Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 1283-89. 2008.

 

 

Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Leaves of Tridax procumbens L.

 

Kiran Prajapati1, D. Singh2, S.B. Mishra1, P. Dubey3 & B. Sangameswaran1

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Vinayaka Mission’s College of pharmacy,

Salem (Tamilnadu), India

2Saroj Institute of Technology and Management,

Lucknow (U.P.) India

3National Botanical Research Institute

Lucknow (U.P.) India

1For correspondence: kiranprajapati04@gmail.com

 

Issued 15 December 2008

 

 

ABSTRACT

            Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Tridax procumbens L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physico-chemical constants, extractive values, fluorescence analysis of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents under visible light and UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm were studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.

 

Keywords: Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical, Tridax procumbens L, Asteraceae.

 

INTRODUCTION

            A hispid, procumbent herb, with woody base, some time rooting at nodes, up to 60 cm. high1, 2, found as a weed in cultivated and other disturbed habitats throughout India to an altitude of 2,400m3. Leaves cooked as a vegetable2; they are also eaten by cattle1. It is commonly known as ‘Ghamra’ in Hindi and in English popularly called ‘Coat button’ because of appearance of flowers4. Aerial parts of TP Reported Immunomodulatory effects4. Aerial parts shows  Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats5. Leaves are reported Hemostatic activity6, effect on Blood pressure and Heart Rate in rats7 and Anti-diabetic activity8. The occurrence of β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside 9, lipid constituents10, and saturated and unsaturated Fatty acid11 from Tridax procumbens.

 

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY

            The leaves are reportedly used to treat bronchial catarrh dysentry and diarrhoea and as a hair restorative. In southern Orissa a paste prepared from the whole plant is taken orally to relieve diarrhoea. A fine paste of the leaves is applied externally to reduce swelling of hemorrhoids by the Urash in southern Bihar. The leaf powder mixed with that of Cicer arietium (fabaceae papilionoideae) in a 2:1 ratio is taken orally to treat diabetes among the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan leaf jues possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties and is used externally to stop bleeding from cuts. It is also taken as male aphrodisiac in Northeastern3. The whole plant and seed being used to treat a variety of ailments the leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

But no Pharmacognostical work has been done so far. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the Pharmacognostic parameters on the leaves of Tridax procumbens L. in both whole form and powdered form.

 

Table 1.  Macroscopy of Tridax procumbens L.

Parts

Observation

Part

Leaves

Arrangement

Opposite

Size

3-7 cm long, 1- 4 cm wide

Shape

Lanceolate to ovate

Colour

Green

Odour

Characteristic

Taste

Acrid

Appearance

Rough & Scabrous

Margin

Irregularly toothed

Apex

Acute

Base

wedge- shaped

Petiole

Short

Texture

Short

Fracture

Easy

 

Materials and Methods

Plant material

The plant material was collected from the National botanical research Institute Garden, Lucknow, in the month June 2008. The plant was identified and authenticated by chemotaxonomist, NBRI Lucknow, and the accession No. is 94484. A herbarium was preserved in the department for further reference. The leaves were separated, dried, coarsely powdered passed through sieve no 40 and stored in a closed container for further use. All reagents used were of analytical grade.

 

Methods

            The macroscopical characters (size, shape colour, odour, texture, margin, base, apex and petiole) of the leaves were observed3,1. Then, anatomical study, powder was identified with routine reagents to study the lignified cells, trichomes, stomata, fibres etc. Quantitative microscopy was determined by methods prescribed by Trease and Evans12,13.

The ash values, extractive values with various reagents and were determined as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia14. Extractive values were performed with various solvents like Haxen, alcohol and water was performed as per standard procedure. Measurement of vein islet number, vein termination number, Stomatal number, Stomatal index and length of Trichome were determined15. The behavior of powdered leaves with various chemical reagents was studied. The fluorescence characters of the powder with various acids were observed under visible light and UV light as per the procedure. Preliminary Phytochemical tests of the powder/extracts were performed using specific reagents through standard procedures16,17.

 

RESULTS

Analysis and Discussion

            Leaves were green, characteristic odour with slight bitter taste. Leaves are of size 3-7 cm in length, lanceolate in shape, acute – apex, wedge-shaped base, irregularly toothed margin, and short petiole. The physical constants such as total ash value (11.88%), acid insoluble ash (3.05%), water soluble ash (2.14%), sulphated ash (20.11) and extractive values are specific identification. The soluble extractive values with different solvents such as Haxen, ethanol and water were (8.90%, 07.17% and 28.16%) respectively, which indicates the nature of constituents present. Quantitative microscopical study also give valuable information regarding specific leaf constants such as vein islet upper and lower epidermis(32.33/mm2 and 20.66/mm2),vein termination number upper and lower epidermis (32.66/mm2 and 19.66/mm2 ), Stomatal index upper and lower epidermis (30.12 and 36.31).  Trichome number upper and lower epidermis (9.66 and 21.33). Loss on drying (13.00%). The behavior of leaf powder upon treatment with different chemical reagents was also observed and reported in Table -5. Preliminary Phytochemical screening revealed the presence glycoside, flavonoids, Tannins, mucilage, carbohydrate and reducing sugar.

 

MICROSCOPICAL CHARACTER

Petiole

            Kidney shaped towards the distal end and crescent shaped towards the laminal side. Single layered epidermis covered with cuticle and interrupted by simple, multicellular, 3-5 celled trichomes. Hypodermis 1-2 celled collenchymatous. Ground tissue parenchymatous; vascular bundles 5, the size of the vascular bundles various from centre to margin i.e. Large to small. These are centripetal i.e. xylem surrounded by the phloem.

Leaf

            T.S. leaf is dorsiventral, epidermis single layered on both the surfaces and covered with thick cuticle. T.S. passing through the mid rib region shows slight depression on ventral side and slightly protuberated on dorsal size. Trichomes are simple, multicelled (3-6 celled) and more in number on dorsal side. The basal cells of the Trichome are swollen and Trichome looks like claw. Meristeel consists of single centrally located collateral vascular bundle surrounded by some parenchymatous cells filled with dark content.

            T.S. passing through the laminar region shows single layered palisade cells just below the appear epidermis followed by 5-7 celled mesophyll parenchyma mostly devoid of inter cellular spaces.

 


Abbreviations: cu, cuticle; le, lower epidermis; pal, palisade cells; sm, spongy mesophyll; t, Trichome; vb, vascular bundle. Powder A – I (A and B, simple Trichome; C, glandular Trichome; D, Trichome base; E, laticifers and vessels; F and G, stone cell; H, spiral vascular bundle; I, laticifers and with adjacent parenchyma)

 

Powder analysis of Tridax procumbens L.

            It is dark green, fine, odorless powder with slight bitter taste. The powder microscopy reveals the presence of different types of (Glandular and Non Glandular) Trichomes, trichome base, fibres, stone cells, laticifers with adjacent parenchyma. Spiral thickenings vascular bundles.

 

Table 2. Determination of Ash Values Tridax procumbens L.

S. No.

Ash type

Value % (w/w)

1.

Total ash

11.88

2.

Acid insoluble ash

3.05

3.

Water soluble ash

2.41

4.

Sulphated ash

20.11

 

Table 3.  Determination of Extractive Values Tridax procumbens L.

S. No.

Solvent

Value % (w/w)

1.

Haxen

O8.90

2.

Ethanol

07.17

3.

Water

28.16

 

Table 4. Determination of phytoconstants Tridax procumbens L.

Leaf constants

Report

Vein islet number(upper epidermis)

32.33/mm2

Vein islet number (lower epidermis)

20.66/mm2

Vein termination number (upper epidermis)

32.66/mm2

Vein termination number(lower epidermis)

19.66/mm2

Trichome number (upper epidermis)

9.66/mm2

Trichome number (lower epidermis)

21.33/mm

Stomatal index (upper epidermis)

30.12

Stomatal index (lower epidermis)

36.31

Palisade ratio

3.62

 

Table 5. Behavior of Powdered leaves of Tridax procumbens L. with different

                                                            Chemical reagents.

S.No

Reagents

Color     of    the   powdered   drug

Day light

Ultraviolet light

Near UV

Far  UV

1.

Saturated picric acid

Yellowish- green

Dark green

Yellowish-black

2.

Nitric acid

Radish- brown

Light brown

Brown

3.

Hydrochloric acid

Green

Black

Black

4.

Sulphuric acid (80%)

Black

Black

Black

5.

Glacial acetic acid

Dark green

Green

Black

6.

Iodine solution (N/20)

Dark green

Dark green

Brown

7.

Ferric solution (5% W/V aq. Solution)

Yellowish-brown

Dark green

Dark brown

8.

Powder as such

Green

Green

Dark green

 

 

REFERENCES

1.      The Wealth of India: Raw materials, VoI.10 (Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi) 1988, 87-88.

2.      Asima Chatterjee, the Treatise of Indian medicinal plants. (Satyesh Chandra Prakashan, CSIR, New Delhi) 2001, Vol. 5, 180.

3.      Parrota J. A.  Healing plants of peninsular India. (CAB International publishing) 2001, 157-158.

4.      Vyas. P. Suresh, Tiwari Umesh, Rastogi  Bhawna, Singh Paramjit, Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental animals, (Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92), 2004, 113-119.

5.      Devaki Thiruvengadam, Ravikumar Vilwanathan, Shivashangari S.K, Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats, (Journal of Ethnopharmacology101) 2005, 55-60.

6.      Dhake  A.S, Kale A. Mayura, Shahi R. Sadhana, Shamkuwar P.B, Somani V. G, Hemostatic activity of leaves of  Tridax procumbens linn, (International journal of green pharmacy ) 2008, 54.

7.      M.H. Salahdeen, K.O. Yemitan,  A.R.A. Alada, Effect of aqueous leaf extract of  Tridax procumbens on Blood pressure and Heart rate in rats. (African journal of Biomedical Research- 7), 2004, 27-29.

8.      Bhagwat Durgacharan A, killedar G.Suresh, Adnaik S. Rahul,Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of  Tridax procumbens, (International journal of green pharmacy) 2008, 2(2), 126-128.

9.      Albert. Sosanna, Saxena V.K, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside from thr flower of Tridax procumbens, (j. chem. Sci. Vol. 117 -3), 2005, 263-266.

10.  Gupta M Medan and Ram K. Verma. “Lipid constituents of Tridax procumbens” (Phytochemistry 27-2), 1988, 459-463.

11.  Gabhe S.Y, Ashwini P. gadre, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from Tridax procumbens” (Indian j Pharm. Sci.) 1988, May- June, 168.

12.  Wallis T.E, Textbook of Pharmacognosy (CBS publishers and Distributors, Delhi) 1985, 104-105.

13.  Evans W. C; Treas and Evans “Pharmacognosy (Fourteenth Edi, WB Saunders company Ltd) 2002, 3-4.

14.  Anonymous, the Indian Pharmacopoeia (Govt. of India publication, New Delhi), 1966, 947-950.

15.  Wallis T E, Text Book of Pharmacognosy (CBS publishers and Distributors, Delhi) 1989, 356 – 549.

16.  Kokate C K, Practical Pharmacognosy (Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi) 1991, 107-111.

17.  Johansen D A, Plant Micro technique (McGraw Hill Book Co., New York) 1940, 182-197.