Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 391-400. 2008.

 

Ethnomedicinal and Ethnoveterinary Plants from Boath,

Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India

 

M. Venkat Ramana

 

Plant Systematics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College of Science Osmania University, Hyderabad � 500 007, India

Email: venkat.botany@gmail.com

 

Issued 16 June 2008

 

Abstract

The present paper deals with the traditional uses of 57 plant species employed in ethnomedicine and ethnoveterinary practice by tribal and local people of the Boath Revenue Division of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, to treat different ailments affecting both human and livestock. For each plant species, details on the scientific name, botanical family, local name and use are provided along with parts harvested for treatment, the manner of processing and the mode of administration.

Key words: Ethnomedicine, ethnoveterinary medicine, Boath Revenue Division, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh.

Introduction

Boath Revenue Division, located in the southwest of the Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, with an area of 30,878 ha, is primarily a forested tract (40% of the total land area) north of River Godavari characteristically having a rocky and gently undulating topography that continues in to the adjoining districts of Maharashtra. It enjoys the typical Deccan climate with temperatures ranging between 29 and 41oC maximum and 15 to 28oC minimum. The region receives an average annual rainfall of 995.1 mm.�����

����������� The Mathura, Lambada and Gonds comprise the tribal population of this region and traditional practices of curing ailments using plants and animal resources are practiced by all these communities. In an enquiry to document their traditional knowledge of the medicinal plants, we conducted a year long survey in this region from 2006 to 2007. The data was collected by interviewing local and traditional medical practioners and village heads. Our studies have shown that these people have accumulated a wide knowledge in the usage of plant wealth over the centuries. As there exist no documentation of the traditional knowledge of tribals of Boath1,2, through this paper we attempt to fill the gap.

 

Methodology

����������� The study was carried out from April 2006 to March 2007. The information on plants were collected by interviewing traditional practioners and village heads. Plants were identified in the field by trekking different areas of the forests along with some of the members of the community who already practiced traditional medicine3-5. During the field trips, plant specimens were collected, properly tagged with field numbers, and brought to the Plant Systematics Laboratory, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad for identification, where they are deposited.

 

Results

The plant species are arranged in alphabetical order according to scientific names for convenience. For each plant species given in the following enumeration, details on the scientific name, botanical family, local name and use are provided along with the parts harvested for treatment and the manner of processing and mode of administration. We follow recent trends in nomenclature (IT IS, 2007).

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Ethnomedicinal Plants

 

Burning sensation at time of urination

Aerva lanata Juss.

Family: Amaranthaceae

Local name:Pindikura

5-10 gms of root with zeera made into juice mixed with pinch of sugar and administered once a day until relief.

 

Injuries, cuts and scorpion bites

Achyranthus aspera L.

Family:Amaranthaceae

Local name: Uttereni

Handful of leaves made into paste andbandaged over the bites, cuts and injuries for three days.

 

Stomachache

Allium sativum L.

Family: Liliaceae

Local name: Velli-ulli, garlic

4-5 scale leaves were made into paste mixed with pinch of water and salt taken twicea day till relief.

 

Backache

Aegle marmelos Correa

Family: Rutaceae

Local name: Maredu

Handful of young leaves were made into paste and bandaged over night, on the backbone region for immediate healing.

 

Cataract

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Family: Aloaeceae

Local name: Kalabanda

Mucilage applied on the eye-lids before going to bed, for seven days till eyes clear.

 

Dog bites

Acacia farnesiana Willd.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Local name: Murikitumma

5-10 gm of leaves ground with water and made into juice mixed with cow milk administered once in fortnight.

 

Boils

Argemone mexicana L.

Family: Papavaraceae

Local name: Pichikusuma

Handful of Leaves were made into paste and applied daily over the boils until cure.

 

Reduce heat

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Family: Meliaceae

Local name: Vepa

5-10 gms of stem bark were made into juice mixed with pinch of sugar and � glass of juice administered.

 

Kidney stones

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Local name: Moduga

10-15 gms of stem bark were made into juice mixed with pinch of pepper powder and cow milk administered once in a month to dissolve stones in kidneys.

 

Lice eradication

Bauhenia purpurea L.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Local name: Devakanchana, Pedda Are

Dried seed paste mixed with coconut oil applied once before taking bath will eradicate the lice.

Fertility in women

Caesalpinia cristata L.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Local name: Gachhkaya

5-10 gms of stem bark ground with pinch of water and made into juice and half tea cup juice administered during menses period.

 

Hydrocoel

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br.

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Local name: Jilledu

2-3 Leaves mildly heated with castor (Ricinus communis) oil and bandaged over the testicles, changed every day until cured.

 

Fertility in women & Joint pains

Citrus aurantiifolia (Christ.) Swingle

Family: Rutaceae

Local name: Nimma

15-20 gm of roots dried and made into paste mixed with cow milk, 2 teaspoonful given daily for one month.

Juice made from the ripened fruit added with pinch of sesame oil (Sesamum indicum) applied over the joints to cure.

 

Seminal disorders and Leucorrhea

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Family: Hyoxidiaceae

Local name: Nelathadi Gaddalu

Powder made from the root tubers and mixed with cow milk, administered twice a week

 

Diarrhoea and dysentery

Cocos nucifera L.

Family: Arecaceae

Local name: Kobbari

One glass of tender coconut water given twice in a day will cure Diarrhoea and dysentery.

 

Heart ailments

Coccinia indica Wight & Arn.

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Local name:Dhonda

Handful of leaves ground and made into juice mixed with 10 ml of brandy given twice in a week.

 

Snake bite

Dregea volubilis Benth.

Family: Asclepiadiaceae

Local name: Peddaguriza Aaku

4-5 leaves with 5-10 leaves of Nelagulimidi (Enicostema axillare) were made into juice added with pinch of pepper powder, administered immediately bandaged over the bite and the juice is given orally.

 

Cataract

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Local name: Usiri

Ripened fruit juice is applied on the eyelids externally everyday

 

Family planning

Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) Ravi

5-10 gms of stem bark weremade into juice is mixed with pinch of sugar, administered, � tea cup from the third day on menses.

 

Anti-cancer & Heel cracks

Ficus racemosa L.

Family: Moraceae

Local name: Medi

5-10 gms of stem were made into paste added with pinch of soil from the termite mounds and brass dust made into tablets, given daily one for one month.

Latex applied externally to heel cracks.

 

Toothache

Gossypium herbaceum L.

Family: Malvaceae

Local name: Patti

Seeds burned and ash made intopaste with water used to wash the teeth early morning every day till fortnight will cure toothache.

 

Lice eradication and hair growth & Improves fertility in women

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Family: Malvaceae

Local name: Mandara

1 or 2 flowers petals boiled in coconut oil applied to head before going to bed, once in a day.

Fragrance of the flowers early morning and late evening times improves fertility in women

 

Diarrhoea and dysentery in children

Ipomoea obscura Ker-Gawl.

Family: Convolvulaceae

Local name: Gollagiddi Aaku

Part of the fresh plant tied over the wrist of children.

 

Bronchitis

Justicia adhatoda L.

Family: Acanthaceae

Local name: Addasaram

3-4 leaves ground and made into juice added with water and pinch of pepper powder, 1 or 2 tea-spoonful given internally once in a day for a month.

 

Cuts and injuries

Lagascea mollis Cav.

Family:Asteraceae

Local name: Moddualamu

Leaf paste is prepared and applied over the wounds will help to cure.

 

Toothache

Momordica charantia L.

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Local name: Kakara

Handful of leaves ground and made into juice added with pinch of sugar administered, 2-3 tea-spoonful twice in a week.

 

Headache

Mentha arvensis L.

Family: Lamiaceae

Local name: Pudina

5-10 leaves were made into juice added with donkey milk administered once in a day.

 

Bone fractures

Mucuna pruriens Bak.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Local name: Dulakaya

10-15 seeds were soaked overnight, in water and the water is given in empty stomach�� twice a week until cure.

Abdominal pain and male reproductive disorders

Madhuca indica Wight

Family:Sapotaceae

Local name: Ippa

5-10 gm of stem paste is mixed with water and sugar given once in a day.

 

Joint pains and Foot pains

Opuntia elatior Mill.

Family: Cactaceae

Local name: Brammajemudu

Burned stem ash is applied on joints to cure pain.

 

Stomachache

Plumeria rubra L.

Family: Apocynaceae

Local name: Adavi Ganneru

5-10 gm of fresh root made into paste is mixed with ghee administered once in a day.

 

Boils and Joint pains & Sore throat

Plumbago zelanica L.

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Local name: Chitramulamu

Tender portion of the roots made into juice added with pinch of water given 2-3 tea spoonful twice a day.

5-6 gm of roots made into paste bandaged over the boils and joints.

 

Joint pains

Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Amudamu

Two teaspoonful seed oil mixed with equal quantity of cow urine, given orally once in a day.

 

Anti-cancer

Sesamum indicum L.

Family: Pedaliaceae

Local name: Nuvuulu

Gargling with oil extracted from the seed, every day early morning after mouth wash in empty stomach for six months.

 

Neck and joint pains

Semecarpus anacardium L. f.

Family: Anacardiaceae

Local name: Nalla Jidi

Exudations from the ripened seed is directly applied on the affected area.

 

Kidney stones

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Family: Myrtaceae

Lsocal name: Allaneredu

Handful of stem bark is made into juice added with a pinch of pepper powder, along with cow milk, administered twice in a month to dissolve stones in kidneys.

 

Reduce heat

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers

Family: Menispermaceae

Local names: Tippa Tega

10-15 cm of the fresh plant powder is mixed with cumin (zeera) and sugar is administered.

 

Dysentery in children & Snakebite

Tamarindus indica L.

Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae

Local name: Chinta

Five gms of leafjuice is added with sugar and given twice in a day.

Ruptured seed is applied on the snake bite.

 

Stomachache

Zizyphus xylopyrous (Retz.) Willd.

Family: Rhamnaceae

Local name: Gotti

5-10 gm of stem bark were made into juice administered once a day.

 

Obesity & hair growth(not diseases)

Trigonella foenum-graceum L.

Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae

Local name: Menthi

Fresh stems and leaves eaten directly and made into curry and taken with rice reduce the obesity

 

Ethnoveterinary Plants

Internal bleeding in the digestive system or digestive hemorrhage [For cattle]

Argemone mexicana L.

Family: Papavaraceae

Local name: Pichikusuma, Udugu

100 gm leaves crushed and pounded with 15 gm pepper, mixed with butter milk, given orally twice in a week.

 

Digestive disorders [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Family: Meliaceae

Local name: Vepa

50 gm leaves crushed and mixed with water, given orally once in a day.

 

Foot and mouth diseases [For cattle]

Aegle marmelos Correa

Family: Rutaceae

Local name: Maredu

Pulp of the fruit is mixed with pulp of the tamarind along with pinch of calcium is applied externally.

 

Bone fractures [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep] & Grinding of teeth [For cattle]:

 

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.

Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae

Local name: Modugu

250 gms stem bark crushed well and applied externally on the fractured area

Mixing of bark powdered with15 gms�� pepper is given orally twice a week.

 

Rheumatism [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]:

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Family: Poaceae

Local name: Garika

100 gmsof plant with 10 gmsof pepper mixed with toddy andgiven orally twice a day for one week will cure rheumatism.

 

Bronchitis and asthma [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]:

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Family: Vitaceae

Local name: Nalleda

Mixing of 100 gms of aerial plant parts along with 50 gm of leaves of Justicia adhatoda (Addasaramu) mixed with water, given orally once a day to cure asthma.

 

Staggering [For cattle]

Dreagea volubilis Benth.

Family: Asclepiadecaceae

Local name:Peddagurizaku

50 gm leaves and 50 gm of root pounded with Cuminum ciminum (Jeera) and sugar is given orally once in a week.

Swellings [For cattle]

Erythrina suberosa Roxb.

Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae

Local name: Munumoduga

100 gm of stem without bark, crushed and extract is applied on the swollen region.

 

Impaction [For cattle]

Holarrhena pubescence (Buch. Ham.) Wall.

Family: Apocynaceae

Local name: Palakodisa

10 gms of leaves with a pinch of calcium and jaggery is given direct.

 

For ability to take food [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep] Jatropha curcas L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Local name: Adaviamudamu

50 gems of leaves are crushed well and mixed with water which is given orally twicea week.

 

Bronchitis and Asthma [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]:

Justicia adhatoda L.

Family: Acanthaceae

Local name: Addasaram

100 gms leaves pounded with Allium sativum (garlic) and Carum coptium (voma) mixed with water, given orally twice a day.

 

Ruminating and digestive disorders [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Local name: Chedu Burrakaya

Unripe fruit pounded with 10 gm of pepper and mixed with butter milk, given orally once a day.

 

Bone fractures and rheumatism [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Opuntia elatior Mill.

Family: Cactaceae

Local name:Brammajemudu

Burned ash of the plant is applied externally.

 

Muscle disorders [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Pergularia daemia (Forsskal) Chiov.

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Local name: Dustaputeega

Latex or leaf extract applied locally.

 

Ruminating and digestive disorders [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Solanum nigrum L.

Family: Solanaceae

Local name; Kasipandlu

100 gms of ripened fruits pounded with 15 gm of pepper mixed with butter milk, given orally oncea day for 15 days.

 

Psychic disorders [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Sterculia urens Roxb.

Family: Sterculiaceae

Local name: Tapasi

100 gms of stem bark pounded with 10 gm of pepper mixed with toddy, given orally twicea week.

 

Bone fractures [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]

Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.

(Combretaceae)

Tella Maddi

250 gms of stem bark crushed and applied over the fractures.

 

Kill the lice and insects [For cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep]:

Vitex negundo L.

Family: Verbenaceae

Local name:Vavili

Spray leaf extract over the animalstoerradicate lice.

 

Conclusion

The present paper documents the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinarian uses of 57 plant species from Boath area of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh. Forty species of plants belonging to 39 genera and 27 families were recorded being used to treat 27 different ailments and diseases affecting tribals of this area. Most of the plant species are in local distribution and few species are in cultivation in home gardens. Different parts of medicinal plants are used in preparation of medicinal pastes or concoctions, the leaves and stem were the most frequently used parts followed by whole plant, fruits, roots and latex or exudes. Most of the species are used to treat only one disease. Only few diseases treated with more than one species. The present observation is match with the earlier reports with respect to ethnomedicine6-7 and ethnoveterinary medicine8-10.

����������� Some major ailments and diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, kidney-stones and obesity were being effectively treated using traditional knowledge and locally available plant resources. Ficus raemosa and Sesamum indicum are used to treat cancer, Coccinia indica is used to treat heart ailments, Butea monosperma and Syzygium cumini are used to treat kidney-stones problem and Trigonella foenum-graceum is used as anti-obesity. Keeping in view the traditional knowledge and beliefs, we propose phytochemical and pharmacological studies of these plants in conjunction with treatments of these diseases.

 

As many as 17 species of plants belonging to 18 genera and 17 families are used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat 15 diseases of livestock in general. Different parts of medicinal plants are used in veterinary practices, but the most used part are the leaves. These traditional knowledge help the local and tribals of this area immensely as there are no functional veterinary hospital in the Boath Revenue Division. Scientific studies on these plants too would yield interesting results and help us in understanding the pharmacological actions of the active compounds found in these plants that the local and tribals of the region had been using for so long.

 

Acknowledgements

����������� I am thankful to Prof. P. Satyanarayana Reddy for his guidance and encouragement at every level. Andalso acknowledge the help provided by the tribals and local medicinal practioners of Boath Revenue Division, Adilabad District for sharing information and traditional knowledge.

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