Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 546-58, 2010.

From �Vagabonds� to Ethnobotanical Relevance: Weeds of the Campus Sites of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria

 

M.O. Soladoye1, A.A. Osipitan1, M.A. Sonibare2, *, E.C. Chukwuma3

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Plant Science and Applied Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P. M. B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: sonibaredeola@yahoo.com

 

Issued April 1, 2010

 

Abstract

 

A survey of the weed flora of the campus sites of the Olabisi Onabanjo University was undertaken. Several visits were made to the disturbed and undisturbed vegetation of the sites for collection of weeds after which the weeds were prepared in accordance with conventional herbarium practice. A total of seventy-three (73) weed species belonging to twenty-seven (27) families were identified and found to be present within the area of study. The family Poaceae seems to have the highest number of weed species (twelve) available within the area followed by Asteraceae with ten (10) species. Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Euphorbiaceae are also in abundance. These weeds have been discovered to be useful, against the mindset of the uninformed that they are useless or �vagabond� plants. Medicinal uses as well as percentage occurrence of each family are presented. From this study it is obvious that the University sites are not only rich in plant biodiversity but that the plants are also very rich in socio-economic values. It is therefore advisable that these plants should be protected from going into extinction so that all would not be lost due to developmental activities.

Key words: Weeds, �Vagabonds�, Ethnobotany, Medicinal uses, Olabisi Onabanjo University.

Introduction

Weeds are literally everywhere which make them a perfect object to observe. The richest soil if uncultivated produces the rankest weeds. An uninformed mind regards weeds as plants growing where they are not wanted; they are undesirable and considered to be pests just as insects. Harper (1944) defined weed as a plant that grows spontaneously in a habitat that has been greatly modified by human actions. As opined by Thomas (1956), a weed is a useless, undesirable and often very unsightly plant of wild, usually found in land which has been cultivated or in areas developed by man for specific purposes other than cultivation. Other authors (Bunting, 1959; Baker, 1965; Harlan and De Wet, 1965; Aldrich, 1984) have also given different definitions of weed. However Akobundu (1987) suggested that a plant is a weed either because it interferes with human activity and/or welfare or because it occurs spontaneously in human disturbed habitats. From the above it can be deduced that a good number of people regard weeds as �vagabond� plants with no homes and no useful purpose and can therefore migrate from place to place in different ecological systems where they are not wanted! A plant taxonomist will however agree with the definition of weed as a plant whose virtues have not been discovered (Blatchley, 1912). It is in this light that the so called weeds of our University campus sites at Ago-Iwoye were studied.

Classification of weeds on the basis of where they are found (habitat) is widely used by agriculturists (Akobundu, 1987). This method of classification groups weed into upland (terrestrial) weeds, aquatic weeds, arable crop weeds, weeds of plantation crops etc. some weeds such as Chromolaena odorata (L) R. M. King & Robinson are classified as weeds of plantation crops while others such as Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Aspilia africana (Pers) C. D. Adams and Tridax procumbens Linn. are classified as weeds of arable crops.

Binomial system of nomenclature is also used for the scientific classification of weed as in all other plant species (Akobundu, 1987, Soladoye and Oyesiku, 2008). HoIm (1982) noted that two families account for nearly 40 percent of the world�s most troublesome weeds. Terrestrial weeds are 23 percent grasses, 69 percent broadleaves and only 6 percent sedges, 2 percent ferns and fern allies. Among the aquatic weeds, 60 percent of the water weeds are monocots, 30 percent are dicots and 10 percent are ferns. Families of major weeds in the World include Poaceae (Gramineae), Asteraceae (Compositae). Cyperaceae (Nutsedge), Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae (Akobundu, 1987).

King (1966) and Baker (1974) outlined some characteristics of weeds among which are: high productive capacity, harmfulness to humans, animal and crops, spontaneous growth appearing without being sown and aggressiveness to mention but a few. Similarly, Batra (1981) suggested that an �ideal weed� should have characteristics that include ugliness, no wildlife value, numerous and easily dispersed seeds, unpalatability, spininess, allergenicity, toxicity, rapid vegetative growth etc. However, there is no single weed species that possess all the above listed characteristics since weed species with prolific seed production potential usually lacks wellsdeveloped vegetative reproduction, so they cannot have the same or all the features of weeds (Johnson and Mullinix, 1998).

Weeds have several economic and medicinal values. They provide a vegetative cover that protects the soil surface against erosion action of rain and wind; they play an important role in nutrient recycling. Some weeds serve as hosts for beneficial insects at the same time provide nectar for bees, weeds add organic matter to the soil. Some weeds play important role as sources of drugs used in orthodox medicine, while others have been used locally for decades for several traditional medicinal purposes ranging from simple laxative to cure dysentery (Hill and Ramsay, 1977; Soladoye et al., 2006). Some examples of weeds that yield useful drug extracts for modern medicine include African vine (Strophantus gratus (Hook.) Franch - a source of the drug Strophantin which is used for heart disease and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm which yield antisickling agent called NIPRISAN (Lehane, 1977; Soladoye et al., 2006). It is known that more than 40, 000 species of tropical flowering plants have medicinal properties; this has made traditional medicine cheaper than modern medicine (Akpalu et al., 1994). Some plant decoctions are of great value in the treatment of diarrhea or gastrointestinal disorders, urinary tract infections, skin infections, infertility, wound and cutaneous abscesses (Meyer et al., 1996).

Weeds are also important source of pesticides. An example is Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trev.) Bocc, which provides the insecticide pyrethrum. The present study aims at identifying a number of weeds found in the two sites (Permanent site and Mini Campus) of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. This work also outlines the ethnobotanical importance of these weed species identified on the campus sites.

Materials and methods

The location, climate and vegetation of the study areas had been described in our earlier paper (Soladoye et al., 2005). Briefly, the Olabisi Onabanjo University campus situated in Ago-Iwoye falls within the equatorial belt of Nigeria at longitude 30� 55'' east of the Greenwich Meridian and latitude 6� 56'', north of the equator. Ago-Iwoye is about 7km from Oru and about 5km from Ijebu-Igbo, which are the two major towns in the Ijebu North Local Government area. The town is about 100km southeast of Abeokuta, the Ogun State capital (Master plan, 1985). The site lies to the south-western part of Ago-Iwoye approximately 35km from the centre of the town and is bounded on the north by Ijebu-Igbo/Oru/Ago-Iwoye/Ijesha-Ijebu/Ilishan road and on the east by Ago-Iwoye/Imodi-Imosan/Ijebu-Ode road. The perimeter roads are connected to Lagos-Benin expressway and the Ijebu-Ode/Ibadan road.

The tropical rain forest to which the vegetation of the campus belongs constitutes an evergreen plant community rich in trees, shrubs and herbs. The climate is characterized by high temperature and a bimodal rainfall pattern. The annual rainfall ranges from 1250 to 2190 mm beginning from mid-March to mid-November, with the peak in July and September. The mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures are about 20�C and 30�C respectively, while relative humidity is approximately 60% in the dry season and 90% in the rainy season.

The survey involved several visits to the campus sites for collection of samples. Specimens were collected across the undisturbed and disturbed vegetation of the sites. Care was taken to make sure that the entire, vigorously growing typical specimens of individuals representing almost all of the natural population was collected. Insect-damaged specimens were avoided likewise those rare or uncommon plants appearing to be the only plant of a species at a locality. In accordance with conventional herbarium practice, the samples were dried, poisoned and mounted on mounting sheets.

The poisoning was done with a mixture of mercuric chloride and phenol in 70 % methylated spirit. Identification of the specimens was done by the senior author and confirmed by experts by comparison with herbarium specimens in both Elikaf herbarium of the Olabisi Onabanjo University (not listed in Holmgren and Keuken 1974) and the Forest Herbarium, Ibadan (FHI). The field note which indicates the collectors name, date and place of collection, determinavit, habit, name and description of specimen was also attached to each of the mounting sheets on which the specimens were mounted. All voucher specimens were deposited at the Elikaf herbarium.

Results and Discussion

From the survey, a total of seventy-three (73) weed species (Table 1) belonging to twenty-seven (27) families were identified as constituting the major part of the weed vegetation of both sites. The family Poaceae has the largest number of species (twelve) followed by Asteraceae (ten). Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae both have seven species each while Euphorbiaceae has six (Table 2). The dominance or superiority of the Poaceae and Asteraceae could be due to several climatic and environmental conditions as well as the soil type. It could also be as a result of seed dispersal mechanism of the members of the families. Figure 1 shows the Bar chart representing the number of species belonging to each family and Figure 2 shows the Pie chart which represents the percentage occurrence of the families to which the species belong. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Phyllanthus amarus Schum, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken, Gomphrena celosioides Mart, Cyperus esculentus Linn, Heliotropium indicum Linn, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv, Momordica charantia Linn, Talinum triangulare (Jacq) Willd, Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less and Thom Aspilia africana (Pers.) C.D. Adams were found in almost all areas of the sites. This supports the fact that weeds are notorious and inevitable in all vegetation types (Soladoye et al., 2005).

The weeds studied have rapid growth and cover extensive areas. They grow in mass when they have been controlled by weeding, showing the degree of aggressiveness of the weed. These weeds are ruder weeds as described by Holzner (1982). These weeds are weeds of disturbed non-crop areas such as rubbish heaps, landfills, path and roads, compost heaps and drainage. From the present study, weed persistence is affected by climatic, soil and biotic factors. These weeds are observed to persist because animals like goats do not graze on them. The climatic condition is also observed to be conducive as the weed, that need rain to grow, get enough at appropriate time while the ones that require dry season are also favoured during dry season. The major factor that is observed to affect their persistence is man in the course of maintaining a clean and neat surrounding but the weeds still sprout in places where they cannot be controlled easily.

These weeds generally provide vegetative cover to protect the soil surface against water and wind erosion. In addition to their agricultural uses, many weeds, such as Alternanthera sessilis, Acalypha fimbriata, and Mariscus flabelliformis have medicinal properties and are used extensively in homeopathic and naturopathic medicine. As seen in Table 1, the weeds have their respective medicinal/ economical uses. The leaves and fruits of Momordica charantia Linn are used as an anthelmintic and a purgative (Adesina et al., 1995). Chenopodium ambrosiodes Linn when fresh is used as anthelmintic and ascaricide. It is also used for hookworm and in veterinary.Boerhaavia diffusa L have also been used to treat convulsions and as a mild laxative and febrifuge. The roots and leaves have an expectorant action and the roots are applied as a poultice to draw abscesses and to encourage the extraction of guinea worms (Adesina et al., 1995).

Many published reports have also shown the effectiveness of traditional herbs including weeds against microorganisms; as a result, plants are the bedrock for modern medicine to attain new principle (Evans et al., 2002). In this regard, plants have given western pharmacopoeia about 7,000 different pharmaceutically important compounds and a number of top-selling drugs of modern time e.g. quinine, artemisinin, taxol, etc (Odugbemi 2008). It is therefore important to note that there is the urgent need to preserve the genetic diversity of all plant resources of known and unknown economic importance (including weeds) which will guarantee the availability of all potentials for use for the benefit of our children and grandchildren (Olowokudejo 1987).

Gbile et al. (1981, 1984) revealed that about four hundred and eighty plant species of the Nigerian flora have been described as endangered or rare, out of which many of these are being studied at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan. Oguntala (1993) noted clearly that, apart from the gradual loss of biodiversity, the devastating environmental disasters in urban and rural areas of Nigeria indicate that these environments are under stress and require urgent intervention. Lack of conservation measures will amount to an increase in the number of endangered species and this will ultimately result in extinction, which is the gradual but sure elimination of taxa (Allaby, 1998).

In the light of the ethnobotanical, ecological, and other socio-economic importance of these weeds it will be inappropriate to consider this group of plants as �vagabonds�. However, weeds have also been known to cause several damages to crops, reduce quality of harvested agricultural products and impede water flow in irrigated canals.

 

References

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Akobundu, I.O. (1987). Weed Science in the Tropics: Principles and practices. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 522.

Akpalu, I.N., Dada, J. D., Odama, E. L., and Galadima H. (1994). Antibacterial activity of aqeous extracts of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Nigerian Journal of Botany I7, 45-48.

Aldrich, R.J., (1984). Weed-Crop Ecology: Principles in Weed Management. Breton Publishers, North Scituate, pp. 465.

Allaby, M. (1998). Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Baker, H.G. (1965). Characteristics and modes of origins of weeds. Pp. 147-172. In: Baker, H.G., Stebbins, G.L. (Eds.), The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press. New York,

Baker, H.G. (1974). The Evolution of Weeds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5, 1-24.

Batra, S.W.T. (1981). Biological Control of Weeds. Principles and Prospects. Pp. 45-49. In: Papavizas, G. (Ed.), Biological Control in Crop Production, BARC Symposium, Totowa, New Jersey,

Blatchley, W.S. (1912). The Indiana Weed Book. Nature Publishing Conpany, Indianapolis, Indiana. U.S.A., pp. 191.

Bunting, A.H. (1959). Some reflections on the ecology of weeds. In: Harper, J.L. (Ed), The Biology of Weeds, Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Evans, C.E., Banso, A. and Samuel, O.A. (2002). Efficacy of Some Nine Medicinal Plants against Salmonella typhi: an in-vitro Study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80, 21-24.

Gbile, Z.O, Ola-Adams, B.A., Soladoye, M. O. (1981). Endangered Species of the Nigerian Flora. Nigerian Journal of Forestry 8 (1), 14-20.

Gbile, Z.O., Ola-Adams, B.A. and Soladoye, M. O. (1984). List of Rare Species of the Nigerian flora. Research paper Forest Series No 47, FRIN, Ibadan.

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Harper, R.M., 1944. Preliminary report on the weeds of Alabama. Alabama University, Alabama, Bulletin of Geological Survey 53, 275.

Hill, B.S. and Ramsay, J. (1977). Weeds as Indicators of Soil Conditions. Ecological Agricultural Projects Publication 67.

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Holmgren, P.K. and Keuken, W. (1974). Index herbariorum. Part I, ed. 6. Regnum Vegetabile 92, 1-397.

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King, L.J. (1966). Weeds of the World: Biology and Control, Interscience Publishers, New York, pp. 526.

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Soladoye, M.O., Sonibare, M.A., Nadi, A.O. and Alabi, D.A. (2005). Indigenous Angiosperm biodiversity of Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site. African Journal of Biotechnology4 (5), 554-562.

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Table 1. Alphabetical list of weeds collected from the area of study with their medicinal/other uses.

S/N

Botanical name

Family

Common name

Local name

Medicinal and other uses

1.

Acalypha fimbriata Schum & Thonn

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha

Jinwinini

Ulcer, rheumatism, asthma, syphilis and antifungal infections.

2.

Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Asteraceae

Billy goat-weed

Imi-esu

Wounds, ulcer, digestive disturbance. Concoction of the leaves is also used as tonic.

3.

Alchornea cordifolia (Schum & Thonn)

Euphobiaceae

Chrismas bush

Ipa, esinsin, eepa

Fever, rheumatism, antimicrobial, diuretic, purgative, toothache

4.

Alternanthera pungens H.B. & K

Amaranthaceae

Khaki weed

Saje/ ewe owo

Whole plant pounded and leaf sap used for medicinal purposes

5.

Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) DC

Amaranthaceae

Sessile joy-weed

Saje/ewe owo

Leaf sap used for medicinal urposes.

6.

Amaranthus hybridus Linn.

Amaranthaceae

Smooth pigweed

Tete-oyinbo

Rich in diuretic properties

7.

Amaranthus spinosus Linn

Amaranthaceae

Thorn pigweed

Tete-elegun

Leaves are edible and are a good nutritional values

8.

Amaranthus viridis Linn.

Amaranthaceae

Pig weed

Tete, atetedaye

Used for dysentery, diuretic, gonorrhea and eye diseases

9.

Andropogon tectorum Schum and Thonn

Poaceae

Giant bluestem

Eruwa-dudu

Have potential as a source of honeybees.

10.

Aspilia africana (Per) C.D Adams

Asteraceae

Haemorrhage plant

Yunyun

Stomach disorders, guinea worms, gonorrhea, tuberculosis

11.

Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv.

Poaceae

Broadleaf carpet grass

Idi

It�s useful as a grass for lawn/malaria fever, breast swelling

12.

Bidens pilosa Linn.

Asteraceae

Black jar Spanish needle

Abere Oloko

Diarrhea, abdominal disorders, rheumatism

13.

Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

Nyctaginaceae

Hogweed

Etiponla

Leaf-sap instilled into the eye for conjunctivitis.

14.

Boerhavia erecta Linn.

Nyctaginaceae

Hogweed

Etiponla

Plant infusion used as mild laxative.

15.

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

Crassulaceae

Resurrection plant

Abamoda

Leaf sap used as diuretic and antemetic

16.

Celosia trigyna C.C. Townsend

Amaranthaceae

Celosia

Ajefawo, Ajitan

Chest pains, Anthelmintics, diuretic

17.

Chloris pilosa Schum.

Poaceae

Finger grass

Eeran

Forage and pasturage

18.

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M King & Robinson

Asteraceae

Siam weed

Akintola, Awolowo

Dysentery, malaria fever, leaf sap used for blood clothing.

19.

Cleome viscose Linn

Capparaceae

Consumption weed

Ekuya

Leaves used as counter �irritant for headache

20.

Cnestis ferruginea Linn.

Connaraceae

Shortpod, Alum plant

Akaraaje, Omu-aja, elemesan

Use as an antidote for Snake bite, eye drops, migraine, gonorrhea

21.

Combretum hispidum Laws.

Combretaceae

Bush willow

Okan

Black tongue, appetizer, weakness, anti pyretic.

22.

Commelina diffusa Burm. F

Commelinaceae

Spreading day
flower

Godogbodo, Itopere

Yellow fever, oedema, sore, boils, pregnancy promotion

23.

Commelina erecta Linn.

Commelinaceae

Wandering Jew

Godobgo

Feeds for horse.

24.

Conyza sumatrensis Retz walker

Asteraceae

Fleabane/conyza

Olowojeja

Antipyretic, asthma, tuberculosis

25.

Cyperus esculentus Linn.

Cyperaceae

Yellow nutsedge

Ofio, Omu

The whole plant is used to induce menstrual disorders, vomiting, diuretic,

26.

Cyperus rotundus Linn.

Cyperaceae

Purple nutsedge

Abo Keregun

Tuber is edible and occasionally eaten. Roots arearomatic

27.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Linn.) P. Beauv

Poaceae

Crow foot-grass

-

It is used as cover crop.

28.

Diodia sarmentosa Sw.

Rubiaceae

-

Dasa

Taken with pepper and salt for dysentery

29.

Eleusine indica Gaertn.

Poaceae

Wire grass

Ese-kannakanna

Venereal diseases, haemoptysis, antipyretic

30.

Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don

Asteraceae

Yellow tassel flower

Odundun owo

Leaves have mild laxative properties.

31.

Emilia praetermissa Milne-Redh

Asteraceae

-

-

Eaten as Spinach

32.

Eragrostis tremula   Hochst. ex Steud.

Poaceae

Feathery lovegrass

Ariran

Used to improve memory

33.

Euphorbia heterophylla Linn.

Euphorbiaceae

Spurge weed

Emile

Cultivated as ornamentals.

34.

Euphorbia hirta Linn.

Euphorbiaceae

Garden spurge

Emile

Plant induce mammary development and milk secretion

35.

Ficus exasperata Vahl.

Moraceae

Sand paper leaf

Epin

Scabies, gonorrhea, urinary ailments, antipyretic.

36.

Gomphrena celosioides Mart

Amaranthaceae

Gomphrena

Ipopo ale

Good for yarning, Laxative

37.

Heliotropium indicum Linn

Boraginaceae

Indian Heliotrope

Agogo-igun

Convulsion, anticancer, worms, mouth wash

38.

Hyptis lanceolata Poir

Labiatae

Hyptis

Jogbo

Fever, malaria, carminative, insect repellant, laxative

39.

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv

Poaceae

Spear grass

-

Astringent, febrifuge, diuretic, tonic and styptic action

40.

Ipomoea involucrata P. Beauv

Convolvulaceae

Morning glory

Ododo-oko

Asthma, antipyretic, gynaecological diseases, gonorrhea, arthritis.

41.

Ipomoea triloba Linn.

Convolvulaceae

Morning glory

-

Convulsions, purgative, asthma, gonorrhea, arthritis

42.

Kyllinga erecta Schumach Var

Cyperaceae

-

-

Used for cover crop

43.

Laportea aestuans(Linn.)

Urticaceae

Tropical nettle weed

Fiya-Fiya

Boiled leaf taken to cure constipation.

44.

Leptochloa caerulescens Steud.

Poaceae

-

Kupuruku

Cover crop

45.

Ludwigia decurrens Walt.

Onagraceae

Water primrose

Ako ewuro odo

Leaf-infusion is laxative.

46.

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven

Onagraceae

Primrose willow

Ako ewuro odo

Leaf-infusion is laxative.

47.

Luffa cylindrica (Linn.) M.J Roem

Cucurbitaceae

Loofahgourd

Kankan Oyinbo

Fruit is a source of vegetable sponge.

48.

Manniophyton fulvum Mull.-Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

Fulvum

-

Heart problems, insanity, leprosy, ear treatments

49.

Mariscus alternifolius Vahl.

Cyperaceae

Mariscus

Alubosa eranko, Ikeregun

Gonorrhea, rhizome is aromatic; edible after cooking

50.

Mariscus flabelliformis Kunth

Cyperaceae

-

Abo Keregun

Root is aromatic

51.

Mariscus umbellatus Vahl.

Cyperaceae

-

Alubosa eranko

Rhizome is aromatic, edible after cooking

52.

Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC

Rubiaceae

Botton grass

Irawo ile

Used against stomach complaints.

53.

Momordica charantia Linn

Cucurbitaceae

African cucumber

Ejinrin

Fruit infusion in oil applied to burns.

54.

Paspalum scrobiculatumLinn.

Poaceae

Koda millet

-

Cover Crop

55.

Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin

Poaceae

Matting grass

Esu

Grass provides good forage for cattle.

56.

Peperomia pellucida (L.) B. B &K

Piperaceae

Cow foot

Rinrin

Mental disorders, leaf also applied to cancer of the breast.

57.

Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thom

Euphorbiaceae

Phyllanthus plant

Eyin Olobe

Leaf infusion used for hemorrhoids.

58.

Physalis angulata Linn.

Solanaceae

Wildcape, gooseberry

Koropo

Infetility, diarrheoa, asthma, fever, rheumatism

59.

Ptatostoma africanum P.Beauv

Labiatae

-

Efinrin

Treatment of fever

60.

Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth

Poaceae

Bristle

-

Antipyretic, haemostatic

61.

Setaria Iongiseta P. Beauv.

Poaceae

-

Ase-olongo

Mental disorders, venereal diseases

62.

Sida acuta Burm. F.

Malvaceae

Broom weed

Osepotu

Leaf infusion taken for catarrh, dysentery and nephritis.

63.

Solenostemon monostachys
(P. Beauv) Brig

Labiatae

Catrip

Aranpolo

Tuberculosis, stomach ache, convulsion.

64.

Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. F.

Rubiaceae

Ocymoides plant

 

Cover crop

65.

Spigelia anthelmia Linn.

Loganiaceae

Worm wood

Aparan

Intestinal worms, convulsions

66.

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L.C.Rich) Schau.

Vebenaceae

Rat tail verveine

Agog-Igun

Fever and stomach ache.

67.

Synedrella nodiflora Gaetn

Asteraceae

Node weed

Ewe popo

Infusion of leaves drunk as laxative.

68.

Talinum triangulare (Jacq) Willd.

Portulacaceae

Waterleaf

Gbure

Weak infusion taken as a diuretic and vegetables.

69.

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.

Ficoidaceae

Horse purslane

Akisan

Dropsy Gonorrhea diuretic

70.

Tridax procumbens Linn.

Asteraceae

Tridax

Igbalode/Kodele yin

Green feed for poultry.

71.

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq

Tiliaceae

Chinese bar

-

Cover crop

72.

Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less.

Asteraceae

Little Iron-weed

Bojure

Leaves are used as vegetables in soup.

73.

Waltheria indicaLinn.

Cyperaceae

Sleeping morning

Ewe-epo

Cough. fever, external hemorrhage, toothache

 

Table 2. Distribution of the families showing their percentage occurrence.

Family

No. of Species

% occurrence

Amaranthaceae

7

9.6

Asteraceae

10

13.7

Boraginaceae

1

1.4

Capparaceae

1

1.4

Combretaceae

1

1.4

Commelinaceae

2

2.7

Connaraceae

1

1.4

Convolvulaceae

2

2.7

Crassulaceae

1

1.4

Cucurbitaceae

2

2.7

Cyperaceae

7

9.6

Euphorbiaceae

6

8.2

Ficoidaceae

1

1.4

Labiatae

3

4.1

Loganiaceae

1

1.4

Malvaceae

1

1.4

Moraceae

1

1.4

Nyctaginaceae

2

2.7

Onagraceae

2

2.7

Piperaceae

1

1.4

Poaceae

12

16.4

Portulacaceae

1

1.4

Rubiaceae

3

4.1

Solanaceae

1

1.4

Tiliaceae

1

1.4

Urticaceae

1

1.4

Verbenaceae

1

1.4

full index.jpg

Fig. 1. Bar chart showing the no. of species belonging to each family.

Fig. 2. Pie chart showing the percentage family occurrence of the weeds.