Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 820-826. 2008.

 

 

Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.

 

Krishnaveni, A1 and Santh Rani Thaakur2

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy

Madurai Medical College, Madurai, Tamilnadu

2Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam

(Women’s University), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

1For correspondence: akrishnaveni72@rediffmail.com

 

Issued 30 October 2008

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physio-chemical constants, extractive values with different solvents, fluorescence analysis of dry powder, its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents under visible light and UVlight at 254 nm and 366 nm. Prelimnary phyto chemical studies on the leaves Sapindus trifoliatus was studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigtors in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.

Keywords: Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, Sapindus trifoliatus, Sapindaceae.

INTRODUCTION

 Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl is a medium size to large decidous tree, found in Peninsular India especially in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka1. It is commonly known as Soap nut tree and Reetha in Hindi2,3. Seeds contain11.5%saponin, 45% fixed oil and 10%glucose. Saponin glycoside emarginotoside has been isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit of Sapindus trifoliatus. The saponin glycoside hederagin3-o (3-o- acetyl-beta–D-xylose was isolated from pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus 4.

 

Table 1. Ethnomedical information of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.

Parts

Uses

Root

Demulcent, hysteria and hemicrania.

Stem bark

Expectorant and epilepsy

Fruit

to induce labour pain and normal contraction of uterus after child birth , ear ache ,eczema,astringent

Seed

No report available

Leaves

No report available

Flowers

No report available

 

 

But no pharmacognostical work has been done so far. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the Pharmacognostic parameters on the leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl in both whole form and powdered form.

Table 2. Macroscopy of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .

Parts

Observation

Bark

Grey

Flowers

White

Fruit

Drupe

Seed

Black

Leaves

Pinnate 2-3

Appearance

Green

Shape

Lanceolate

Length/height

7. 5 -18 by 2.5-10 cm.

Apex

Acute

Petiole

petiolate

Surface

Glabrous

Arrangement

Opposite

Venation

Reticulately Pinnate

 

Materials and Methods

Plant material

 The plant material was collected from the foothills of Tirumlahills, Tiruapthi.A.P.in the month May 2007.The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr.Madhav Shetty, Taxnomist, Dept of Botany, S.V. University, Tiruapthi. A herbarium was preserved in the department for further reference. The leaves were separated, dried, coarsely powdered passed through sieve no 40 and stored in a closed container for further use. All reagents used were of analytical grade obtained from S.D. Fine Chemicals Ltd., Mumbai.

Methods

The macroscopical characters (size, shape colour, odour, texture, venation margin, base, apex and petiole)of the leaves were observed4. Then, anatomical study, powder was identified with routine reagents to study the lignified cells, trichomes, stomata, fibres etc. Quantitative microscopy was determined by methods prescribed by Trease and Evans5,6.

 The ash values, extractive values with various reagents and were determined as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia6. Extractive values were performed with various solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol and water was performed as per standard procedure7. Measurement of vein islet number, vein termination number, stomatal number, stomatal index and length of trichome were determined8. The behaviour of powdered leaves with various chemical reagents was studied7. The fluorescence characters of the powder with various acids were observed under visible light and UV light as per the proceduere9. Preliminary phytochemical tests of the powder/extracts were performed using specific reagents through standard procedures10,11.

Results

 Analysis and Discussion

 Leaves were green, odourless with slight bitter taste. Leaves are of size 7.5-18cm in length, shape- lanceolate in shape, glabrous surface ,acute – apex, equal base, entire margin, reticulate venation and petioled . The physical constants such as total ash value

(10.63%) acid insoluble ash ( 2.65% ) water soluble ash (8.69% ) and extractive values are specific identification. The soluble extractive values with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, ethanol and water were (1.4%,1.2%,2%,2.8%and 5.4%) respectively, which indicates the nature of constituents present. Quantitative microscopical study also give valuable information regarding specific leaf constants such as vein islet(11.5/mm2),vein termination number(13.8/mm2) stomatal number (6.5/mm2 and 14/mm2) upper and lower epidermis respectively. Length of trichome (20.43µ-- 40.79µ--80.86µ). The behaviour of leaf powder upon treatment with different chemical reagents was also observed and reported in Table 6. Fluorescence studies of various powders with various reagents revealed the presence of green & orange fluorescence with Conc. sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide respectively under UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm.

Powder analysis of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .

 It is pale green, fine, odourless powder with slight bitter taste. The powder microscopy reveals the presence of trichomes, fibres, epidermal cells with anticlinal walls, calcium oxalate crystals and spiral thickenings were recorded.

 

Table 3. Determination of Ash Values Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .

S. No.

Ash type

Percentage of Ash

1.

Total ash

10.63% w/w

2.

Acid insoluble ash

2.5 % w/w

3.

Water soluble ash

8.69% w/w

 

Table 4. Determination of Extractive Values Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .

S. No.

Solvent

Percentage of extractive

1.

Petroleum ether

1.4 % w/w

2.

Chlororform

1.2% w/w

3.

Ethyl acetate

 2% w/w

4.

Ethanol

2.8% w/w

5.

Water

5.4% w/w

 

Table 5. Determination of phytoconstants Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl.

Leaf constants

Report

Vein islet number

11.5/mm2

Vein termination number

13.8/mm2

Stomatal index (upper epidermis)

6.5/mm2

Stomatal index (lower epidermis)

14/mm2

 

 

Similarly the fluorescence characteristic of the leaf powdered leaf, when treated with various chemical reagents and its extracts have also been extensively studied. The extractive values of the powder with different solvent were determined and its result was reported in Table 6.

 

 The various qualitative chemical tests of powder, ethanol extract and aqueous extract (Table 7) indicates the presence of sterols, flavanoids, phenols, tannins and saponins in large amount whereas aromatic acids, carbohydrates,triterpenoids, gums and mucilage and volatile oils were totally absent in the leaf extract of this plant.

 

Table 6. Behavior of Powdered leaves of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl . with different

 chemical reagents.

 

S. No.

Particulars

Under Visible light

U.V. light

 

Short wavelength

Long wavelength

 

1.

Powder as such

Dull green

Dark green

-----

 

2.

Powdered drug + Conc. HCl

Dull green

-----

-----

 

3.

Powdered drug + Conc. H2SO4

Dull green

-----

Green

 

4.

Powdered drug+Conc. HNO3

Brown

Dull green

-----

 

5.

Powdered drug+ Glacial Acetic acid

Dull brown

-----

-----

 

6.

Powdered drug+ Aqueous NaOH

Dull green

Dark green

-----

 

7.

Powdered drug +alcoholic NaOH

Dark green

Dark green

Orange

 

8.

Powdered drug + 10%Hcl

Dull green

Dark green

Yellow

 

9.

Powdered drug + 10% H2SO4

Dull brown

Dark green

Dull Yellow

 

10.

Powdered drug + 10% HNO3

Dull green

Dark green

Dull yellow

11

Powdered drug + 10% Glacial Acetic acid

Dull green

Dark green

Dull yellow

12.

Powdered drug + Water

Dull green

Dark green

 -----

 

Table 7. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Sapindus trifoliatus Vahl .

S. No.

Tests

Powder + Water

Ethanol extract

Water extract

1.

Alkaloids:

 

 

 

 

Dragendroff’s test

Mayer’s test

Hager’s test

Wagner’s test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

2.

Carbohydrates:

 

 

 

 

Fehling’s test

Molish test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

3.

Gums/Mucilage:

 

 

 

 

Water

Alcohol

-ve

-ve

- ve

- ve

- ve

- ve

4.

Tannins:

 

 

 

 

Aq. FeCl3 Test

Alc. FeCl3 Test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

5.

Flavonoids:

 

 

 

 

Lead acetate test

Shinoda test

Alkaline test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

 

- ve

- ve

- ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

6.

Sterols:

 

 

 

 

Salfowaski test

Liberman Burchad test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

7.

Saponins:

 

 

 

 

Foam test

Lead acetate test

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

+ ve

 

REFERENCES

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2. Chopra R N, Nayar S L, and Chopra I C, Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, NewDelhi) 1992 , 35.

 

3. Nandkarni K M, Indian Materia Medica, Vol.I ( Popular Prakashan Pvt Ltd, Bombay) 1995, 327.

 

4. S. Arora, S.K. Srivastava, R. Roy, A.D. Roy. Magn reson Chem Dec 43 912) 1072-1076.

 

5. Wallis T E , Textbook of Pharmacognosy (CBS publishers and Distributors, Delhi ) 1985, 104 – 105.

 

6. Khandelwal K R , Kokate C K , Pawar A P and Gokhale S R, Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques and Experiments (Nirali Prakashan Publishers, Pune)1996, 9.

 

7. Anonymous, The Indian Pharmacopoeia (Govt. of India publication, New Delhi) 1966, 947-950.

 

8. Wallis T E, Text Book of Pharmacognosy (CBS publishers and Distributors, Delhi ) 1989, 356 – 549.

 

9. Brain K R and Turner T D, The practical evaluation of phytopharmaceuticals, Wright-Scientechnia, 6 (1975), 81.

 

9. Kokoshi J, Kokoski R and Slama F J, Fluorescence analysis of powered vegeTable drugs under ultraviolet radiation , J Am Pharm Assoc, 47 (1958), 75-77.

 

10. Johansen D A, Plant Microtechnique (McGraw Hill Book Co., New York) 1940, 182-197.

 

11. Kokate C K, Practical Pharmacognosy (Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi) 1991, 107-111.