area. Then their local names and parts used were recorded. To record local names, part uses interviews were conducted with local people in different villages individually. The altitude of the site from where the specimen is collected is taken with the help of Altimeter. Some useful discussions were held with some knowledgeable persons to confirm the information recorded from the informants. The collected specimens were dried and identified at herbarium placed in NARC (National agricultural research council) Pakistan.

Results

Table 2.Leaf Size Classes.

S/No.

Leaf Size Class

Symbol

Range

  1.  

Leptophyll

L

less than 25 sq. mm

  1.  

Nanophyll

N

between 25 sq. mm to 25 X 9 sq. mm

  1.  

Microphyll

Mi

between 25 X 9 sq. mm to 25 X 9 X 9 sq. mm

  1.  

Megaphyll

M

above 25 X 9 X 9 sq. mm

 

Table 3.Floristic Lists.

S/No.

BotanicalName

Family

  1.  

Dicliptra roxburghiana Nees

Acanthaceae

  1.  

Justicia adhatoda L

  1.  

Achyranthes aspera L

Amaranthaceae

  1.  

Amaranthus hybridus L

  1.  

Amaranthus viridis L

  1.  

Celosia argentia L

  1.  

Mangifera Indica L

Anacardiaceae

  1.  

Pistacia chinensis Bunge

  1.  

Anethum graveolense L

Apiaceae

  1.  

Coriandrum sativum L

  1.  

Daucus carota L

  1.  

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

Apocynaceae

  1.  

Nerium indicum Mill

  1.  

Calotropis procera Alton. F.

Asclepiadaceae

  1.  

Artemisia maritima L

Asteraceae

  1.  

Echinopse cornigerus DC

  1.  

Taraxacum officinale Webber

  1.  

Xanthium stromarium L

  1.  

Bombax ceiba L

Bombacaceae

  1.  

Cordia obliqa Wild

Boraginaceae

  1.  

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forrsk

  1.  

Brassica campestris L

Brassicaceae

  1.  

Brassica napus L. Var. rapa.

  1.  

Brassica olaraceae L

  1.  

Raphanus sativus L

  1.  

Bauhinia variegata L

Caeselpinaceae

  1.  

Cassia fistula L

  1.  

Cannabis sativa L

Canabinaceae

  1.  

Chenopodium ambrosidies L

Chenopodiaceae

  1.  

Citrullus colocynthus L Schrad

Cucurbitaceae

  1.  

Cucumis sativus L

  1.  

Cucurbita maxima Duch. Ex. Lam

  1.  

Cucurbita pepo L

  1.  

Luffa aegyptica Mill

  1.  

Memordica charantia L

  1.  

Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks.) Pangalo.

  1.  

Trichosnthus angaina L

  1.  

Cyperus rotundus L

Cyperaceae

  1.  

Euphorbia caducifolia Hains.

Euphorbiaceae

  1.  

Euphorbia helioscopia L��������������

  1.  

Mallotus philippensis Muell Arg.

  1.  

Phyllanthus embllica L

  1.  

Cicer arietinum L

Fabaceae

  1.  

Phaseolusmungo L

  1.  

Fumaria indica (Haussk) Pugsly.

Fumariaceae

  1.  

Juglans regia L

Juglandaceae

  1.  

Mentha arvensis L

Lamiaceae

  1.  

Mentha sylvestris L

  1.  

Allium cepa L

Liliaceae

  1.  

Allium sativum L

  1.  

Aloe vera L

  1.  

Woodfordia fructicosa (L) Kurz

Lythraceae

  1.  

Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench.

Malvaceae

  1.  

Malva sylvestris L

  1.  

Malvestrum coromendlianum L

  1.  

Melia azedarech L

Meliaceae

  1.  

Acacia modesta Wall.

Mimosaceae

  1.  

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile.

  1.  

Albizzia lebbek (L) Benth

  1.  

Albizzia procera Benth

  1.  

Broussonetia papyrifera Vent

Moraceae

  1.  

Ficus bengalensis L

  1.  

Ficus carica L

  1.  

Ficus elastica Roxb.

  1.  

Ficus virgata L

  1.  

Morus alba L

  1.  

Morus nigra L

  1.  

Eucalyptus citriodora Parkere

Myrtaceae

  1.  

Psidium guajava L

  1.  

Astragalus leucocephalus Grah-ex-Benth

Oleaceae

  1.  

Jasminum humile L

  1.  

Lotus corniculata L

  1.  

Olea ferruginea Royle

  1.  

Papaver sominferum L

Papaveraceae

  1.  

Butea monosperma Lam. Taub.

Papilionaceae

  1.  

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

  1.  

Pisum sativum L

  1.  

Lathyrus aphaca L

  1.  

Pinus roxburghii Sargent

Pinaceae

  1.  

Avena sativus L

Poaceae

  1.  

Cynodon dactylon Pers

  1.  

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb,) Nees

  1.  

Heteropogon controtus L

  1.  

Hordeum vulgare L

  1.  

Pennisetum typhoidum L

  1.  

Phragmitis karka Retx

  1.  

Saccharum officinarum L

  1.  

Saccharum spontaneum L

  1.  

Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.

  1.  

Setaria pallidefusca (Schumach) Stapf & C.E. Hubb.

  1.  

Themeda anathera Nees Hock.

  1.  

Triticum aestivum L

  1.  

Zea mays L

  1.  

Rumax dentatus L

Polygonaceae

  1.  

Punica granatum L

Punicaceae

  1.  

Ziziphus jujuba L

Rhamnaceae

  1.  

Ziziphus nummularia�� (Burm.f.) Wight. & Arn.

  1.  

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rosaceae

  1.  

Prunus armeniaca Marsh.

  1.  

Prunus persica (L) Batsch

  1.  

Pyrus communis L

  1.  

Pyrus malus L

  1.  

Rosa indica L

  1.  

Rubus fruiticosus L

Rubiaceae

  1.  

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rutaceae

  1.  

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

  1.  

Populus alba L

Salicaceae

  1.  

Dodonae viscosae jacq.

Sapnidaceae

  1.  

Verbascum thapsus L

Scrophulariaceae

  1.  

Capsicum annum L

Solanaceae

  1.  

Datura innoxia Mill

  1.  

Lycopersicum esculantum L

  1.  

Solanum melangena L

  1.  

Solanum miniatum Benth.

  1.  

Solanum surattense Burm.f.

  1.  

Solanum tuburosum L

  1.  

Vitex negundo L

Verbenaceae

  1.  

Viola serpens Wall.ex.Roxb

Violaceae

  1.  

Vitis vitiginea (L.) Theob.

Vitaceae

  1.  

Tribulus terristris L.

Zygophyllaceae

 

Floristic Competition of Area

����������� Among 46 recorded families the dominant family of the area is Poaceae with 14 species followed by Cucurbitaceae with 8 species. Family Moraceae and Solanaceae are third in this ranking with 7 species each. Rosaceae stands at forth place with 6 species. Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Oleaceae and Papilionaceae have 4 species each. Apiaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Boraginaceae, Caeselpinaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Rhamnaceae and Rutaceae have 3 species each. Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Boraginaceae, Caeselpinaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Rhamnaceae and Rutaceae have 2 species each. While other 21 families have only 1 species each (Table 4).

 

Table 4.Floristic Competition of Area.

S/No.

Family

No. of Species

1

Poaceae�������

14

2

Cucurbitaceae

8

3

Moraceae

7

4

Solanaceae

7

5

Rosaceae

6

6

Amaranthaceae

4

7

Asteraceae

4

8

Brassicaceae

4

9

Euphorbiaceae

4

10

Mimosaceae

4

11

Oleaceae

4

12

Papilionaceae

4

13

Apiaceae

3

14

Liliaceae

3

15

Malvaceae

3

16

Acanthaceae

2

17

Anacardiaceae

2

18

Apocynaceae

2

19

Boraginaceae

2

20

Caeselpinaceae

2

21

Fabaceae

2

22

Lamiaceae

2

23

Myrtaceae

2

24

Rhamnaceae

2

25

Rutaceae

2

26

Asclepiadaceae

1

27

Bombacaceae

1

28

Canabinaceae

1

29

Chenopodiaceae

1

30

Cyperaceae

1

31

Fumariaceae

1

32

Juglandaceae

1

33

Lythraceae

1

34

Meliaceae

1

35

Papaveraceae

1

36

Pinaceae

1

37

Polygonaceae

1

38

Punicaceae

1

39

Rubiaceae

1

40

Salicaceae

1

41

Sapnidaceae

1

42

Scrophulariaceae

1

43

Verbenaceae

1

44

Violaceae

1

45

Vitaceae

1

46

Zygophyllaceae

1

 

 

Table 5.Classification of plants According to Life form & Leaf Spectra.

S/No.

BotanicalName

Family

������� Altitude

Local Name

Habit

Leaf Type

Life form

  1.  

Dicliptra roxburghiana Nees

Acanthaceae

680m

Kaloo

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Justicia adhatoda L

720m

Baikar

Shrub

M

NP

  1.  

Achyranthes aspera L

Amaranthaceae

750m

Puthkanda

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Amaranthus hybridus L

720m

Ganhar

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Amaranthus viridis L

680m

Chulair

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Celosia argentia L

680m

Tandoola

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Mangifera Indica L

Anacardiaceae

700m

Amb

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Pistacia chinensis Bunge

960m

Kakoh

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Anethum graveolense L

Apiaceae

720m

Soye

Herb

L

Th

  1.  

Coriandrum sativum L

720m

Dhania

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Daucus carota L

720m

Gajar

Herb

L

Th

  1.  

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

Apocynaceae

850m

Garanda

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Nerium indicum Mill

760m

Gandeera

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Calotropis procera Alton. F.

Asclepiadaceae

700m

Ak

Shrub

M

NP

  1.  

Artemisia maritima L

Asteraceae

680m

Chaoo

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Echinopse cornigerus DC

680m

Kandiari

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Taraxacum officinale Webber

680m

Hand

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Xanthium stromarium L

680m

Jojra

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Bombax ceiba L

Bombacaceae

760m

Simbal

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Cordia obliqa Wild

Boraginaceae

700m

Lasoora

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forrsk

760m

Leendra

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Brassica campestris L

Brassicaceae

700m

Sarsoon

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Brassica napus L. Var. rapa.

680m

Gongloo

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Brassica olaraceae L

680m

Gobhi

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Raphanus sativus L

680m

Moolee

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Bauhinia variegata L

Caeselpinaceae

960m

Kalyar

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Cassia fistula L

880m

Amaltas

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Cannabis sativa L

Canabinaceae

680m

Bhang

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Chenopodium ambrosidies L

Chenopodiaceae

680m

Bathua

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Citrullus colocynthus L Schrad

Cucurbitaceae

690m

Tumma

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Cucumis sativus L

700m

Kheera

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Cucurbita maxima Duch. Ex. Lam

700m

Dabri

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Cucurbita pepo L

700m

Kaddoon

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Luffa aegyptica Mill

700m

Tori

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Memordica charantia L

700m

Karela

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks.) Pangalo.

680m

Teenda

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Trichosnthus angaina L

700m

Parul

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Cyperus rotundus L

Cyperaceae

840m

Madani Gass

Herb

L

H

  1.  

Euphorbia caducifolia Hains.

Euphorbiaceae

700m

Danda

Thor

Shrub

N

NP

  1.  

Euphorbia helioscopia L�����

740m

Dodal

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Mallotus philippensis Muell Arg.

900m

Kambeela

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Phyllanthus embllica L

870m

Aamla

Tree

L

MP

  1.  

Cicer arietinum L

Fabaceae

690m

Chana

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Phaseolusmungo L

690m

Dal Mong

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Fumaria indica (Haussk) Pugsly.

Fumariaceae

690m

Papra

Herb

L

Th

  1.  

Juglans regia L

Juglandaceae

900m

Akhrot

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Mentha arvensis L

Lamiaceae

700m

Poodna

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Mentha sylvestris L

770m

Jangli Poodna

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Allium cepa L

Liliaceae

680m

Piaz

Herb

Mi

G

  1.  

Allium sativum L

680m

Thom

Herb

Mi

G

  1.  

Aloe vera L

680m

Kanwar

Gandal

Shrub

M

NP

  1.  

Woodfordia fructicosa (L) Kurz

Lythraceae

840m

Thawi

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench.

Malvaceae

690m

Bhindi

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Malva sylvestris L

680m

Sonchal

Herb

M

H

  1.  

Malvestrum coromendlianum L

690m

 

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Melia azedarech L

Meliaceae

720m

Dharek

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Acacia modesta Wall.

Mimosaceae

700m

Klah

Tree

L

MP

  1.  

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile.

680m

Kikar

Tree

L

MP

  1.  

Albizzia lebbek (L) Benth

740m

Sree

Tree

L

MP

  1.  

Albizzia procera Benth

700m

Sree

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Broussonetia papyrifera Vent

Moraceae

720m

Jangli toot

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Ficus bengalensis L

780m

Bohr

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Ficus carica L

870m

Tussa

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Ficus elastica Roxb.

680m

Rubber plant

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Ficus virgata L

740m

Phakwar

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Morus alba L

720m

Shehtoot

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Morus nigra L

720m

Toot

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Eucalyptus citriodora Parkere

Myrtaceae

680m

Safeda

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Psidium guajava L

770m

Amrood

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Astragalus leucocephalus Grah-ex-Benth

Oleaceae

920m

Kathi

Shrub

N

NP

  1.  

Jasminum humile L

790m

Chamba

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Lotus corniculata L

800m

Makhan Booti

Herb

N

H

  1.  

Olea ferruginea Royle

������������� 880m

Kao

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Papaver sominferum L

Papaveraceae

700m

Post

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Butea monosperma Lam. Taub.

Papilionaceae

800m

Chichra

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

750m

Tahli

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Pisum sativum L

680m

Matar

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Lathyrus aphaca L

750m

JangliMatar

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Pinus roxburghii Sargent

Pinaceae

840m

Cheer

Tree

L

MP

  1.  

Avena sativus L

Poaceae

700m

Gandail

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Cynodon dactylon Pers

680m

Khabal

Herb

L

H

  1.  

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb,) Nees

680m

Bans

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Heteropogon controtus L

700m

Kana

Herb

Mi

NP

  1.  

Hordeum vulgare L

700m

Jo

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Pennisetum typhoidum L

700m

Bajra

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Phragmitis karka Retx

740m

Babyoon

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Saccharum officinarum L

680m

Ganna

Shrub

Mi

Th

  1.  

Saccharum spontaneum L

680m

Kahi

Herb

N

H

  1.  

Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.

690m

Kangni

Herb

N

Th

  1.  

Setaria pallidefusca (Schumach) Stapf & C.E. Hubb.

770m

Bhari ghas

Herb

L

H

  1.  

Themeda anathera Nees Hock.

680m

Saryala ghas

Herb

L

H

  1.  

Triticum aestivum L

690m

Kank

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Zea mays L

700m��

Mak

Herb

M

Th

  1.  

Rumax dentatus L

Polygonaceae

690m

Jangli Palak

Herb

M

H

  1.  

Punica granatum L

Punicaceae

780m

Daruna

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Ziziphus jujuba L

Rhamnaceae

740m

Jand

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Ziziphus nummularia�� (Burm.f.) Wight. & Arn.

740m

Koken ber

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rosaceae

820m

Lokat

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Prunus armeniaca Marsh.

700m

Khubani

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Prunus persica (L) Batsch

800m

Aaru

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Pyrus communis L

700m

Nashpati

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Pyrus malus L

900m

Saib

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Rosa indica L

680m

Gulab

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Rubus fruiticosus L

Rubiaceae

820m

Aakhra

Shrub

M

NP

  1.  

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rutaceae

680m

Lemoon

Tree

Mi

MP

  1.  

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

700m

Timbar

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Populus alba L

Salicaceae

700m

Popular

Tree

M

MP

  1.  

Dodonae viscosae jacq.

Sapnidaceae

800m

Sanatha

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Verbascum thapsus L

Scrophulariaceae

720m

Gidar tambacco

Herb

M

H

  1.  

Capsicum annum L

Solanaceae

720m

Surkh Murch

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Datura innoxia Mill

700m

Dhatura

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Lycopersicum esculantum L

680m

Tamater

Herb

Mi

Th

  1.  

Solanum melangena L

720m

pattha

Herb

M

H

  1.  

Solanum miniatum Benth.

750m

Kach Mach

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Solanum surattense Burm.f.

700m

Mokari

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Solanum tuburosum L

680m

Aalu

Herb

M

G

  1.  

Vitex negundo L

Verbenaceae

720m

Bana

Shrub

Mi

NP

  1.  

Viola serpens Wall.ex.Roxb

Violaceae

870m

Banafsha

Herb

Mi

H

  1.  

Vitis vitiginea (L.) Theob.

Vitaceae

820m

Dakh

Herb

M

H

  1.  

Tribulus terristris L.

Zygophyllaceae

680m

Bhakra

Herb

Mi

H

 

Key: L = Leptopohyll, N = Nanophyll, Mi = Microphyll, M = Megaphyll, MP = Megaphanerophytes, NP = Nanophanerophytes,H = Hemicryptophytes, G = Geophtes, Th = Therophytes

 

Table 6.Graphic Representation of Life Form Spectra.

Megaphanerophytes are dominant with 38 species followed by Therophytes with 36 species. Nanophanerophytes are small in number while geophytes are rare with 3 species.

 

S/No.

Life form class

No. of Sp.

%age

1

MP

38

31.6

2

NP

15

12.5

3

H

27

22.5

4

G

03

2.5

5

Th

37

30.8

 

 


 

Table 7.Graphic Representations of Leaf Size Spectra.

Microphyllous leaf type plants are leading with 52 species followed by megaphyllous plants with 47 species. Nanophanerophytes are small in number with 9 species.

 

S/No.

Leaf Class

No. of Sp.

%age

1

L

12

10

2

N

09

7.5

3

Mi

52

43.3

4

M

47

39.2


 

Table 8.Rare Plants.

S/No.

Botanical Name

Family

Local Name

1

Bauhinia variegata L

Caeselpinaceae

Kalyar

2

Cordia obliqa Wild

Boraginaceae

Lasoora

3

Ficus bengalensis L

Moraceae

Bohr

4

Juglans regia L

Juglandaceae

Akhrot

�������������������������������������

 

Table 9.Major vegetables of the Area.

S.No.

Botanical Name

Family

����� ����� Local Name

  1.  

Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench.

Malvaceae

Bhindi

  1.  

Allium cepa L

Liliaceae

Piaz

  1.  

Allium sativum L

Liliaceae

Thom

  1.  

Amaranthus hybridus L

Amaranthaceae

Ganhar

  1.  

Amaranthus viridis L

Amaranthaceae

Chulair

  1.  

Bauhinia variegata L

Caeselpinaceae

Kalyar

  1.  

Brassica campestris L

Brassicaceae

Sarsoon

  1.  

Brassica napus L. Var. rapa.

Brassicaceae

Gongloo

  1.  

Brassica olaraceae L

Brassicaceae

Gobhi

  1.  

Capsicum annum L

Solanaceae

Surkh Murch

  1.  

Celosia argentia L

Amaranthaceae

Tandoola

  1.  

Chenopodium ambrosidies L

Chenopodiaceae

Bathua

  1.  

Cucumis sativus L

Cucurbitaceae

Kheera

  1.  

Cucurbita maxima Duch. Ex. Lam

Cucurbitaceae

Dabri

  1.  

Cucurbita pepo L

Cucurbitaceae

Kaddoon

  1.  

Daucus carota L

Apiaceae

Gajer

  1.  

Dicliptra roxburghiana Nees

Acanthaceae

Kaloo

  1.  

Luffa aegyptica Mill

Cucurbitaceae

Tori

  1.  

Lycopersicum esculantum L

Solanaceae

Tamater

  1.  

Memordica charantia L

Cucurbitaceae

Karela

  1.  

Pisum sativum L

Papilionaceae

Matar

  1.  

Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks.) Pangalo.

Cucurbitaceae

Teenda

  1.  

Raphanus sativus L

Brassicaceae

Moolee

  1.  

Solanum melangena L

Solanaceae

pattha

  1.  

Solanum tuburosum L

Solanaceae

Aalu

  1.  

Trichosnthus angaina L

Cucurbitaceae

Parul

 

Table 10.Major fruits of the Area.

S.No.

Botanical Name

Family

Local Name

1

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

Apocynaceae

Garanda

2

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rutaceae

Lemoon

3

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rosaceae

Lokat

4

Ficus carica L

Moraceae

Tussa

5

Ficus virgata L

Moraceae

Phakwar

6

Juglans regia L

Juglandaceae

Akhrot

7

Mangifera Indica L

Anacardiaceae

Amb

8

Morus alba L

Moraceae

Shehtoot

9

Morus nigra L

Moraceae

Toot

10

Phyllanthus embllica L

Euphorbiaceae

Aamla

11

Pistacia chinensis Bunge

Anacardiaceae

Kakoh

12

Prunus armeniaca Marsh.

Rosaceae

Khubani

13

Prunus armeniaca Marsh.

Rosaceae

Khubani

14

Prunus persica (L) Batsch

Rosaceae

Aaru

15

Psidium guajava L

Myrtaceae

Amrood

16

Punica granatum L

Punicaceae

Daruna

17

Pyrus communis L

Rosaceae

Nashpati

18

Pyrus malus L

Rosaceae

Saib

19

Rubus fruiticosus L

Rubiaceae

Aakhra

20

Vitis vitiginea (L.) Theob.

Vitaceae

Dakh

21

Ziziphus jujuba L

Rhamnaceae

Jand

22

Ziziphus nummularia�� (Burm.f.) Wight. & Arn.

Rhamnaceae

Koken ber

 

Table 11.Cereal crops.

S.No.

Botanical Name

Family

Local Name

1

Cicer arietinum L

Fabaceae

Chana

2

Hordeum vulgare L

Poaceae

Jo

3

Papaver sominferum L

Papaveraceae

Post

4

Pennisetum typhoidum L

Poaceae

Bajra

5

Phaseolusmungo L

Fabaceae

Dal Mong

6

Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.

Poaceae

Kangni

7

Triticum aestivum L

Poaceae

Kank

8

Zea mays L

Poaceae

Mak

 

Table 12.Fuel wood and Furniture Plants.

S.No.

Botanical Name

Family

����� Local Name

1

Acacia modesta Wall.

Mimosaceae

Klah

2

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile.

Mimosaceae

Kikar

3

Albizzia lebbek (L) Benth

Mimosaceae

Sree

4

Albizzia procera Benth

Mimosaceae

Sree

5

Astragalus leucocephalus Grah-ex-Benth

Oleaceae

Kathi

6

Broussonetia papyrifera Vent

Moraceae

Jangli toot

7