CHECK LIST OF MEDICINAL FLORA OF TEHSIL ISAKHEL, DISTRICT MIANWALI-PAKISTAN

 

MUSHTAQ AHMAD, MIR AJAB KHAN, SHABANA MANZOOR, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR AND SHAZIA SULTANA

 

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, QUAID-I-AZAM UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD-PAKISTAN

 

ABSTRACT

 

            The research work was conducted in the selected areas of Isakhel, Mianwali. The study was focused for documentation of traditional knowledge of local people about use of native medicinal plants as ethnomedicines. The method followed for documentation of indigenous knowledge was based on questionnaire. The interviews were held in local community, to investigate local people and knowledgeable persons, who are the main user of medicinal plants. The ethnomedicinal data on 55 plant species belonging to 52 genera of 30 families were recorded during field trips from six remote villages of the area. The check list and ethnomedicinal inventory was developed alphabetically by botanical name, followed by local name, family, part used and ethnomedicinal uses. Plant specimens were collected, identified, preserved, mounted and voucher was deposited in the Department of Botany, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, for future references.

Key words:     Checklist, medicinal flora and Mianwali-Pakistan

 

INTRODUCTION

 

            District Mianwali drives its name from a local Saint, Mian Ali who had a small hamlet in the 16th century which came to be called Mianwali after his name (on the eastern bank of Indus). The area was a part of Bannu district. The district lies between the 32-10º to 33-15º, north latitudes and 71-08º to 71-57º east longitudes.

            The district is bounded on the north by district of NWFP and Attock district of Punjab, on the east by Kohat districts, on the south by Bhakkar district of Punjab and on the west by Lakki, Karak and Dera Ismail Khan District of NWFP again. The salt range of Kalabagh has a rich flora, peculiar to the ranges east of the Indus. The botanical aspects of the three different parts of the district, the hills the up-lands and the kacha may well be described separately. The hills are rich with comman plant spieces like Rhazya stricta (Verin), Reptonia buxifolia (Ganger), Prosopis juliflora (jand), ziziphus jujuba (Beri). Dalbergia sissoo (Tali) and Acacia nilotica (Kiker) are common trees of the Kacha area. (Anonymous, 1998).

            People living in tribal localities and in villages are using indigenous plants as medicines from long ago because this knowledge reaches to them through generation to generation, and is based on experience. Also the tribes and villages are far away from cities and mostly there are no health facilities. Inhabitants are dominantly poor or middle class and the prices of synthetic drugs are rising day by day and they cannot withstand the sharply rising prices of synthetic drugs, so as a consequence, non-availability of expensive synthetic drugs (Shinwari and Khan, 1998).

            Keeping in view the importance of flora of Isakhel, the study confined to collect the indigenous knowledge of local people about the medicinal uses of native plants. As the people of the selected areas have empirical observation of the nature and by communicating the other people of their culture; they get indigenous knowledge of local plants. So in this way the ethnomedicinal knowledge of plants is linked to the local culture and history.

As inhabitants of the area are mainly using traditional means to cure diseases and this asset of indigenous knowledge is transferring from generation to generation only through verbal means of communication. So this research was an effort to document and to preserve this folk asset. 

The main aims of present research work were:

·                                To explore the ethnomedicinal knowledge of local people of Isakhel, Mianwali.

·                                To enlist the indigenous medicinal plants used by local people for common day ailments.

·                                To create the awareness among the local community about the protection of native medicinal flora.

·                                To collect native medicinal plants of the area for proper identification and future references.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

            Present study was confined to the identification of useful flora of Isakhel (Mianwali). The study was conducted during September 2005- January 2006 in different villages of the area.

Collection of Medicinal Data

Frequent field trips were arranged in order to collect information about the folk/culinary knowledge of medicinal plants used by the local people of Isakhel, Miamwali to cure them from various diseases. In total of six remote selected villages including Sultan Khel, Makerwal, Metha khattak, Qamar Mushani, Tarag Sharif and Allah Khel of the area were extensively surveyed for research work.

 

During field trips, the questionnaire (Medicinal Plants Datasheet) was used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants. In total of 40 informants including 25 men and 15 women were interviewed during survey. Interviews were conducted with local people in different villages individually following procedure as described by Ahmad et al., (2004).  Repeated queries were made to get the data confirmed.

Collection & Preservation of Plants

Frequent field trips of the area were arranged to collect the live specimens. Throughout the field trips a general collection of plants were made. The fully dried specimens were poisoned and then mounted on herbarium sheets. Plants were identified with the help of available literature and comparing with the already identified plant specimens of the herbarium, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and Flora of Pakistan (Nasir and Rafiq, 1995) did confirmation of plants. After correct identification, the plants were deposited in Department of Botany, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, for future references.

Check List & Ethnomedicinal Inventory:

Ethnomedicinal inventory was developed consisting of botanical name followed by their local name, family, part used and ethnomedicinal uses.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Check List of Medicinal Flora

The medicinal data on 55 plant species belonging to 52 genera of 30 families, during summer and winter season were collected. Information regarding their botanical name, vernacular name, family, part used and their ethnomedicinal uses are listed in the Check List (Table.1).

 

TABLE 1. CHECK LIST OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT FLORA OF

ISAKHEL (MIANWALI)

 

 

S.No

Botanical Name

Vernacular

Names

Family

 Part

Used

Ethnomedicinal

Uses

1

 

Achyranthes aspera (Mill.)

 

Puthkanda

 

Amaranthaceae

 

Whole plant

 

Diuretic, Dropsy, Piles, Skin eruptions

2

 

Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd

 

Kikar

 

Mimosaceae

Leaves and fruits

Cough, Dysentery

3

Acacia modesta Wall.

Phulai

 

Mimosaceae

Bark, wood and Gum

Tonic use for back and joints pain

4

Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet

Peeli booti

Malvaceae

Leaves and stem

To treat boils

5

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Ghee kunvar

Liliaceae

Whole plant

Boils, Piles and fever

6

Amaranthus viridus (L.)

Chulai

Amaranthaceae

 

leaves

Emollient, snake and scorpion bite

 

 

7

Argyrolobium roseum (Camb.)Jaub. And Spach

Makhan booti

Papillonaceae

Whole plant

Aphrodisiac and Tonic

8

Azadirachta indica Linn.

Neem

Meliaceae

Leaves

Skin diseases and blood purification

9

Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. J.A. Schultes

Booh

Amaranthaceae

 

Whole plant

Skin infection,

inflammation and abdominal worms

10

Brassica nigra L.

Kali sarson

Brassicaceae

Whole plant

Laxative, headache, toothache, cold and rheumatic pains

11

Bryophyllum pinnatum Kurz.

Zakham-e-hayat

Crassulaceae

Leaves and juice

Hypertension

renal calculus and skin diseases

12

Calotropis procera (Wild) R.Br.

Ak

Asclepiadaceae

Whole plant

Malaria and Cholera

13

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgeuu

Kirrer

Capparidaceae

Whole plant

Ulcers, asthma and rheumatic pain

14

Capparis aphylla L.

Kareen

Capparidaceae

Whole plant

Brain tonic, joints and back pain

15

Carum copticum Benth.

Ajwain desi

Apiaceae

Whole plant

Appetizers, kidney stone, digestion and whooping cough

16

Cassia augustifolia L.

Sena

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaves, branches and fruit

Headache, brain tonic and intestinal diseases

17

Chenopodium album (L.)

Bathu

Chenopodiaceae

Whole plant

Laxative and Anthelmintic

18

Cleome brachycarpa Vahl.

Dhanar khathoori

Capparidaceae

Whole plant

Joints pain and inflammation

19

Cucumis melo var-agrestis Nudin

Chibber

Cucurbitaceae

Fruit

Digestive and stomach problems

20

Citrullus colocynthus L.

Tumba

Cucurbitaceae

Root and fruit

Antidiabetic and stomach problems

21

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

Khuble ghas

Poaceae

Roots

Diuretic and laxative

22

Cyperus rotundus (L.)

Dellia ghas

Cyperaceae

Tuber

Anthelmintic, stimulant, diuretic

23

Cymbopogon jauuarancusa (Jones) Schult

Kattan

Poaceae

Whole plant

Fever and phlegmatic pains

24

Dalbergi sissoo Roxb.

Tali

Fabaceae

Leaves, roots and wood

Leprosy, boils, eruptions and stop vomiting

25

Datura innoxia (Linn.) Miller

Datura

Solanaceae

Leaves and seeds

Hydrophobia and earache

26

Digera muriacata (L.) Mart.

Lulur

Amaranthaceae

 

Whole plant

Use as laxative

27

Eruca sativa

Tara mera

Brassicaceae

Leaves and seeds

Skin diseases and joint's pain

28

Eucalyptus globules

Safaida

Myrtaceae

Seeds and leaves

Malaria, Antibacterial and Antiseptic

29

Euphorbia thymifolia (L.)

Dodak

Euphorbiaceae

Whole plant

Bronchial affection, cough and asthma

30

Fagonia indica Brum.f.

Dhumia

Zygophyllaceae

Whole plant

Antibetic, pimples and ear infection

 

31

Ficus religiosa (L.)

Pipal

Moraceae

Seeds and fruits

Laxative, Cooling and alterative

32

Fumaria parviflora (Haussk.) pugsley

Shahtra

Fumariaceae

Whole plant

Diuretic, Alterative Anthelmintic and aperient

33

Lathyrus aphaca L.

Jangli phalli

Papillonaceae

Seeds and flowers

Seeds used as Narcotic and flowers as resolvent

34

Launea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya and Raja gopal

Bhatter

Asteraceae

Whole plant

Painful urination and gonorrhoea

35

Melia azedarach L.

Dherak

Meliaceae

Seed and Leaves

Diabetes, blood purification and Skin tonic

36

Mentha spicata (L.)Hudson

Pehari podina

Lamiaceae

Whole plant

Nausea, sickness,

Vomiting and stomach diseases.

37

Mimordica dioca

Jungli karela

Cucurbitaceae

Fruit, seeds and root

Diabetes, sedative, bleeding piles and urinary complaints

38

Morus nigra  L.

Kala shahtoot

Moraceae

Fruits

General tonic for body and cough, throat, and chest infection

39

Ocium sanctum L.

Niazboo

Lamiaceae

Seeds

Stomach and vomiting.

40

Plantago ovata Forsk.

Ispaghul

Plantaginaceae

Seeds fruit and leaves

Antidiarrhoeal, Constipation and Inflammation of mucous membrane

41

Peganum harmala L.

 

Hermal

 

 

Zygophllaceae

 

 

Whole plant

 

Brain tonic, insecticidal and viral diseases

42

Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.

Khajoor

Palmae

Fruit, root and juice of tree

Toothache, Tonic, Cooling and Laxative

43

Rhyncosia minima (L.) Dc.

Jungli moath

Fabaceae

Whole plant

Used for bath after delivery for body care

44

Ricinus commumis Linn.

Harnoli

Euphorbiaceae

Seeds, leaves, and Bark

Boils, Swelling, Laxative and to start Labour pain

45

Rhazya stricta Dcne.

Verian

Apocynaceae

Roots, leaves and branches

Tooth diseases, Diabetes, Constipation and  Intestional diseases

46

Spinacea oleracea L.

Palak

Chenopodiaceae

Leaves and stem

Anemia, Bone's Tonic and produce fresh blood

47

Solanum nigrum Miller.

Makoo

Solanaceae

Whole plant

Phthisis, Dropsy, and for enlargement of  spleen

48

Solanum surretense Burm.

Mohakri

Solanaceae

Fruit

Cough, Asthma and Rheumatic pain

49

Salvadora oleides Dcne.

Pilu

Salvadoraceae

Whole plant

Purgative, Cough and Regulate the menstruation periods

50

Tagetes patala L.

Sudburga

Asteraceae

Fruits

To cure piles

51

Tribulus terrestris Linn.

Bhakra

Zygophyllaceae

Whole plant

Painful urination and Spermatorrhoea

52

Tephrosia uniflora Pers.

 

Fabaceae

Whole plant

Harmful

53

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.

Woho

Aizoaceae

Whole plant

Jaundice, Astma, Cough and for Fever

54

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

Asgand

Solanaceae

Whole plant

Leucoderma, Diuretic and Analgestic

55

Zizyphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight

Jangli beri

Rhamnaceae

Fruit, leaves and roots

Jaundice

 

 

Discussion

Nearly seventy percent of the population of urban and rural areas benefit from the Unani system of medicine in spite of very sophisticated hospitals and allopathic practitioners which work under the Government of Pakistan. In the rural areas, household remedies are being used for generations. Tibb-e-Nabvi` provides base for the traditional Unani system of medicine in Pakistan. Medicinal plants used by the practitioners of this system are easily available in the forest, mountains, valleys, gardens and agricultural fields. This system is relatively cheap and quite near to nature. In Indo-Pak subcontinent, these traditional systems are called as “Unani” or “Ayurvedic” system (Haq, 1993).

            The present study provides information about some therapeutic uses of 55 plant species belonging to 30 families. The plants are either used singly or in combination with some other plants or plant parts. Some plant species are claimed to be quite effective remedies for cutaneous affection of head, snakebite, diarrhea, malaria, cough and cold, and stomach troubles etc. Since the uses are based on empirical knowledge, the scientific study of all these herbal drugs is highly desirable to establish their efficacy for safe use.

Various areas of Isakhel region are enriched with useful medicinal plants. However, resource based areas are facing severe biotic interference and require be protecting and conserving by community participation. Community participation can be initiated by giving incentives to local people and creating awareness about the useful properties of medicinal plants and their commercial values.

All members of community in the area, use medicinal plants. Some wild medicinal plants like Solanum surretense Burm f. aerial parts are not only used for “Digestive problems” but fruit and aerial parts are also used to cure “Skin diseases”. Trianthema portulacastrum L. is used to cure “Jaundice” and “Asthma”. Root extract of Withania sominifera (L.) Dunal, is used as tonic for general and sexual debility and juice of aerial parts is used as “Diuretic” and also for “Rheumatism” by different communities of the area.

            Various parts of the plant are used in curing different ailments. During the research project it was noted that the medicinal plant wealth of Isakhel, district Mianwali are not fully exploited. Some medicinally important plant species are fast dwindling, mainly due to human interference. So, the area needs proper protection for the conservation and survival bio-resources. The medicinal plants can be protected by the conservation programme by help of local people. Regularly chemical screening of medicinal plant and their useful parts collected from the fields in different seasons should be done. The oil bearing medicinal plants should be fenced for chemical and biological investigation, as well as for preventing overgrazing, cutting and use as a fuel wood.

            Moreover to prevent the extinction of medicinal species, effects may be made to grow the sensitive species by acclimatizing them and if required them in situ as many species can be considered as an asset for human beings (Hamayun et al., 2003).

           Further research works should be formulized on base line of indigenous studies because there are still some diseases like “Cancer” and “AIDS”, for which there are no identified cures. So ethnodirected studies can help in these research works (Ahmad & Ali, 1998). It was concluded from this study that a nationwide survey of medicinal flora should be conducted to investigate and update the inventory of existing natural plants’ resources of the area specially and generally throughout the Pakistan. In view of plentiful occurrence of number of plant species in Isakhel (Mianwali) and its surroundings, it is suggested that industrial Development Corporation of Pakistan may be persuaded to prepare a comprehensive report for the establishment of small scale processing units for the valued drugs.

 

REFERENCES

Anonymous, 1998. District census report, Mianwali population census organization statistical division, Islamabad

Ahmad, M., M. A. Khan., M. Arshad and M. Zafar. 2004. Ethnophytotherapical approaches for the treatment of diabetes by the local inhabitants of district Attock   (Pakistan). J. Ethnobot. Leaflets. USA.    http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/leaflets/phyto.htm

Ahmad. M and Ali, A (1998). Ethnobotany with special references to Medicinal            Plants of District Swat. M.Sc. Thesis.. Peshawar University, Pakistan.     Hamdard Foundation Press. Pp 1-13.

Hamayun, M., A, Khan and M. A. Khan. 2003. Common medicinal folk recipes of District Buner, NWFP, Pakistan. J. Ethnobot. Leaflets. USA. http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/leaflets/recipe.htm

Haq, I., 1993. Medicinal Palnts- Report of committee on Economic and Therapeutic

            importance of medicinal plants. Ministry of Health. Government of Pakistan.

Nasir, Y. J and Rafiq, R. A. (1995). Wild Flowers of Pakistan. Edited by T. J. Roberts, Oxford University Press, Karachi: pp 298.

Shinwari, M. I. and M. A. Khan. 1998. Indigenous use of medicinal trees and shrubs of Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad. Pak. J. Forest., 48(1-4): 63-90.