Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 235-246. 2007.

 

 

Ethnomedicinal Plants Used Against Skin Diseases in Some Villages of Kali Gandaki, Bagmati and Tadi Likhu Watersheds of Nepal

 

 

Ananda Raj Joshi1 and Kunjani Joshi2

 

1President, Environmentalist Association of Nepal and

2Harvard University Herbaria, USA

Email: ajoshi9@gmail.com; kunjanijoshi@gmail.com

Web: http://www.anandakunjani.com.np

 

Issued 15 November 2007

 

 

Abstract

The paper enumerates the traditional uses of 73 plant species belonging to 62 genera representing 47 families, which are used by the village communities of Kali Gandaki, Bagmati, and Tadi Likhu watersheds of Nepal for the treatment skin diseases. Some of useful species are under serious threat due to unsustainable activities. Hence, a proper documentation of useful plants with their present status and local traditional knowledge as well as practices is urgently needed. Effort should also be initiated to implement appropriate conservation measures for preservation and sustainable uses of these useful species.

Introduction

The rural communities of Nepal are still dependent upon wild plants for their primary healthcare and treatment of diseases. They collect the useful plants from various habitats such as forests, scrub, grassland, cultivated fields and use these plant materials as raw drugs. These communities have acquired good knowledge on the useful and harmful properties of the useful plant resources in course of their constant association with forest and agro-ecosystems. However, at present, this vast store of information is being eroded as a result of human’s unsustainable activities. The loss of traditional knowledge within cultures undergoing rapid change is just as irreversible as the loss of species (Joshi and Joshi, 2005). Hence efforts should be made to document the various uses of plants before some of these plants are eliminated from the area, or before these inhabitants shift over to modern remedies. In this context, the rich and diverse forest ecosystems and vast tribal population with traditional knowledge systems due to cultural and environmental diversity in the country have attracted a  number of workers for ethnomedicinal studies in the past (Acharya, 1996; Bhattarai, 1992; Chaudhary, 1994; Coburn, 1984; Joshi, 1988; Joshi, K. 1991; 1996; 2000; 2003a & b; 2004a & b; 2005; Joshi and Edington, 1990; Joshi and Joshi, 2000; 2005; Joshi,  Shrestha and Joshi 2003;  Manandhar, 2002; Phole, 1990; Sacherer, 1979;  Taylor, Manandhar and Towers, 1995;  Toba, 1975). However, the vast store of ethno-medicinal information of these study areas have not been fully documented.

 

In the present paper an attempt has been made to present indigenous knowledge and uses of the wild plants which are used by local communities for treatment of skin diseases.  

 

The study is carried out in some villages of  Kali Gandaki, Bagmat and Tadi Likhu Watersheds of Nepal. The land forms of the study areas are characterized by moderate to steep sloppy mountainous terrain. The study areas are endowed with rich and varied vegetation types due to their diverse topography and variable climatic conditions. The human pressure on these vegetative resources is very heavy except on very steep, almost vertical and inaccessible rock faces near the river.  The villages are inhabited by different ethnic tribes which are rich in folk lore.

 

Materials and Methods

Several field trips in and around the study areas were undertaken during the years 2004-2006 with a view to collect plant species of ethnomedicinal value and to document the indigenous practices.  The information was gathered using various techniques such as open and structured interview, and discussion with local informants, such traditional healers / “jkankri”, and experienced village elders including midwives and by direct observations on the way different plant materials were being collected and used (Joshi and Edington, 1990). The plant specimens were identified with the help of floras. Voucher specimens are deposited in the Botany Department, Patan Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

 

Enumeration of Plants

During the field survey, ethnobotanical information of 73 species of medicinal plants belonging to 47 families was compiled from various habitats of the study areas. The study shows that among the skin diseases, scabies, wounds, and boils are the major diseases in the villages. During the treatment of the diseases, various forms of preparation are used. In the following enumeration, the species are arranged alphabetically. Botanical name followed by family, Nepalese name,  uses of the plants and their parts as reported by the local inhabitants, and habitat along with the information collected areas.

 

Abrus precatorius L. Leguminosae

            Nep. Ratigedi, Lalgedi

            Use: Fresh leaf is crushed to paste and warmed slightly. It is applied over boils.

            Habitat: Forests, Sundarijal, Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu District.  

 

Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd . Leguminosae

            Nep. Khayar.

            Use: Leaf paste mixed with mustard oil is applied externally in case of scabies.

            Habitat:  Along the bank of Kali Gandaki River and  forests,  Beltari,  Mirmi and 

              Setibeni, Kali Gandaki watershed.         

       

Achyranthes aspera L.  Amaranthaceae 

            Nep. Apamarga

            Use:   Plant is crushed to paste which is applied externally to cure eczema.

            Habitat: Forests, Sundarijal, Okharni and Mulkhadka, Kathmandu District, Central Development Region; Kakani, Nuwakot District, Central Development Region.

 

Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Amaranthaceae

           Nep. Datiwan, Rato apamarga        

           Use: Roots are powered, mixed with crushed snails and applied in case of pimples.         

           Habitat:  Forests and  cultivated fields,  Adhi khola and  shady places of                      

                   Mirmi, Kali Gandaki watershed; Chaubas, Kathamandu district, Central  

                   Development Region;  Thansen and Likhu, Nuwakot district, Central 

                   Development Region.

 

Acorus calamus L. Araceae

          Nep. Bojho

          Use: Rhizome is crushed to paste and then applied externally to cure scabies.

          Habitat:Mershy places, Chaubas, Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu District, Central  

                  Development Region.

 

Adiantum caudatum L. Adiantaceae

          Nep. Uneu

          Use: Green leaves are pounded in water and juice is applied in case of itches.

          Habitat:  Stone crevices and rocky slopes, Kakani and Talakhu of Tadi  Likhu 

                  Watershed, Nuwakot district, Central Development Region.

 

Adiantum incisum Forssk,  Adiantaceae

          Nep. Uneu

          Use: Frond is squeezed between thumb and then juice is applied externally to

                   cure scabies.

          Habitat: Forests, Matragau, Nuwakot district, Central Development Region.

 

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Rutaceae

         Nep. Bel.

         Use: Young fruit is crushed with a piece of turmeric which is applied to cure ulcers.

         Habitat:  Forests, Kakani of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district, Central

                 Development Region.

 

Ageratum conyzoides L. Compositae

         Nep. Ganaune ghans, Gandhe.

         Use : Fresh leaf paste is applied to cure infections of skin between the toes.        

         Habitat: Moist and waste places, Mirmi of Kali Gandaki watershed; 

                 Matragaun   from Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot                  district, Central Development Region; Okharni and Mulkharka of Bagmati

                  watershed, Kathmandu district, Central Development Region.

                      

Allium wallichii Kunth.,  Amaryllidaceae

          Nep. Jimbu jhar, Vanlasun

          Use: Fresh juice of bulb is applied externally in case of itches and to remove 

                  maggots from wounds.

          Habitat: Shady places, forests, Chaubas,  Kathmandu District,  Central 

                  Development Region;  Syabru, Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district; Kakani, Nuwakot district. 

 

Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthaceae

          Nep. Seto late

          Uses: Paste of leaves is applied locally over boils to hasten their bursting.

              Habitat: waste land and edges of  the cultivated fields, Kakani, Nuwakot district; Okharni and  Mulkhadka, Kathmandu District,  Central Development Region.

 

Amaranthus spinosus L.,  Amaranthaceae

          Nep. Ban lunde, Luren latte.             

          Use:   Leaves are crushed to paste and applied externally to cure eczema.

          Habitat: Mostly occurs on open and sunny places, waste ground, Mirmi of 

                  Kali Gandaki watershed; Chaubas, Okharni, and Mulkhadka,of  Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu District,  Central  Development Region; Kakani, Bhadratar  and  Mahakali of Tadi Likhu  watershed, Nuwakot district, Central Development  Region.

 

Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser, Compositae

          Nep. Titepati, Nagadamani

          Use: Leaf is crushed with lemon juice and paste obtained applied externally in case of itches.

          Habitat:   Syabru, Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district

 

Artemisia indica Willd., Compositae

          Nep. Titepati, Gandhe jhar

          Use: Leaf paste is applied in case of ringworm and eczema.

          Habitat: Forest, scrub, cultivated field, Kakani and Thansen of Tadi Likhu                Watershed, Nuwakot district,

 

Artocarpus lakoocha Wall . Moraceae

           Nep. Badhar

           Use: Stem is crushed to paste and applied to cure old ulcers.

           Habitat: Forests, Mirmi and Dumrichur of Kali Gandaki watershed.

 

Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., Liliaceae

          Nep. Van kurilo

          Use: Root paste is applied on pimples. 

Habitat:  Forests, Shcrub,  Chaubas of Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu district.

 

.Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae

          Nep: Neem

          Use: Leaf extract is applied externally on  boils and  blisters.

          Habita: Forests, Kakani and Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Bauhinia purpurea L. Leguminosae   

          Nep. Koiralo, Kachnar

          Use: Fresh leaves are crushed to paste and warmed slightly and the applied over 

                Boils.

          Habitat: Forests and  cultivated field, Mirmi, Kali Gandaki watershed;   Kakani and Talakhu of  Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Berberis aristata DC, Berberidaceae

           Nep. Chutro

           Use:  Bark is crushed and applied externally in case of pimples, itches and scabies.

           Habitat:  Forests, open meadow, sunny trail side, Setibeni, Kakani, Nuwakot district;  Sundarijal, Okarni, Mulkhadka and  Chaubas, Kathmandu District,  Central Development Region; Syabru, Rasuwa district;  Mahangal, Chilaune Thansen, and Mahakali of Tadi Likhu watershed,  Nuwakot district.        

     

 Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC., Berberidaceae

           Nep. Chutro

           Use: Bark is crushed to paste and applied to cure old ulcers.

           Habitat:  Forest, open meadow, sunny trail side, Okarni, Mulkhadka and  Chaubas, Kathmandu District,  Central  Development Region;  Syabru of Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district;  Mahangal, Chilaune Thansen, and Mahakali of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.     

        

Boerhavia diffusa L., Nyctaginaceae.

           Nep. Punarva, Sano pate

           Use: Root paste  is taken orally, three times a day to cure pimples.

           Habitat:  Forests, Ridi, Ramdi, and Balam of Kali Gandaki watershed.

 

Bombax ceiba L., Bombacaceae

           Nep. Simal, Simar

           Use: Root paste is applied externally in case of pimples

           Habitat: Forest, Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Buddleja asiatica Lour., Loganiaceae

           Nep. Bhimsenpati

           Use: Young leaves are crushed with a piece of turmeric which is applied 

                     externally  to cure scabies.

          Habitat: open places, Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district; Chaubas, Kathmandu District, Central  Development Region.

 

Buddleja paniculata Wall., Loganaceae

          Nep. Narayanpati

          Use: Leaf paste is applied one time a day for the treatment of pimples and itches.

          Habitat: Syabru of Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district;   Chaubas, Kathmandu District, Central Development Region.

 

Cannabis sativa L.,  Cannabaceae

         Nep. Bhang, Ganja

         Use:  Crushed    leaves are rubbed on the affected areas to control scabies.

         Habitat:  Commonly occurs as weed in open places and scrubs, Kakani of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district; Burge, Ridi, Ramdi, Balam of Kali Gandaki watershed.

 

Cassia tora L., Leguminosae

         Nep. Chukarmandi, Tapre.

         Use:  Fresh leaves are pounded into a paste and are applied in case of ringworm.           

                   crushed leaf are soaked with sugar overnight in half a glass of water. It is   

                   filtered  and taken in empty stomach in the morning to cure ulcers.

         Habitat: Waste lands, sunny places, Mirimi of Kali Gandaki watershed; Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district; Chaubas, Kathmandu District, Central  Development Region.

 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban., Umbelliferae

          Nep. Ghortapre

          Uses: crushed leaf and root extract is applied to the affected parts to kill germs  

                   from wounds; decoction of leaves is also applied to cure leprotic wound.

          Habitat: Sunny or slightly shaded damp places, Okharni, Mulkhadka  and  Sundarijal, Kathmandu District,  Central  Development Region; Kakani of  

                   Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L. Burtt. & A.H. Hill, Anacardiaceae

           Nep. Lapsi, Amli

           Use: Seed is fired and the ash mixed with butter is applied to cure  boils

           Habitat: Forest, Thansen of Tadi Likhu warershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Clematis montana  Buch –Ham. ex DC., Ranunculaceae

           Nep. Angur jhar, Junge lahara

           Use: Root extract is applied externally on pimples.

           Habitat: Forest, Sybru, Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae

          Nep. Akasbeli, Amar lata

          Use: Plant is crushed to paste and applied externally to cure urticaria.

          Habitat: Waste land edges of cultivated fields, Chaubas, Kathmandu District,   and Central Development Region.

 

Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers., Gramineae

          Nep. Dubo

          Use: Root paste is applied externally to cure ulcers and boils.

          Habitat: sunny or slightly shaded damp places, Okharni, Mulkhadka  and Sundarijal, Kathmandu District,  Central  Development Region; Kakani of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae

         Nep. Mothe

          Use:  the root is pounded and  then applied to treat boils and blisters.

          Habitat:  occurs as weed on the cultivated fields, Mirmi of Kali Gandaki    

                   watershed; Kakani.of Tadi Likhu  watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Datura metel L. Solanaceae

        Nep. Kalo dhaturo

        Use: Seeds are crushed and cooked in mustard oil. It is applied to cure scabies.

         Habitat: Open sunny places and wastelands, Mirmi, and Harmichur, Kali Gandaki watershed; Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher,  Equisetaceae

         Nep. Ankhe jhar

         Use: Plants are pounded and paste is then applied to cure old ulcers.

         Habitat: Moist areas, Kakani, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbiaceae

         Nep. Dudhe, Dhudhya

         Use: Latex is applied to cure burn wounds and boils.

         Habitat: Common as weeds in roadsides, Mirmi of Kaligandaki  

                 watershed; Syabru of Langtang   watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Euphorbia longifolia    D. Don.,    Euphorbiaceae

         Nep. Dhurtsi

         Use: Fresh juice of root is applied to remove maggots from wounds.

         Habitat: Wasteland, shady bank, Talakhu and Kakani, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Eurya acuminata DC., Theaceae

         Nep. Jhingani, Pate, Tegar

         Use: Juice of leaves is used to cure itches and scabies.

         Habitat: Forest, Syabru of Langtang Watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Ficus bengaalensis L. , Moraceae

         Nep. Bar

         Use: Bark power is used externally to cure scabies.

         Habitat: Forest and roadsides, Okarni of Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu district.

 

Ficus hispida L.f. , Moraceae

          Nep. Kharseto

          Use: Latex with mustard oil is used externally to cure cut, burn wounds and ulcers.

          Habitat: Roadsides, bushes and thickets, Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Ficus recemosa L. Moraceae

           Nep. Gular

           Use: Bark power is used externally in case of pimples, itches and scabies.

           Habitat: Forests, Kakani and Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Ficus religiosa L., Moraceae

           Nep. Pipal.

           Use: Green leaves are pounded in water and the juice applied to treat scabies,

           Habitat:  Roadsides, open places, villages, Mirmi of Kaligandaki Watershed.

 

Glochidion velutinum Wight, Euphorbiaceae

           Nep. Leti kath

           Use: Fruit is crushed and paste is applied for curing pimples.

          Habitat: Forest, Kakani of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Grewia hirsuta Vahl. Tiliaceae

          Nep. Phusre

          Use: Root paste is applied on pimples and  boils.

           Habitat: Forests, Kakani and Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Hedera nepalensis K. Koch., Araliaceae

           Nep. Pipal pate, Dudelo

           Use: Decoction of leaves is taken twice daily in case of urticaria.

           Habitat: Forest and Scrub, Syabru of Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Hibiscus rosa-sinsnsis L., Malvaceae

           Nep. Jappuspi, Barahmase

           Use: Leaf is crushed to paste and applied over boils.

           Habitat: Scrub, Chaubas, Okarni and Mulkhadka, Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu district.

 

Ipomea carnea Jacq.,  Convolvulaceae

           Nep. Jyanti

           Use: Leaf paste is applied to cure infections of skin between the toes.

           Habitat:  Forest, Syabru, Lamtang watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae

           Nep. Sajiwan.

           Use:  Latex of stem and  leaves with mustard oil is applied to cure  scabies and             

                    eczema.

           Habitat; Common along roadsides, cultuvated fields and wasteland, Mirmi  

                    and Beltari of Kaligandaki Watershed;  Kakani and Thansen of Tadi Likhu   

                    watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

 Kalanchoe spathulata DC.,  Crassulaceae

            Nep. Hathi kane

            Use: Stem and leaf are crushed together and applied over boils for hastening     

                    their bursting and healing.

            Habitat:  Forest, Syabru of Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall) Drude,  Ericaceae

            Nep. Angeri

            Use:  Fresh leaf past is applied externally on wounds and pimples.

            Habitat: Forests, Chaubas, Kathmandu District, Central Development Region; Kakani,  Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Maesa chisia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Myrsinaceae

           Nep. Bilauni

           Use: Plant juice is applied on the affected part in case of ringworm.

           Habitat: Forests, Okharni and Mulkhadka, Kathmandu District, Central Development Region; Kakani of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Magnifera indica L., Anacardaceae

           Nep.  Aamp.

           Use: Latex is applied to cure ulcers.

           Habitat: Forests, and edges of cultivated fields of Mirmi, Manawa, and Beltari of Kali Gandaki watershed.

 

Melia azedarach L., Meliaceae

            Nep. Bakanu

            Uses: Leaves are pounded and extract is then  applied in case of  carbuncle;  

                        bark and fruit paste is applied to cure leucoderma and wound.   

            Habitat: Edges of cultivated fields, Sundarijal, Kathmandu District, Central 

                    Development Region; Kakani, Nuwakot district; Forests, Mirmi of   

                    Kaligandaki watershed.

 

Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell,  Euphorbiaceae

           Nep. Sindhure, Rohini

           Use: Power from fruit is applied externally in case of itches and scabies

          Habitat: Forests and scrub, Talakhu and Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Mimosa  pudica L., Leguminosae

          Nep. Lajjawati, Lajauni

         Use: Root paste mixed with oil is applied to cure bruiles.

         Habitat: Grassy slopes  near  the Kali Gandaki river and  Beitari, Kali Gandaki watershed;  forests,  Okharni and Mulkhadka,  Kathmandu District,  Central  Development Region.

 

Mimosa rubicaulis Lam., Leguminosae

         Nep. Bokshi ghans

         Use: Leaves are pounded and the paste is applied over boils for hastening their     

                      bursting and healing.

         Habitat: Forests of Beitari, Kali Gandaki watershed.

 

Ocimum basilicum L., Labiatae

         Nep. Tulsi, Bam tulsi

         Use:  Leaf paste is applied to cure ulcers. leaf paste (1 teaspoon) is also taken    

                    orally twice daily to cure ulcers.

         Habitat: Open places, waste places, edge of cultivated fields, roadsides, Bote  

                  gaun, Mirmi and  Adhikhola of  Kaligandaki Watershed.

 

Osbeckia stellata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don.,  Melastomataceae

         Nep. Rato chulsi

         Use: Leaf paste is applied in case of cuts, wounds and scabies.

         Habitat: Open places, Likhu, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Phyllanthus embllica L., Euphorbiaceae

         Nep.   Amala

         Use:  Leaf power and oil mixed together and the paste is applied to cure burn  

                  wound.

         Habitat: Forests,  Kakani, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Pinaceae

         Nep. Rani Salla

         Use: Resin is applied externally to cure boils.

         Habitat: Forests, Chaubas of Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu district; Syabru of Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district; Kakani and  Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district. 

      

Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks, Pinaceae

         Nep. Gobre salla

         Use: resin is used to cure blisters and boils.

         Habitat: Forests, Likhu, Nuwakot district.

 

Plumbago zeylanica L.,  Plumbaginaceae

         Nep. Chitu.

         Use: Whole plant is crushed with a pinch of salt and the paste is applied  

                 externally in case of ringworm.

         Habitat: Sunny or partly shady places, Mirmi, Kali Gandaki watershed.    

                                           

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Berberidaceae

         Nep. Laghupatra, Ban bhanta

         Use: Fruit powder is used externally to cure burn wound.

         Habitat: Open and shady places, Chaubas of Bagmati watershed, Kathmandu  

                  District.

 

Prinsepia utilis Royal, Rosaceae

         Nep..Ghatelo, Bhekali

         Use: Fruits are crushed and the paste is applied on warts.

         Habitat: Forest, Okharni and Mulkhadka, Kathmandu District, Central 

                  Development Region.

 

Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae

         Nep. Amba, Amrood          

         Use: Leaf past is applied in case of itches

         Habitat: Forest, Thansen of Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Ricinus communis L. , Euphorbiaceae

         Nep. Ander, Andi

         Uses: seed paste is applied to treat skin cracks. Paste of leaves and flowers is       applied on leprotic wound.

         Habitats: Road-side, waste ground, Okharni and Mulkhadka, Kathmandu District,    

                  Central Development Region; Kakani and Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed,  

                   Nuwakot district.

 

Rumex nepalensis Spreng., Polygonaceae

         Nep. Halhale.

         Use:   Crushed root paste is  applied to cure eczema.

         Habitat: Moist and shady places, waste lands, Mirmi of Kaligandaki watershed;    

                  Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Schima wallichii (DC) Korth., Theaceae

         Nep. Chilaune

         Use: Bark decoction/ bark paste is applied to cure wounds.

         Habitat: Forests, Kakani, Nuwakot district.

 

Scurrula elata (Edgew) Danser, Loranthaceae

         Nep. Anjero

         Use: Fresh leaf paste is applied externally on pimples and wounds.

         Habitat: Likhu, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Shorea robusta Gaertn., Dipterocarpaceae

         Nep. Sal, Sakhuwa

         Use: Bark paste is used externally to cure cut, wound and ulcers.

         Habitat: Forests, Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Smilax aspera L., Liliaceae

         Nep. Chopchini

         Use: Tender vegetative parts are crushed to the paste and applied in case of  

                  scabies.

         Habitat: Forests, Syabru , Rasuwa district.

 

Tamarindus indica L., Leguminosae

         Nep. Tate amilo

         Use: Dry bark power mixed with oil is applied on burn wound, seed paste is  

                  applied externally to cure  scabies.

         Habitat: Forests, Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district.

 

Terminalia chebula Retz., Combretaceae

         Nep. Harro

         Use: The fruit is rubbed on a stone to obtain a paste which is applied over boils   

                  and also used to cure wound and ulcer.

         Habitat: Roadsides and forests, Mirmi, Syalbas and Beltari of Kaligandaki   

                 watershed.

 

Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr., Menispermaceae

         Nep. Gurjo, guruch latti

         Use: Root paste mixed with mustard oil is applied to cure pimple

         Habitat: Forest, Syabru, Langtang watershed, Rasuwa district.

 

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz., Lythraceae 

         Nep. Dhayaro

         Use: Stems are pounded and mixed with curd and applied to treat scabies.

         Habitat: Dry slopes, forests, Mirmi, Beltari and Setibeni,  Kaligandaki 

                 Watershed.

 

 

Discussion

The results of the present study revealed that wild plants and their parts are widely used for skin diseases in the study villages of the Kali Gandaki, Bagmati and Tadi Likhu watersheds. Local people have remarkable detailed knowledge of species identity and characteristics. However, when questioned about the changing status of medicinal plants, the villagers listed some important species such as Allium wallichii, Asparagus filicinus, Centella asiatica, Melia azaderach, Terminallia chebula and Zanthoxylum armatum, which have  declined in abundance during the last decade due to land use change, extensive grazing of domestic animals and over-exploitation of useful species. As more than 60 percent of plant species useful for skin diseases treatment appear to be restricted to shaded forest habitats in the forests, the anthropogenic unsustainable activities such as deforestation, habitat destruction, urbanization etc. may pose a serious threat to the species. Hence, priority should be given to the following three measures:

          1) Investigation related to taxonomy, chemical screening and documentation of the useful species and their habitats; 2) Initiation of conservation action works with appropriate measures involving local participation; and, 3) Implementation of awareness activities with integrated approach for sustainable development.

 

References

 

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