Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 651-64, 2009.

 

 

 

Plant diversity and Ethnobotanical notes on tree species of Syabru Village, Langtang National Park,Nepal

 

Ananda Raj Joshi and Kunjani Joshi*

 

Former Director General, SACEP, Colombo, Sri Lanka

*Department of Botany, Patan Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Email: joshi_ananda@yahoo.com; kunjanijoshi@hotmail.com

 

 

Issued May 01, 2009

 

Abstract

In the course of the survey of the useful plants of Nepal, 25 tree species belonging to 20 generarepresenting 17 families have beendocumentedwith their indigenous uses from the Syabruvillage and adjoining areas of the Langtang National Park, Nepal. At present, these useful plantsand their habitats are under serious threat due to anthropogenic pressure. In this paper, an attempthas been made to enumerate these plants with their present status and local traditional knowledgeas well as practices and to recommend some strategies for integrated management of the usefulspecies and their habitats.������������

 

Keywords: Plant biodiversity, ethnobotanical uses, indigenous knowledge, habitats.

 

Introduction

In the recent years, more attention is given to sustainable use and integrated management of theeconomically important species due to an increasing recognition of their contribution to fulfillbasic needs of the people, household economies, food security and conservation of naturalresources. In Nepal, the rural communities relay heavily on plant biodiversity for their primaryhealthcare and daily requirement of food and rawmaterials. However, at present, most ofecosystems with useful species are under threat due to habitat distruction, unsustainableharvesting and over-exploitation. It is now realized that priority should be given to thedocumentation and conservation of the existing species and habitats before some of these areeliminated from the area, or before the inhabitants shift over to modern life style. In this context,�� some sporadic works have already done to collect ethnobotanical data and traditional knowledgesystems (Joshi and Edington, 1990; Joshi, 1991; Bhattarai, 1992; Joshi and Joshi, 2000; 2005;Manandhar, 2002; Joshi et al., 2003 Siwakoti, et al., 2005). But the vast store of ethno-botanicalwealth of the present study areas has not been comprehensively documented. In this background,present study was devised to document the trees with their indigenous uses and practices.

 

Study Areas and Methods

After reconnaissance of some villages of the Central Development Region, Syabru village ofLangtang National Park was selected for the ethnobotanical study. This village has enjoyed somemeasures of environmental protection and lie on trekking routes. The major physical and socio-economic characteristic features are given in Table 1.

Table 1.Physical and Socio-economic characteristic features.

 

Location

 

85022� E

28009�N

Land forms

Slopy to steep terrain

Altitude (m)

500-2600

Geology

Biotite-Garnet,-gneiss,Schist,Garnet,Gritty hyllite, Limestones,

Auge gneiss

 

Precipitation (mm)

2165

Major river

Langtang

Vegetation

Mixed pine/broad

leafed����� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Forest and pine forest

 

Population

351

No. ofhouseholds

61

Tribal affiliation

Tamang

Occupation

Agriculture and livestock rearing

 

Several field trips in and around the study areas were undertakenwith a view to collect plantspecies of ethnobotanical value and document the indigenous practices. The information wasgathered using various techniques such as open and structured interview, and discussion withlocal informants, such traditional healers / �jhankri�, and experienced village elders includingmidwives and by direct observations on the way different plant materials were being collectedand used (Joshi and Edington, 1990). Voucher specimens are deposited in the SchEMS, PokharaUniversity, Kathmandu, Nepal.

�����

Results and Dicussion

Plant Biodiversity

The study areas are endowed with rich and varied biodiversity with various ecosystems i.e.forest, scrub, grassland, waterbodies etc. Diverse geomorphology, climatic variations andvegetation have made the forests and adjoining areas flourish with diverse species. The foresttypes of Syabru and the adjoining areas is charecterized by pine forest, alder forest and pine- broad leaved forest. Pine (Pinus wallichiina) is an important dominant tree in the pine forests andpine�broad leaved forests with other associated species i.e. Alnus nepalensis, Lyonia ovalifolia,Quercus spp., Rhododendron arboreum, Pyrus pashia, Princepia utilis, Berbaris asiatica,Mahonia nepalensis, Artemisia indica. In Alder forest Alnus nepalensis, Quercus lanata, Lyoniaovalifolia, Rhododendron arboreum, Princepia utilis are dominant trees with some shrubs i.e.Mahonia nepalensis, Dodecadenia grandiflora, Berberis chitria, Buddleja asiatica, Viburnumcylindricum, Gauitheria fragrantissima and some herbs, such as Achyranthes bidentata, Alliumwallichii, Artemisia indica, Cannabis sativa (Table 2). Species composition of trees in the foresttypes and production of wood in the forest areas are presented in Table2 and 3 respectively.

Table2. Dominent species composition of trees in Syabru.

 

Forest types and species

Basal area m/ha

Density No./ha

IVI

Pine forest

 

 

 

Pinus wallichiina

15

140

262.7

Lyonia ovalifolia

0.2

8

13.8

Pyrus pashia

0.1

4

10.8

Rhododendron arboretum

0.04

4

10.5

Total

15.34

156

 

Alder Forest

 

 

 

Stumps (Alnus nepalensis)

2.2

132

61.6

Quercus lanata

5.6

32

60.0

Lyonia ovalifolia

1.7

60

52.8

Alnus nepalensis

2.8

68

48.8

Rhododendron arboretum����

1.7

28

28.5

Mahonia napaulensis

0.1

4

28.3

Pinus wallichina

1.0

28

21.7

Princepia utilis

0.05

16

12.5

Dodecadenia grandiflora

0.01

16

9.6

Total

15.16

384

 

Pine/ broad-leaved forest

 

 

 

Lyonia ovalifolia

3.1

93

80

Rhododendron arboretum

2.4

57

63

Pinus wallichina

2.6

57

59

Quercus lanata

1.0

20

35

Berberis asiatica

0.3

20

18.4

Quercus semecarpifolia

0.5

16

13.7

Princepia utilis

0.4

12

12.1

Pyrus pashia

0.2

8

8.0

Palere (unidentified)

0.1

8

5.3

Alnus nepalensis

0.1

8

5.0

Dodecadenia grandiflora

0.04

3.2

3.3

Mahonia nepaulensis

.002

3.2

3.0

Total

10.7

305.4

 

 

Table 3. Production of wood in the forest areas of Syabru.

Tree (.10cm diam)

Forest type

Number of trees/ha

Mean diam. (cm.)

Mean hight (m)

Mean standing crop (m/ha)

Mean age (yr)

Mean product. (m/annum/ha)

Forest area (ha)

Total product (m/ annum)

Total product (t/annum)

Pine forest

156

31.8

17.9

182.4

31

5.9

122

719.8

669.4

Alder forest

384

19.5

5.5

87.7

28

3.1

56

173.6

161.4

Pine / broad leavedforest

307

18.8

6.0

45.1

31

1.4

122

170.8

158.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.4

 

1064.2

989.6

 

Shrubs (<10cm diam.)

Forest type

Number ofshrubs /ha clumps/ha

Mean no. of sprouts / clump

Mean sprout diam.(cm)

Mean stoot length(m)

Mean standing crop (m/ha)

Mean age (yr)

Mean product (m/annum/ha)

Forest area (ha)

Total product (m/ annum

Total productivity (t/annum)

Pine forest

3600

4.1

3.9

1.4

3.0

9

0.33

122

40.3

37.4

Alder forest

3000

6.6

2.4

1.2

0.81

5

0.16

56

8.9

8.3

Pine/broad leaved forest

2914

4.5

2.9

1.4

1.35

8

0.17

122

20.7

19.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.66

 

69.9

65

 

 

The wood productivity estimates obtained at Syabru (11.06 m/ha/annum) fallwithin the range10-30m quoted by Joshi (1988) for forests in the hills of Nepal (Table 3). The fact that thevillage estimates are at the lower end of this range is probably related to substantial reduction inforest cover caused by over-exploitation.

 

Ethnobotanical uses

During the field survey, ethnobotanical information of 25 species of medicinal plants belongingto 17 families have been collected from various habitats of the study areas. Table 4 lists theplants recorded as being used in Syabru village and adjoining areas. The species are arrangedalphabetically withfamily, local names, habitat and uses.

����������������������

Table 4. Ethnobotanical uses of the trees of Syabru.

 

 

Species and Family

Nepali name

Habitat

Parts used and Uses

Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Mirbel

Pinaceae

Talispatra

Forest

--- Decoctionof leaves is taken for cough and bronchitis.

--- Woodis used as firewood, and

raw materials for�� houseframes,

furnitures, doorframes etc.

 

 

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Rutaceae

 

Bel

 

Forest,

 

--- Decoction of leaves is taken to cure

diabetes; fruit juice is drunk every

morning on an empty stomach

for stomach ache and gastric problems;

decoction of leaves isused in

dysentery anddyspepsia; young fruit is

crushed with a piece of turmeric which

is applied to cure ulcers.

--- Fresh pulp of the ripe fruit is taken as sarbat (the local cold drink).

 

 

Alnus nepalensis D. Don

Betulaceae

 

Uttis

 

Exposed slopes, riversides,

Forest

 

--- Bark orfresh leaves are pounded and

paste appliedexternally to cuts and

wounds.

--- Wood isused as firewood andfor construction, houseframes, fencing, furnitures.

--- Leaves are used as fodder.

--- Twings are used in mulching or in making greenmanure.

Benthamidia capitata (Wallich)

H. Hara

Cornaceae

 

Dimmar

Forest

Ripe fruits are eaten and are also used

for preserved.

 

Bombax ceiba L.

Bombacaceae���������

Simal

 

 

--- Stem is used as firewood.

--- wood is used for construction and as rawmaterialsfor furnitures..

--- Root paste is applied externally in

case of pimples.

 

Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq.

Fagaceae

 

Dhale katus

 

Forest,

 

--- Leaves are used as fodder.

--- Cotyledons of the fruitare consumed as well as used to sell in markets

--- Wood is used for fuel and home

frames, window, shutters, beds, tables,

stools etc.

 

 

Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm) A. DC

Fagaceae

 

Musure katus

 

Forest,

 

--- Bark paste is applied to cure snake

bites.

---Wood is used as firewood and for

construction purposes i.e. home

frames, windows, shutters.

--- Dried cotyledons of the fruit are

eaten and used to sell in market.

---Leaves are used as fodder

 

Ficus benghalensis L.

Moraceae

 

Bar

 

Roadsides,

 

 

---Ripe receptacles are eaten

by village children.

--- Leaf power is applied against gum

swelling till cure teeth; latex as

medicine for treatment ofgenitial

diseases; bark power is used externally to cure scabies.

--- Leaves are used as fodder

 

 

Ficus religiosa L.

Moraceae

 

Papal

 

Roadsides

 

---Barkis chewed to treat stomach pain; latexisapplied in theinfected areas to treat scabies; fruits are eaten for asthema; decoction of stem bark is used as mouth washtoremove the foul smell of breathing

--- Leaves are used as fodder

 

Lindera pulcherrima (Nees) Benth. ex Hook. f.

Lauraceae

Phusure

Forest

---Ripe fruits are eaten without seeds.

---Leaves are used as fodder

 

Lyonia Ovalifolia (Wall) Drude

Ericaceae

 

Angeri

Forest

---Infusion of young leaves applied for

skin diseases.

----Leaves are used as insect repellent;

---- Young leaves are used for fish

poisoning

--- Wood is used as raw materialsfor

house frames, doors, bed etc.

---Plant is used for fenceing

--- Leaves are used as fodder

 

Melia azedarach L.

Meliaceae

 

Bakaino

 

Cultivated field,scrub, forest

 

--- Leaves are used as as fodder

---Dried fruits, stem, bark and leaves

arelargelyemployed toprotect

woolen fabrics from insect attacks.

--- Fruits are used as fish poison.

--- Wood is used as firewood and for

construction i.e.�� house frames, doors,

bed etc.

--- Wood is also used to make the

handles ofagriculturaltools

----leaves are pounded and extract is

then applied to treat skin disease; fruits

are used as antihelmintic;

 

 

Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Myricaceae

 

Kaphal

 

Forest, cultivated fields

 

---Ripe fruits are eaten and also used to

sell in market.

---Wood is used for fuel

---leaves are used as fodder

--- decoction of bark is drunk to cure

dysentry; steambark is decoctedand

then decoction is drunk to treatbronchitis;������

�����������������

Myrsine capitellata Wall

Myrsinaceae

 

Seti kath

Forest

--- Ripe fruits are eaten.

---Wood is used as firewood and for

construction i.e.house frames, doors,

bed etc.

---Leaves are used as fodder

 

Myrsine semiserrata wall.

Myrsinaceae

 

Kali

Kath

Forest

---Fruits are eaten.

--- Wood and twigs are used as fuel

.---Leaves are used as fodder

 

Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks

Pinaceae

Gobre sallo

 

 

Forest

--- Resinisused as rawmaterial for

soap, waxes;

--- Wood is used for fuel and for making

Windows,shutters, doors,house

frames, and furnitures.

--- Resin is used to cure blisters and boils

Prinsepia utilis Royle

Rosaceae

Dhatelo

Dry slopes& shady places, forests

---Paste of fruit is applied on warts

---Fruits are eaten by children

--- Plant is used for making fence;

--- Oil from seeds are usedfor lighting;

--- Wood is used as firewood

Prunus napaulensis(Seringe) Steudel

Rosaceae

Jungali

aaru

 

Forests, scrub

--- Fruits are eaten without seeds

--- Wood is used asfirewood and for

construction i.e. house frames, doors, bed etc

 

 

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Rosaceae

 

Mayal

 

Open andshady places, forest,

 

--- Ripe fruits are eaten.

--- Fruit juice is takento cure dysentery.

--- leaves and twigs are lopped for fodder���������������������

--- Wood is used as fuelwood

--- Twings are used for agricultural tools

 

Quercus glauca Thunb

Fagaceae

Phalat

Forest

--- Wood is mainly used for fueland

construction.

--- leaves as fodder

 

 

Quercus lanata Smith

Fagaceae

Baanjh

Forest

--- Wood is usedfor house frames,

poles, furniture and other construction;

--- wood isused for fuel

--- Leaves as fodder

 

Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.

Fagaceae

 

Khasru

 

Forest,

 

--- Stump is used for making charcoal;

--- leaves are lopped for fodder

---Wood is used as fuel and timber. It is commonly used for construction i.e.

house frames and furniture

 

Rhododendron arboreum Smith

Ericaceae

Laligurans

Forest,

--- Flowers areeaten raw by the

children

--- paste of young leaves applied to the

forehead for headaches; flowers are

chewed to cure dysentery���

---Wood is extensively used asfuel

wood; it makes excellent charcoal;

--- immature leaves are used as fish

poison;

--- wood is also used to prepare

household utensils.

--- Leaves are used as fodder

Salix babylonica L.

Salicaceae

 

Bains, Tissi

Riverside, forest

--- Leaves are used as fodder

--- Wood is used as fuelwood

 

Schima wallichii (DC) Korth.

Theaceae

Chilaune

Forest

--- Leaves are used as fodder and

making compost

--- Bark is used for dyeing

--- Bark power is taken with water for

the treatment of gastritis; bark paste is

applied to cure wounds.

--- Pounded bark and fruits are

employed tostupefy fish.

---Wood is used as timber for

construction i.e. home frames, window

shutters, doors;

--- wood is used for fuel.

 

 

The results of the present study revealed that trees and their partsare widely usedfor variouspurposes asfuelwood, timber, medicines, rawmaterials etc.

 

Fuelwood

In the study village, wood cut from the forest is the principal source of domestic energy forcooking and heating.The preferred species for fuel wood by local people are given in Table 5.

 

Table 5. Fuelwood preferences expressed by respondents fron 24 househols at Syabru.

Species

�������������� Cited by

Alnus nepalensis, Bombax cebia,

Pinus wallichiana, Quercus

lanata,Rhododendron arboreum

> 75% of respondents

Quercus glauca, Quercus semecarpifolia

50-75 % of respondents

Abies spectabilis, Castanopsis indica,

Castanopsis tribuloides, Lingustrium confusum,

Myrica esculenta, , Prinsepia utilis, Prunus nepalensis,

Pyrus pashia, Salix babylonica,

Salix babylonica,

25-50% of respondents

Rhus wallichii

>25% of respondents

 

Fuelwood Consumption Patterns in the study area are as follows:

(a)           fuelwood used by village residents

(b)          fuelwood used by tourist trekkers or on their behalf (e.g. where teahouse provide foodandregreshments)

(c)           fuelwood cut on the village land by outsiders who subsequently export it for consumptionelsewhere.

 

Estimate for the annual consumption of fuelwood from the study village is set out in Table6. Itwill be seen that the trekkers use greater fuelwood (22 metric tons/annum) due to Syabru is aovernight stoping place for treeker between national park and Dhuche (Joshi, 1988). The otherfeature to notice is that wood was also being harvested on village land by people who had comein from surrounding villages and were subsequently carrying loadsof wood from Syabru (18metric tons/annum)out of the area.

 

Table 6. Wood production and consumption forSyabru village (value

expressed as mt/ per year).

 

Production

10 cm diam.

989.5

 

10 cm diam

65.0

Consumption

Consumption by Village residents

180.0

 

Consumption by collection from other villages

18.0

 

Consumption by trekkers

22.0

 

 

The most striking feature of the relationship between wood production and consumption is theexcess of consumption over production in the small wood categorythe both villages. Smallwood includes the branches of trees and shrubs, the truks of small wood probably has a varietybof causes. It can be easily cut using the traditional nepali tools i.e. khurpi or Knief, it can beconveniently tied into bundles, and subsequently, it is easily fed into the apertures of clay stovesor between the legs of tripod type stoves. If one is to look for environmental consequences of thisover-use of small wood, one of these appear to be the suppression of tree regeneration. In countsof regenerating trees in the 25 m survey plots, it was found that few seedlings survived to aheight greater than 100 cm. presumably the main reason was that at this hight the samplingsbecame usable as fuelwood and were cut and removed (Joshi, 1988).

 

Timber for house construction, furnitures and household utensils

���� Nepalese village houses have a supporting framework of wooden uprights with additionalpillars, to support a balcony if this is included in the design. At Syabru the roof also usuallyconsists of flat wooden slabs or shingles. When asked about the amount of wood used forbuilding purposes with the local people, no reliable information were available from the studyarea. However, Mauch (1976) and Joshi (1988) havemade a calculation of building-timber useper person for hill village in Nepal and arrive at a figure of 0.3m3/person/person / annum.�������������

 

����� Though the hardwoods are generally favoured for constructional purposes of their greaterdurability and relative freedom from fungal and insect attack, pine is more widely used at theSyabru village because of the greater availability. Otherpreferred species for house frames areAlnus nepalensis, Castanopsis indica, Castanopsis tribuloides, Melia azedarach, Myrsinecapitellata, Quarcus glauca andQ. semicarpifolia. Wood of Pinus wallichiana and Schimawallichii are usually chosen for window shutters,doors and ladders. Wood is also used in themanufacture of household furnitures including storage boxes, chairs, stools, table and beds.Species used for these purpose include Abies spectabilis, Bombax cebia, Castanopsis indica, C.tribuloides, Myrsine capitellata, Myrsine semiserrata, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus glauca, Q.lanata, andQ. semicarpifolia. For fencing, favoured species included Alnus nepalensis, Lyoniaovalifolia and Rhododendron arboreum. Rhododendron arboretum finds a particular use in themanufacture of such household items as wooden paddles, spoonsandbowls.

Medicine

����� The present study revealed that gastro intestinal disorders and stomach ache, dematologicalillness and cuts, wounds and headacheare the major diseases and illness in the study area. Thelocal people use the plants and their partsfor the treatment of these alignments following thetraditional practices. During the treatment of the diseases, variousforms of preparation are used . Among the documented species, 7 species were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, 2 forfever, cough, headache, 7 for dermatological illness, 1 for genito-urinary complaints, 3 forrespiratory aliments, 2 for dental problems, and 2 for others (Table 2).

 

Food

����� Wild foodsare collected by local people from a wide variety of habitats i.e. forest, scrub,edges of cultivated areas and waste lands. The major food plants are Myrica esculenta,Castanopsis spp., Pyrus pashia, Prunus nepaulensis, Lindra pulcherrima. The local communitieshave also excellent knowledge about thepoisnous plants of the study area

 

Fodder������������������������

����� 18tree species are recorded as being used as fodder plants in these villages. Among them,local people prefer Castanopsis indica, Castanopsis tribuloides, Myrsine capittata, Myrsinesemiserata, Quercus glaunca, Quercus lananta, Q. semiserrata and Salix babylonica.. Thepeople of the villageshave comprehensive knowledge about fodder plants, as they are inconstant association and dependence on these resources for integrated agriculture development.

 

Rawmaterials

����� Various plant and parts of the plants are used as rawmaterials for the manufacture orpreparation of commodities. The major products and uses as follows:

 

Dye

���� At Syabru the main dye used is a dark brown dye derived from the bark of Schima wallichii.The dye are used for coloring wool and for painting designs (usually with a stick) on baskets,mats, and cloth.

 

Handals of agricultural tools

���� Species especially favoured for the handles of tools and agricultural implements includeMelia azedarach andPyrus pashia.,

 

Manufacture of soap and wax

����� Pinus wallichiana is an important source of resin and turpentine in the study area. Resin isused in the manufacture of soap, grease, and waxes and is exported for these purpose to Trisuliand Kathmandu.

 

Insectisides andFish poison

����� The village people use a variety of plant materials to deter flies in the houses and to protectstored grain from insect damage. Leaves ofLyonia ovalifolia or dried fruits, leaves, bark ofMelia azaderach are placed in the mouth of grain bags and in the tops of open-air storage bins(bhakari), to discourage the entry of grain-feeding beetles and moths.

 

���� Plant extracts are widely used in the studied village for capturing fish. Crushed leavesofLyonia ovalifolia or immature leaves ofRhododendron arboreum are introduced into streamsand river with the aim of stupefying fish. The affected fish float to the surface and are removedfrom the water usually with a piece of cloth stretched across a branched stick. Similarly fruits ofMelia azaderach or bark and fruits of Schima wallichii are also used as fish poison.

 

Strategies for Sustainable Management

����� Despite the formulation and adoption of various policies, plans, strategies andimplementation of progrommesfor the conservation of the species and their habitats, there is agrowing consensus among the conservationists thatthe conservation of bio-resources, especiallyofplant biodiversity is entering into a stage of crisis, since there hasbeen hardly any attempt toconserve these resources in an integrated manner (Joshi and Joshi, 1998). Therefore, thefollowing strategies should be implemented in order toconserve and sustainable use of trees inparticular and other plant diversity in general in an environmentally sound way.

 

1. Inventory, Documentation of the species and research

����� Though the inventory of plant biodiversity has initiated in different biogeographical areas,many parts of the countryarestill remained unexplored. Hence, it is strongly recommendedthat major thrustshould be given to an intensive inventory and documentation of the usefultrees as well as other speciesand their products. The research related to chemical screeningshould also be initiated to analyse chemical contents and their implications on health, food andplant products.

 

2. Documentation of ethnobotanical uses, Traditional knowledge and�� practices

����� Regarding the ethnobotanical information, there is still a paucity of quantitative data aboutthe traditional uses, effectiveness, sideeffects and traditional techniques.The rural people haveexcellent ethnobotanical knowledge which they have developeddue to constant associationwith the forest ecosystems. These existing valuable information are needed to bedocumentedbefore lost or disappeared. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that emphasis shouldbegiven to the action activities for the documentation of indigenous uses, traditional knowledgeand practicesfollowing in quatitative methods.

 

3. Conservation of useful species and their habitats

����� At present urbanization trend is rapidly spreading even in the forest and waste land.Deforestation and habitat destruction due toland use change would pose a serious threat to theuseful species and habitats. Hence, efforts should be directed to formulate and implementappropriate conservation strategies and programs for habitat management and sustainable usesof the plants and their products taking consideration of the needs of the people.

 

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the inhabitants of the study areas for their kind cooperation and helpduring the field survey. Thanks are due toDr. John F. Edington, University of Wales, U.K. forhis guidance and suggestion, and Dr. S. K. Jain, Founder and Ex-Director, Institute ofEthnobiology, Lucknow, India, Profs. P.K. Jha, R. P. chaudhary and K. K. Shrestha, CentralDepartment of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal for constant encouragement.

 

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