Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1113- 39, 2009.

 

Medicinal Plants of Sewa River Catchment Area in the Northwest Himalaya and its Implication for Conservation

 

Mahroof Khan, Satish Kumar and Irshad Ahmed Hamal

 

Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India������������������������������������������������������������

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Issued September 01, 2009

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Abstract

 

����������� Himalaya is known as an abode of medicinal plants. Climate and topographic diversity of the Sewa catchment area provides a variety of habitats for the luxuriant growth of potential medicinal plant species. Many of these are used by locals in remote and inaccessible areas. Continuous overexploitation, revival of the use of herbal drugs and degradation of the habitats has brought medicinal plants on priority for conservation. Keeping in view these aspects, the medicinal plant wealth of Sewa catchment has been explored and assessed by interaction with the local inhabitants and after surveying the literature. The results have been compiled in 182 plant species along with the families, common and local names, altitudinal range and their medicinal use.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Sewa catchment, Northwest Himalaya, Conservation

Introduction

����������� The tribal people and ethnic races throughout the world have developed their own cultures, customs, cults, religious rites, taboos, totems, legends and myths, folk tales and songs, foods and medicinal practices, etc. Numerous wild and cultivated plants play a very important and vital role among these cultures and this interrelationship has evolved over generation of experience and practices. The modern civilization is penetrating into most regions of the world still held by primitive societies. There is a steady decline in human expertise capable of recognizing the various medicinal plants.

���������� On account of the hilly and inaccessible terrain, the local populace has been utilizing plant resources for their sustenance since early times. Some plants are used as fuel, some prove helpful in providing raw food material, and vegetables, fruit and some are used as curatives for various ailments. The observations are based on local folklore and interview of various communities and tribes of the catchment.

Himalayas are known to provide life support system to human beings, particularly due to fact that on account of remoteness and inaccessible terrain, the local populace has largely depended on local plants. Northwest Himalaya is a distinct Himalayan region with a characteristic climate, geology and flora. The floristic diversity is fascinating because of species richness and diverse community structure. The diversity has evolved in time and space due to various geological and ecological changes, accompanied by speciation, isolation and competition. Ethnomedicinal assessment of have been made by several workers in different pockets of Himalayas (Kaul et al., 1985, 1986, 1989, 1990; Gurung, 1988; Kapur, 1989; Sharma and Singh, 1989; Amatya, 1996; Kiran et al.,1999; Samant and Dhar, 1997; Samant et al., 1998; Kiran and Kapahi; 2001; Samant and Pal, 2003; Beigh et al., 2004; Borthakur et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2004; Kant and Dutt, 2004; Samant et al., 2007). Besides Himalaya, many workers have made notable contribution to ethnomedicinal studies of various parts of India and abroad (Brahmam and Saxena, 1990; Aswal, 1994; Brahma and Boissya, 1996; Mahatto et al., 1996; Rajendran et al., 2003; Augustine and Sivadasan, 2004; Haui and Pei, 2004; Hermans et al., 2004; Ji et al., 2004).

Study area

����������� The Sewa catchment area is spread over 384 Km2 located between latitude 32�2638 - 32�4100 N and longitude 75�4846 - 75�5538 E forming a part of Northwest Himalaya in district Kathua of Jammu and Kashmir state (India). Altitudinal gradient of the catchment varies from 578m at Mashka to 4300m at Kaplash peak.The climate varies from sub-tropical to temperate and extremely cold at higher altitudes. Depending upon the altitude, summer temperature varies from 18� - 35�C and winter temperature oscillates between 1� - 15�C.�����

Materials and Methods

Exploration of the study area was made fortnightly, during 2004-2006. The area was surveyed during all seasons of the year and care was taken to cover all the possible watersheds. Plant identification was done from various local, regional and national floras besides consulting taxonomic expertise of Botanical Survey of India, Northern-Circle, Dehradun and Centre for plant taxonomy, University of Kashmir. Ethnobotanical information was obtained by interacting with the local populace during exploration trips to the area and also from published literature on the plants inhabiting the study area.

Results and Discussion

����������� The paper provides comprehensive information of the diversity, distribution and uses of medicinal plants in the study area. The study revealed that the local inhabitants of the area have sound knowledge about the use of medicinal plants available in the region. Unfortunately, they are not interested to share their traditional knowledge with others and their lore ends with the end of their life. However, after developing intimacy with some knowledgeable and experienced medicine men and other traditional healers, some information on medicinal use of the less known or the plants that have not been reported earlier, has been documented. Although, a brief account of 182 ethnomedicinal uses (Appendix-1) of plant species have been documented and verified by cross checking with the local healers, knowledgeable persons and experienced informants of the region, even then further investigation on pharmaceutical, therapeutic as well as safety aspects are very much desired for their use inhuman health care. The plants used are found growing wild and cases are immediately available for therapeutic use. Nevertheless, plant species having medicinal value for a variety of disorders form constituents of a variety of formulation available in the market for treatment of a number of diseases.

Assessment has revealed 182 phanerogamic and cryptogamic species, belonging to 159 genera distributed over 84 families in the Sewa catchment. This rich diversity may be due to mild climatic conditions and diverse habitats together with large number of human habitations with diverse cultures and communities that utilize this diversity for the treatment of various ailments (Samant and Dhar 1997, Samant et al., 1998). Based on the number of species within families, Asteraceae is the most dominant with 17 species; Ranunculaceae with 10 species occupies the 2nd place, followed by Lamiaceae (9), Fabaceae (7), Euphorbiaceae (6), Pinaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae having five species each. All other families are represented by either three, two or one species. Asteraceae is notably the largest family not only in Northwest Himalaya, but also the largest and most wide spread family of flowering plants in the world (Good, 1974).This can be attributed to their high reproductive potential, wide ecological range of tolerance, and to their high seed dispersal capability.������������������������

Altitudinal distribution of the Sewa flora has revealed that 46 plant species exclusively inhabit areas below 1500m, 89 species between 1500-2500 m, 38 species between 2500-3500 m and 9 species grow in areas above 3500 m, indicating that maximum plant species are distributed in the temperate region. The richness of the species in this zone seems to be on account of the fact that most part of the Sewa catchment experiences temperate climate besides heterogeneity in physiognomy, aspect and other temporal or spatial factors. The areas above 3500 m support mostly those species having underground perenating organs during unfavourable winter.���������������

����������� Utilization of leaves (41), roots (39), whole plant (30) bark (15), latex (11), tuber (8), fruit (8), seeds (7), flower (6), gum and resin (4), rhizome (3) etc. of various plant species indicated a high degree of threat to these medicinal plants. These species are used in the plant based pharmaceuticalindustries in traditional systems of medicine and most are extracted from natural habitats. If the over exploitation of entire medicinal plant and their various parts continues, many species may decrease in, and ultimately disappear from their natural habitats. This implies particularly to medicinal plants with multiple uses (Samant et al.1998; Samant and Pal, 2003). These medicinal plants are used against cuts, cough, fever, gout, rheumatism, stomach ailments, sinusitis, boils, headache and as antihelminthic etc. Thus, the area serves as a primary source of extraction and people need to be encouraged to cultivate all these species which form ingredients of many medicinal products. Moreover, diverse climatic as well as altitudinal variation in the area, provide suitability for their cultivation, which in turn will be fruitful in maintaining the phytodiversity of the region, besides improving economy and lifestyle of the people.

 

Table 1: Medicinal plants along with their local names, family, altitudinal range and their indigenous uses in Sewa catchment

 

Botanical Name

Local Name

Altitude

Indigenous uses

Acanthaceae

 

 

 

Justicia adhatoda Linn.

Benkar, Brehankar

544-1400

Roots and leaves are used in cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis, leaf extract is having insecticidal and antirheumatic properties, flowers, leaves and roots are antiseptic.

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC.

 

700-1400

Plant galactaggue and febrifuge. Young shoots rich in protein and iron.

Barleria cristata Linn.

Jhinti, Tadrelu

1300-2100

Leaves and roots are used for reducing swellings and their infusion in cough.

Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees.

Kalu Ghu

1200-1800

Plant used as tonic debility.

Adiantaceae

 

 

 

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Hansraj, Dhumtuli

1300-2100

Plants demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emmenagogue and febrifuge. The paste of rhizome and fronds mixed with curd is applied locally for 3-5 days for curing herps, plants fried in butter if used as a tonic.

Adiantum venustum D.Don.

Kali kakeie

1300-1800

Fronds used as tonic, resolvent, expectorant, diuretic, astringent, emetic and emmenagogue. The water extract of fronds is given in fever. The oil is applied cures piles & wounds.

Amaranthaceae

 

 

 

Achyranthes aspera Linn.

Putkanda

600-1200

Leaf juice gives relief to blisters of mouth, plant used in dropsy, colic, snake bites and skin eruption.

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Kandiari chaleri

700-1400

Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative and applied as emollient. Poultice of leaves is applied to abscesses, boils and wounds.

Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr.

Parigya

700-1500

Roots used as a sternutatory, leaf antiseptic, applied on boils and sores.

Anacardaiceae

 

 

 

Pistacia chinensis Steward ex Brandis

Kikar singhi

600-1500

Galls expectorant, tonic, used in asthma, phthisis, cough and other diseases of respiratory tract, gals powdered and fried in ghee given internally in dysentery & also contain essential oil, used as carminative.

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Jhingan

700-1500

Bark astringent, used as a lotion in eruption of skin and ulcers, decoction of bark is used in tooth ache.

Apiaceae

 

 

 

Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke

 

1300-2500

Resinous gum applies to bruises and wounds.

Heracleum candicans Wall.

 

800-1500

Roots are extracted to prepare lotions for the skin to cure leukoderma. Locals used the roots to cure skin diseases.

Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.

Pantrala

1400-1700

Leaves are blood purifier, digestive, and used to treat dysentery. Leaves stalk is used for relief from toothache.

Apocyanaceae

 

 

 

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don

Kurchi, Kogar

600-1000

Bark used in dysentery, dried bark made into powdered is rubbed over the body in dropsy, diarrhea and intestinal worms.

Nerium indicum Mill.

Karner

600-900

Roots resolvent and attenuant, oil extracted from root-bark used in skin diseases of scaly nature and in leprosy.

Araceae

 

 

 

Acorus calamus Wall.

Bachh

700-1240

Antispasmodic, carminative, used in bronchitis. Leaf paste is applied locally to wound. Rhizome fed to horses to increase their stamina.

Arisaema jacquemontii Bl.

Kirala, Sarap

1400-1800

Tubers are given to sheep as remedy for colic and also as wormicide.

Phoenix sylvestris (Roxb.) Linn.

Kajure

600-1460

Juice of the tree is a refreshing drink, it is good source of vitamin B and C, roots used for tooth ache, fruit tonic, aphrodisiac and restorant, kernels with Achyanthus aspera made into powered form and taken in a betel leaf, is believed as a remedy for ague.

Araliaceae

 

 

 

Hedera nepalensis Koch.

Banda, Karmora

900-2600

Dry leaves used in stimulate sores, berries purgative and useful in febrile disorders.

Asclepidaceae

 

 

 

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton

Chita, Akk

500-1400

Root bark is used in dysentery and also as diaphorectic, expectorant and emetic. Root paste applied locally to cure elephantiasis. Tincture of leaves is used in intermit fevers. Powdered flowers are used in cold, cough, asthma and indigestion.

Aspleniaceae

 

 

 

Asplenuim trichomanes Linn.

Malakondei

1100-2100

Plants used as laxative and expectorant, leaves are smoked in cold and chest pain.

Asteraceae

 

 

 

Achillea millifolium Linn.

Rajmori, Saijun

1300-1860

Infusion of species is diuretic, stimulant and homeostatic. Decoction of the leaves and flowers are carminative, tonic and aromatic stimulant. Locals of the area use leaves and flowers for vapors bath in cold and fever. The tea from the leaves of the plant is given in cold.

Artemisia scoparia D.Don.

Bano, Jahu

900-1800

Leaves are anthelmintic and used in other stomachic complaints like indigestion and liver infections powder of leaves mixed with oil or ghee is massaged on joints to get relief from joint pains.

Bidens tripartita Linn.

Kumber

1400-2500

Infusion of plant is taken against cough. Leaf juice is dropped in eyes and ear to cure pain. Leaves are antiseptic and applied to ulcers and swollen glands.

Blumea lacera DC.

Nimrudi, Machhal

700-1000

Used as antipyretic. Leaf juice astringent, febrifuge, diuretic and anthelmintic. Roots are used in cholera.

Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn.

Guldhodhi

1300-2600

Flowers are used as insecticidal.

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Kandiara, Boban

2700-3400

Plant is diaphoretic, emetic and tonic. Seeds are emmenagogu, aromatic and the oil is antiseptic.

Gnaphalium leutoalbum Linn.

 

1400-2200

Plant species is medicinal and used as astringent to control bleeding from wounds.

Inula royleana DC.

Zahelnikohee

1300-1800

Used as disinfectant and insecticidal.

Siegesbeckia orientalis Linn.

 

Chachera

 

1500-2300

 

Herb is considered diaphoretic, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic, also used in rheumatism and renal colic.

Sonchus arvensis Linn.

 

Dudoli

 

900-1600

 

Roots used in cough, bronchitis, asthma and pertussis. Leaves applied to swellings and latex used in eye troubles.

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

 

 

Dudhal

 

 

900-1650

 

 

Resinous product obtained from boiling of juice of plants cathartic, used for ascites and hydrothorax, leaves and roots used in indigestion and as febrifuge and vermifuge.

Solidago virga-aurea Linn.

Son-dandi

800-1500

Plant possesses diuretic and carminative properties.

Solidago canadensis Linn.

 

 

900-1700

 

Plant possess diuretic and carminative properties. Locally the root is used in stomach pains.

Tagetes minuta Linn.

 

 

Genda

 

 

1300-1500

 

 

Flower stomachic, asperient, diuretic, diaphoretic, it is volatile oil shows tranquellizing, spasmolytic, bronchodialator and inflammatory properties.

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. aggr.

Hindu, Dudli

 

600-1440

 

Root is aperient, diuretic and tonic, also used in chronic disorders of kidney and liver.

Xanthium strumarium Linn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lanetsuru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

900-1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The root is bitter tonic, useful in cancer and scrofula. Decoction of roots is used locally over ulcers, boils and abscesses. The fruits are used as tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, sedative, cooling and demulcent and also given in small pox.

 

Balsaminaceae

 

 

 

Impatiens glandulifera Royle

 

1450-1800

The roots of the plant species are used for cooling effect.

Berberidaceae

 

 

 

Berberis lyceum Royle.

Simbloo, Kembal

500-2500

Fruit is cooling and digestive. Leaves and their juice given jaundice. Extracted obtained from the root is used to cure fever, bleeding piles and as a bitter tonic. Its external application on the eyelids is used in acute conjunctivitis.

Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.

Zakhme hayat

1700-2500

Root is tonic, antisorbutic, diuretic, demulcent and astringent. Also used in fevr diarrhea & pulmonary infections. Powder of rhizome and root is dusted to heal wound.

Betulaceae

 

 

 

Betula utilis D.Don.

Bhojpttar

3300-3900

Infusion of bark is used as carminative, antiseptic and used as carminative, antiseptic and used to curve hysteria. Peeling of bark is used for dressing of wounds and cuts.

Bombaceae

 

 

 

Bombax ceiba Linn.

Simbal, Semul

600-1200

Root is used as stimulant, tonic and aphrodisiac, for overcoming sexual impotency, bark emotic, astringent & demulcent.

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

Cordia dichotoma G. Forst.

Lasoora, Lasoori

1500-2100

Bark decoction is used in dyspepsia and fevers. Fruit is edible, astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, expectorant, and demulcent, given in urinary infections and diseases of lungs and spleen, kernel used in ring worm infection.

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

Capsella bursa pastoris Medik

Kralmond. Chhamso

800-1400

Plant is rich in vitamin C and shows properties against ulcers, tumors and uterine cancer. Locals of the area used decoction of the entire plant to treat bloody urine and diarrhea.

Cardamine impatiens Linn.

 

900-1600

Whole plant is used as stimulant, diaphoretic, stomachic, carminative and diuretic. The leaves are chewed for digestive process.

Caesalpinaceae

 

 

 

Bauhinia vahlii Wt & Arn.

Kaliar, Karal

700-1100

Bark is astringent and given in diarrhea.

Bauhinia variegata Linn.

Kachnar, Kared

600-900

Dried buds are useful in dysentery, diarrhea & piles and decoction of root is used to treat dyspepsia.

Cannabinaceae

 

 

 

Cannabis sativus Linn.

Bhang

600-1400

Plant used as intoxicant, tonic, analgesic, sedative, antiseptic and anodyne.

Caryophyllaceae

 

 

 

Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill.

 

Mamiri

 

1000-1850

 

Whole plant used as plaster on swelling and broken bones.

Chenopodiaceae

 

 

 

Chenopodium album L.

Bathu, Kunoh

1500-1900

Leaves cardiac, laxative, tonic in general debility and anthelmintic.

Commelinaceae

 

 

 

Commelina benghalensis Linn.

Chhura

700-1400

Plant is demulcent, refrigerant, laxative and used in leprosy.

Convolvulaceae

 

 

 

Codonopsis ovata Benth. ex Royle.

Ludut

2500-2900

Roots and leaves, pounded to make poultice, are used in bruises ulcers and wounds.

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Harangi

620-1100

Roots are purgative. Plant is also used as cathartic.

Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.

Sankhushpi

700-1000

Plant is bitter, febrifuge, tonic and vermifuge; used in dysentery. Leaves used in chronic bronchitis and asthma.

Costaceae

 

 

 

Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm.

Chamarghatha

1300-2100

Roots are bitter astringent, depurative, purgative, stimulant and also used in snake bite.

Cucurbitaceae

 

 

 

Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.

Handwana, Ghana

600-1300

Seeds are cooling, aphrodisiac, diuretic and tonic.

Momordicia dioica Wall.

Kokora

700-1800

Roasted root used to check bleeding from piles, bowel infections and urinary complaints.

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

Cymbopohan martini (Roxb.) Wats.

Babra gha

1400-1700

Used as insect repellent, applied in skin diseases, also used in stiff joints and lumbago.

Cyperus rotundus Linn.

Deela, Motha

750-1540

Tuber is used as emmennogogue, diuretic, anthelmintic and in irritation of bowels.

Dioscoreaceae

 

 

 

Dioscorea deltoidea Wall ex Kunth.

Kins, kniss

1100-1600

Tubers used for washing hairs to kill lice, tubers also commercial source of dysgenic raw material for steroidal industry.

Dipsacaceae

 

 

 

Dipsacus inermis Wall.

Wupalhak

1800-2300

Root diuretic, leaves used as vegetable, given to ladies after child birth.

Equistaceae

 

 

 

Equisetum dubile Roxb.

Trothnari

1380-1680

Plants used as refrigerant and in gonorrhea.

Equisetum arvense Linn.

Nari. Troka

1400-2100

Herb diuretic, haemostatic, useful in dropsy and kidney troubles, ash of plant is used as antiacid and in dyspepsia.

Ericaceae

 

 

 

Cassiope fastigata D.Don

Solu

2700-3400

The leafy twigs are ground into a paste and applied in fire burn.

Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude

Oon

1400-1800

Infusion of leaves applied in skin eruption and cutaceous troubles.

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Amla

750-1870

Dried fruits useful in hemorrhages, dysentery and diarrhea, in combination with iron used to treat jaundice, anemia and dyspepsia.

Euphorbia royleana Boiss.

Thor

600-900

Milky latex is anthelmintic and cathartic.

Euphorbia helioscopia Linn.

Dudal

1400-2300

Root considered anthelimintic; herb cathartic, milky latex applied to eruptions, seeds given in cholera, seed oil are purgative.

Euphorbia hirta Linn.

Jatli-dodal

660-1230

Huice of the plant is colic, given in dysentery and cough, decoction of plant is given in bronchial infections and asthma, latex is applied locally in eczema and warts.

Sapium sebiferum (Roxb.) Linn.

 

 

1400-1600

 

Seed oil emetic and purgative, used for cutaneous troubles; decoction of root bark given in dyspepsia, used as a tonic; resin from bark purgative.

Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell.

Kamila

1400-1800

Reddish powder on fruit is bitter, anathematic, cataraic, styptic and useful for cutaneous infection.

Fabaceae

 

 

 

Butea monosperma Taub.

Palas, Palah

600-900

Leaves are used as tonic, flowers diuretic, depurative and antiseptic, bark used to cure snake bite.

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Ex Dc.

Shisham, Tali

600-1450

Root and wood astringent, used in leprosy, boils eruptions of skin and against vomiting.

Indigofera tinctoria L.

Neel

900-1800

Extract of plant given in epilepsy and nervous disorders, also given in epilepsy and nervous disorders, also given in bronchitis and as ointment for boils, ulcers and hermorrhoids.

Robenia pseudoacacia Linn.

 

Kikar

 

1300-2700

 

Leaves are antispasmodic and laxative; an infusion is prescribed in digestive disorders. Flowers are boiled and used as powerful diuretic.

Trifolium repens Linn.

 

Chaptal

 

1300-1900

 

Tincture of the flowers is used in the rhematic pains due to gout.

Fagaceae

 

 

 

Quercus leucotrichophora A.campus

Rein

1500-2300

A corns used as diuretic, in gonorrhea and as an astringent, cures indigestion and diarrhea, especially in children.

Flacourtiaceae

 

 

 

Flacourtia romontchi Herit

Kakoa

1100-1600

Fruit is recommended in Jaundice, its gum is used in cholera.

Fumariaceae

 

 

 

Corydalis govaniana Wall.

Bhutkis, Nakpo

3000-3800

Roots are administered against muscular and gastric pians. These are used in syphilitic, scrofulous, and cutaneous infections.

Fumaria indiaca (Houssk.) Pugslay

Papra

600-950

Plant considered diuretic, aperients and diaphoretic.

Gentianaceae

 

 

 

Gentiana kuroo Royle

Neelkunthu

1700-2100

Root febrifuge, stomachic and tonic, also used in urinary infection.

Gerinaceae

 

 

 

Geranium wallichianum D.Don.

Koashud

1700-3500

Herb astringent, used in toothache, also applied externally is eyes in conjunctivitis.

Geranium nepalensis Sweet

Banda

1800-3200

Plant astringent, used in kidney troubles.

Hipocastanceae

 

 

 

Aesculus indica Calebr. ex Camb.

Bunkhori, Handoon

1400-3200

Extract of leaves is useful in whooping cough; oil from seeds is applied to cure rheumatic pains. Powdered fruits made into paste in lukewarm water is applied locally for curing cracked heals and other skin eruptions.

Hypericaceae

 

 

 

Hypericum oblongifolium Choisy

Basanti

1300-1700

Herb stringent, anathematic, emmenagogue & diuretic.

Hypericum perforatum Linn.

Basanti

800-1400

The species is used as astringent, expectorant, diuretic and anthelmintic. Whole plant is used in urinary troubles, diarrhea and in the therapy of depression state. The decoction of the leaves is used for the good flow of urine by locals.

Hypolipidaceae

 

 

 

Pteridium aquilinum Linn.

 

 

Kekaie

 

 

600-2400

 

 

Rhizome astringent and anthelmintic, decoction of rhizome and fronds given in chronic disorders arising from obstruction of viscera.

Juglandiaceae

 

 

 

Juglans regia Linn.

Akhrot

1280-2100

Bark anthelmintic and detergent, leaves are astringent.

Lamiaceae

 

 

 

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth.

Kauributi

580-1500

Plant bitter, astringent and tonic. Leaf juice is given in fever as substitute for Cinchona.

Colebrookia oppositifolia Smith.

Binda, Pansra

500-1300

Roots used in epilepsy. Leaves used as poultice on bruises and wounds.

Lamium album Linn.

 

2100-2600

Root is astringent, its decoction used in hemorrhages of uterus and nose, leaves good source of carotene, edible.

Mentha longifoilia (Linn.) Huds.

Jangli pudina

600-1880

Dried leaves and young twigs are carminative and stimulant, leaf juice is cooling and stomachic, essential oil of the plant is used for flavorings confectionery.

Origanum vulgare Linn.

Sathra

1500-2500

Hot infusion of plant is used to promote menstrual flow if suppressed by cold; oil is aromatic, stimulant, rebefacent and tonic. Also useful in colic, diarrhea, rheumatism, toothache and hysteria.

Salvia moorcroftiana Wall.

 

 

 

 

Kali-jari

 

 

 

 

1400-1800

 

 

 

 

Roots are used in cold and cough. Leaves are used for guinea worm and are applied as poultice for boils. Wounds and chronic affections of the skin. Seeds are emetic and are used in hemorrhoids, colic and dysentery, Locally the root is used in stomach pains.

Thymus linearis Benth.

Bnajawan

1500-2300

Oil extracted from herb is applied to gums in toothache.

Calamintha umbrosa (M.Bieb.) Benth.

Kala Putu

600-2400

Root stocks are astringent. Decoction of plant mixed with honey is given to ladies after childbirth.

Salvia plebia R. Br.

Sathi

1300-1500

Seeds used in diarrhoea, gonorrhea, menorrhagia and hemorrhoids.

Liliaceae

 

 

 

Colchicum luteum Baker

Birnik Posh

700-900

Corms are carminative, laxative, aphrodisiac, alterative, rheumatism and diseases of skin.

Tulipa stellata Hook.

Kayalu

600-900

The bulbs of the plant are eaten during sinking of heart.

Lythyraceae

 

 

 

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kruz.

 

Dhavi

 

800-1600

 

Dried flowers considered astringent and stimulant, also used in dysentery, menorrhagia, liver complaints and disorders of mucous membrane, hemorrhoids & seminal weakness.

Malvaceae

 

 

 

Kydia calycina Roxb.

Poola

600-900

Leaves powdered, made into paste and applied in rheumatism.

Sida cordata Boiss-Waalkes

 

 

Bhiunli

 

 

1100-1800

 

 

Used in fever, urinary complaints; root bark used in leucorrhoea, micturition and gonorrhea. Poultice of leaves applied to cuts & bruises, leaves given to pregnant women to treat diarrhoea.

Meliaceae

 

 

 

Melia azadarah Linn.

Dharek

700-1650

Leaf juice anathematic, diuretic and emmenagogue, seed recommended in rheumatism; gum of the trees used in spleen enlargement and infusion of bark in ascariassis.

Menispermaceae

 

 

 

Cissampelos pareira Linn.

Batbel, Buddibel

900-1400

Roots bitter, antiperiodic, stomachic, purgative, also used in diarrhea, cough, dyspepsia, dropsy and urinary complaints.

Mimosaceae

 

 

 

Acacia catechu Willd.

Khair

600-700

Paste of bark called Katha cures ulcers of mouth.

Acacia modesta Wall.

Phulae

600-850

Bark is astringent.

Albizzia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill

Siram, Ola, Lasri

700-1500

Infusion of bark is used for dressing cuts and wounds.

Alibizzia lebbeck Benth.

Siris, Sri

700-1400

Used in piles and diarrhea. Root powder is excellent gum and aphrodisiac.

Mimosa pudica L.

Chui-Muie-Lajwanti

600-1300

Leaves and root used in piles, decoction of root is used in gravel and other urinary complaints.

Moraceae

 

 

 

Ficus benghalensis Linn.

Bor

700-1300

Milky latex applied in rheumatism and lumbago, infusion of bark is considered astringent and tonic, used in diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery.

Ficus palmata Forssk.

Phagwara

900-1500

Fruit is considered demulcent and laxative used in constipation, diseases of lungs and gall bladder.

Ficus religiosa Linn.

Papal,

700-1000

Bark is astringent, given in gonorrhea, seeds are alternative, leaves and young shoots are purgative infusion of bark is given internally in scabies.

Morus alba Linn.

Toot, tut

1200-1900

Fruit refrigent, used also for sore throat and dyspepsia, bark anthelmintic and purgative.

Myrsinaceae

 

 

 

Mysine africana (Linn.) Spreng.

Gugil

1260-1650

Fruit anthelmintic particularly for tapeworm and also used as a laxative in dropsy and colic, decoction of leaves employed as blood purifier.

Myrtaceae

 

 

 

Syzygium cumin Lim.

 

 

Jamun

 

 

600-2300

 

 

Decoction of bark and powdered seeds used in diabetes, bark astringent, also used in gargles and mouth washes; fresh juice of bark given with milk of goat for curing diarrhoea in children.

Nyctaginaceae

 

 

 

Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

Itsit, Punarnava

600-900

Root is used as diuretic, expectorant, laxative, cures asthma, jaundice, eye disease and inflammations.

Oleaceae

 

 

 

Jasminum humile Linn.

Peeli chameli

600-900

Flowers are tonic, root used in ringworms.

J.multiflourm Andr.

Jangli chameli

590-800

Root antidote to snake bite, leaves soaked in water and applied as poultice on ulcers, flowers are emetic.

Olea cuspidata Wall. ex DC.

Kahu

1100-1600

Leaves and bark are bitter, astringent, antipyretic, recommended in fever and debility, leaves considered useful in gonorrhea and whooping cough; oil from seeds is used as rubefacient.

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

Oxalis corniculata Linn.

Peeli Khatti-booti

600-1530

Herb is used as cure as cure for scurvy, leaves refrigerant, antisocorbutic and stomachic; fresh juice of plant given in dyspepsia, piles and anemia; infusion of leaves used to cure opacity of the cornea.

Papaveraceae

 

 

 

Argemone mexicana Linn.

Peeli kandyari

700-900

Seeds toxic. The oil is sometime mixed with mustard oil which causes dropsy epidemic.

Meconopsis aculata Royle

Panjali-post

3800-4300

Water extract of the herb is used to wash wounds.

Phytolaccaceae

 

 

 

Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

 

 

Kafal

 

 

2100-2900

 

 

Locals use the plant species as a substitute for Atropa belladonna. Ethno medically the root extract of the species is used in stomach cramps and dysentery.

Pinaceae

 

 

 

Abies pindrow spach.

Tung

2700-3400

Leaves carminative, expectorant, tonic, antiperiodic and astringent. Also used in bronchitis and asthma. Juicy inner bark is taken in constipation. Cones are used as diuretic and purgative.

Cedrus deodara Roxb.

Diar, Deodar

1400-1800

Bark is astringent, useful in fevers, diuretic, carminative, antiplatulent, useful in pulmonary and urinary disorders.

Pinus roxburghii Roxb.

Chir, Chil

1100-1350

Resin expectorant, useful in chronic bronchitis, especially recommended for gangrene of lungs, carminative in flatulent colic, checks hemorrhages in tooth-sockets and nose.

Pinus walliciana Wall.

Bluepine, Kail

3200-3500

Oleo resin is applied locally on crack heels.

Picea smithiana (Wallich) Boiss.

Riar, Spruce

1700-2700

Oleo resin is applied on cracks of heels and wounds.

Plantaginaceae

 

 

 

Plantago lanceolata Linn.

Baltanaga

700-1660

Leaves and roots astringent, used in cough.

Plantago major Linn.

 

 

Jangli isbghol

 

800-1760

 

The husk of the seeds yields colloidal mucilage which primary consists of xylose, arbinose and galacturonic acid. The seeds are used to cure gastric complaints, burning sensation in stomach and dysentery.

Poaceae

 

 

 

Arundo donax Linn.

Naar, Baranal

1300-1900

Decoction of rhizome is used as amollient, diuretic and to stimulate menstrual discharge.

Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers.

Khabal, Dub

700-2700

Infusion of root is given in bleeding piles and gleets. Juice of plant astringent, antiseptic, applied in wounds, cuts also given in hysteria, epilepsy, chronic diarrhea, dysentery.

Dedrocalamus strictus Bl.

Bans, Narbans

750-1100

White substances deposited at nodes is prized commercial medicine, used as tonic, astringent, given to children and ladies having calcium deficiency.

Podophyllaceae

 

 

 

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle

Bankakri

 

2100-2900

 

The root paste is applied on ulcers, cuts and wounds. It is also used as purgative, for curing skin diseases and arresting tumors growth.

Polygonaceae

 

 

 

Oxyria digyna Hill Simthan

 

3000-3800

Leaves are considered as antiscorbutic and refrigerant.

Polygonum amplexicaule D.Don.

 

900-1400

Root stock constitutes the drug �anjubar� frequently used medicinally in both unani & Aryurvedic syatem of medicine.

Polygonum barbatum Linn.

Narri

900-1720

Roots astringent, refrigerant and their extract is used for washing ulcers, seed purgative, emetic, and tonic and also given in colic. s

Rumex hastatus D. Don.

Aammy

600-1800

Leaves are rubbed by the locals against stings by Urtica dioica.

Rumex nepalensis Spring

Wbal

600-1800

The sap of leaves and stem is applied on cuts for its astringent properties.

Portulacaceae

 

 

 

Portulaca oleracea L.

Kulfa, Lunak

1300-2500

Herb is refrigerant, leaves antiscorbutic, aperient diuretic.

Primulaceae

 

 

 

Anagalis arvensis Linn.

Kokoon, Dari

600-100

Herb is used for gout, cerebral infections, hydrophobia, dropsy, leprosy, epilepsy and mania.

Punicaceae

 

 

 

Punica granatum Linn.

Dharu, Dharuna

600-1600

Root and stem bark is astringent and anthelminitic especially for tapeworm; dried and powdered rind of fruit is used in diarrhea, dysentery and as astringent.

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle

Patis, Ponkar

2800-3500

The tubers and flowers are valuable febrifuge, a better tonic especially in combating debility after material and other fevers. Powered rhizome is used in diarrhea and dysentery. The plant is poisonous and is used cautiously.

Aconitum hookeri Stapf.

 

3400-3800

Powdered tubers are mixed with mustard oil and applied on head to cure hair fall due to fungal infection.

Anemone obtusifolia D.Don.

Rattan jot

2800-3500

Root powdered mixed with milk is taken for contusions. Seeds are emetic and oil from the seeds is given inn rheumatism. The decoction of the root bark is used for sores in the mouth.

Clematis buchananiana DC

Barkelu

800-1400

Whole plant is used for scabies and eczema.

Clematis gouriana Roxb. Ex DC.

Johi, Chibro

900-1600

Leaves used in infections of spleen. Root paste is applied to cure pimples.

Caltha palustris Linn.

Panjali kanval

2500-3400

The leaves of plant are vesicant and very bitter. It is used as febrifuge.

Clematis montana Buch-Ham ex DC.

Chanda

900-1300

Locals of the area mix one black pepper with a pinch of leave�s powder of the plant species and use as a remedy for the indigestion.

Delphinium roylei Munz.

Kastoori booti

1300-1500

Root extract is used for rheumatic pains.

Ranunculus arvense Linn.

 

1260-1900

Herb is used in gout, intermittent fever and asthma.

Ranunculus scleratus Linn.

 

 

 

1260-1900

 

 

Herb stimulant, vermifuge, diuretic and also used in cutaneous disorders, juice used in sciatica, rheumatism, dysuria, asthma and gripe, seed used as tonic and stomachic.

Rosaceae

 

 

 

Fragaria indica Andr.

Punjakha

600-1400

The leaves are crushed and applied on skin diseases and also on wounds and cuts.

Prinsepia utilis Royle

Zehar

700-1400

Oil from seeds rubifacient, applied locally in rheumatism.

Rose brunonii Lindl.

Punjali gulab

1100-1600

Useful in bilious infections, root used in eye trouble and burning of skin.

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

Galium aparine Linn.

Khorti

1100-1500

Juice of plant is aperients, diuretic and antiscorbutic.

Rutaceae

 

 

 

Boenninghausenia albiflora Hook.

Pisumar

1400-1700

Shoots are kept under beds as insect repellent, especially for fleas. Root relieves toothache.

Xanthoxylum alatum Roxb.

 

 

Timber

 

 

600-1400

 

 

Bark, fruit and seeds used as carminative, stomachic and anthelmintic; they are also used as mouth freshners and in toothache.

Salicaceae

 

 

 

Populus alba Linn.

Safeda

1400-1600

Bark antipyretic, diuretic, blood purifier, used as Substitute of quinine; paste of wood and leaves applied in rheumatism.

Salix alba Boiss.

 

Bisa

 

1260-1800

 

Bark antiperiodic, astringent and tonic; decoction is given in rheumatism, chronic skin infections like psoriasis.

Sapindaceae

 

 

 

Dodonaea viscosa Linn.

Santha, Sentha

500-1100

Leaves febrifuge, in gout and rheumatic pains, on wounds, swellings and burns, bark astringent.

Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

Rentha

900-1550

Fruit emetic and expectorant, used in salivation, epilepsy and chlorosis.

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

 

1600-2500

Used as cardiac stimulant.

Digitalis purpurea Linn.

Akarkara

1900-3250

Medically used for its effect on cardio- vascular system.

Pedicularis pectinata Wall.

 

Michren

 

3300-3700

 

Leaves are diuretic, astringent and homeostatic.

Verbascum thapsus Linn.

 

 

 

Gidder tobacco

 

 

600-2300

 

 

 

Leaves and flowers are used for treatment of diarrhoea and pulmonary diseases. Leaves are used as adulterant for Digitalis. Dried leaves and flowers are smoked in case of asthma and act as stimulant.

Solanaceae

 

 

 

Datura inoxia Mill.

Dhatura

1100-1600

Used as anesthesia in surgery and ophthalmologic operation. Leaves in the form of a poultice used for rheumatic swelling of the joints, Lumbago & painful tumors.

Datura stramonium Linn.

Dhathura, Shivapriya

900-1530

Leaves and seeds antiseptic, anodyne, narcotic and intoxicant. Leaf powder made in pills, used in hemorrhoids, seed cure dandruff.

Solanum nigrum Linn.

 

 

Makai

 

 

700-1450

 

 

The herb is used as diuretic and laxative decoction narcotic and antispasmodic, freshly prepared extract of herb is effective in cirrhosis in liver.

Solanum pseudocapsicum Linn.

 

600-900

Alcoholic extract of roots and stem of the lint possess antibacterial activity.

Salanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wend.

Kandiari

 

600-1400

 

The juice of plant is useful in dysentery and fever. The drug made from this is administered against asthma.

Taxaceae

 

 

 

Taxus baccata Linn.

 

 

 

Barmi

 

 

 

2100-2400

 

 

 

Leaves used in asthma, bronchitis, cough, indigestion, epilepsy, antispasmodic, emmenagogue and as aphrodisiac, a tincture made from young shoots used for headache, giddiness, feeble and falling pulse, diarrhoea, fleshy aril stomachic, carminative.

Thymelaeaceae

 

 

 

Daphne papyraceae Wall.

Kochhad, Tetmaran

1100-1800

Plant bitter, purgative, used as febrifuge, root and leaves used against cutaneous infection and gonorrhoea.

Ulmaceae

 

 

 

Celtis australis Linn.

Khirak

1200-1700

Fruit is used in amenorrhea and are colic.

Urticaceae

 

 

 

Urtica dioica Linn.

 

Bichhu booti

 

1000-2100

 

Infusion of leaves and roots used as a hair-stimulant and for cleaning dandruff.

Valerianaceae

 

 

 

Valeriana jatamansi James and Wall.

Mushkbala

1200-2300

Roots used in hysteria, nervous unrest and emotional troubles.

Verbenaceae

 

 

 

Lantana camara Linn.

Lantana

560-1200

Decoction given in tetanus, rheumatism and malaria tonic.

Vitex negundo Linn.

 

 

 

 

Banna

 

 

 

 

1300-2000

 

 

 

 

Roots tonic, febrifuge, diuretic; used in rheumatism and dyspepsia, also as an anthelmintic; flowers astringent, used in diarrhoea, fever & liver complaints; leaves aromatic, tonic and vermiguge, dried leaves smoked to cure catarrhal and headache, their decoction employed in medicinal baths for acute rheumatism.

Verbena officinalis Linn.

 

Karaita

 

600-2300

 

Fresh leaves used as a rebefacient in rheumatism extract of the aerial parts used in liver and gall bladder complaints.

Violaceae

 

 

 

Viola canescenseWall.

 

Banksha

 

960-2400

 

The decoction of plant is used to loose phlegm in the chest and for pulmonary problems.

Viola odorata Linn.

 

 

Banksha

900-2300

Herb is considered as aperients, antipyretic, cooling, diuretic and expectorant. Locals use the leaves and stem of the herb as one of ingredient of local tea. Decoction of the leaves is used in cold, fever and throat infection in winters.

 

Acknowledgements

����������� The authors are grateful to Head, Department of Botany for facilities and to NHPC, New Delhi, for financial support.

 

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