Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1312-27, 2009.

 

Veterinary Ethnomedicinal Plants in Uttarakhand Himalayan Region, India

Priti Kumari1&3, Bibhesh K. Singh2, Girish C. Joshi3*, Lalit M. Tewari1

 

1Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002(Uttarakhand) India

2Department of Chemistry, Govt. Postgraduate College, Ranikhet-263645(Uttarakhand)India

3Regional Research Institute (Ayurveda), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, Tarikhet,Ranikhet(Uttarakhand)-263663(India)

*E-mail:pritiksingh78@yahoo.com

 

Issued October 01, 2009�����

Abstract

Drug research has enriched human life in many ways. The health care and resulting social and economic benefits of new drugs to society are most remarkable, are quite well recognized. Drug research has been the driving force for many basic scientific developments, such as that of many new synthetic methods, of the understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of biological systems and has contributed much too molecular recognition. The Uttarakhand Himalayas have a great wealth of medicinal plants and traditional medicinal knowledge. The medicinal plant that has been widely used as veterinary ethno-medicine in Uttarakhand region has been studied.These do not either occur elsewhere or have not so far been exploited commercially. Attempts have been made to explore the new possible species having medicinal importance especially for veterinary and to grow them in suitable areas so as to meet national industrial demands. The present paper deals with the traditional uses of 100 plant species employed in ethno-medicine and ethno-veterinary practice in Uttarakhand.

 

Key Words: Ethno-Medicinal Plants, Traditional knowledge, Uttarakhand Himalaya, Veterinary.

 

Introduction

������� The Himalayas have a great wealth of medicinal plants and traditional medicinal knowledge. The Central Himalayan Region covers the new state of India, provides excellent opportunities for studying the Traditional Knowledge Systems. The Indian Himalayan region alone supports about 18,440 species of plants (Angiosperms: 8000 spp., Gymnosperm: 44 spp., Pteridophytes: 600 spp., Bryophytes: 1736 spp., Lichens: 1159 spp. and Fungi: 6900 spp.) of which about 45% are having medicinal properties. According to Samant et al., out of the total species of vascular plants, 1748 spp. species are medicinal. Uttarakhand is a storehouse of a rich variety herbs and medicinal and aromatic plant species. The Government intends to exploit this advantage. Uttarakhand has observed an increase in the area under cultivation of aromatic and medicinal plants. The number of farmers engaged in cultivation of aromatic plants in Uttarakhand has dramatically increased from 301 in 2003-04 to 2714 in 2006-2007 and the area under aromatic plants has increased ten fold.

Traditional Knowledge

������� United Nations University proposal defines Traditional Knowledge System (TKS) as "Traditional Knowledge or 'local knowledge' is a record of human achievement in comprehending the complexities of life and survival in often unfriendly environments. Traditional knowledge may be technical, social, organizational, or cultural was obtained as part of the great human experiment of survival and development." Traditional knowledge provides the basis for problem-solving strategies for local communities, especially the poor. Traditional Himalayan medicine is a good example of TKS, which has affected the lives of poor people around the globe. TKS is of particular relevance to the poor in the following sectors: agriculture, animal husbandry and ethnic veterinary medicine, management of natural resources, primary health care (PHC) and preventive medicine, psycho-social care, saving and lending, community development, poverty alleviation, etc. According to an estimate of the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of the people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for primary health care needs; a major portion of these involves the use of medicinal plants.

������� The Traditional Himalayan Medicine System (THMS) is a living example of TKS where small communities fight even incurable diseases through the traditional methods. They also cure their animals through these traditional methods. These traditional methods are totally oral and non-documented. They use generally herbal products like resin, bark, root, leaves, fruits etc., minerals, animal products and tantric practices. For millennia human societies have been depending on plants and plant products for various remedies. In certain areas these folk medical prescriptions are endemic and have survived through ages from one generation to the next through the word of mouth. They do not exist as written knowledge. Generally these systems of medicine depend on old people's experiences. Indigenous systems of medicine are specially conditioned by the cultural heritage and myths.

History of medicine

������� Search for drugs to improve the quality of life and cure diseases has been a part of human life right from its beginning. In many of the well developed ancient civilizations this knowledge was evaluated, codified, recorded and formed an essential part of the texts of their traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda in India. Drug research is a well structured and organized endeavor. The starting point of the story of modern era of drug research could actually be the observation by Paul Ehrlich around the turn of last century that dye stuffs stain some cells selectively and destroy them. He exploited this idea and increased the toxicity of a dye towards a pathogen by introducing a toxic element like arsenic leading to the antisyphilis agent �salvarasan� in 1907, the first designed drug and coined the word �chemotherapy� for this selective toxic action of chemicals on parasites. The search for Domagk for azo dyes that might be effective antibacterial agents ultimately/resulted in 1935 in the discovery of prontosil which protected mice against lethal streptococcal infections leading to widespread clinical use of a variety of sulphonamides for a wide range of bacterial infections. This was the beginning of the modern era of chemotherapy. The discovery of the powerful antimicrobial activity of a �penicillium notatum� by Flaming in 1928, followed by isolation by Florey in early 1940�s highlighted the microbes as an important source of new drugs and of molecular diversity, and the interest in this resource has continued unabated ever since. The demonstration in early 1950s of the tranquillising and hypotensive activity of Reserpine obtained from �Rauwolfia Sepentina� a drug commonly used in traditional systems of medicine for insanity, focussed attention on plant especially those used in traditional system of medicines.

Himalayan Therapies

������� In Uttarakhand, people uses magico-religious therapies as Bhbhuti, Tantra-mantra and Jagar to placate the local gods and supernatural powers but in natural therapies , like Ayurveda they use herbal products. According to the mode of application, the natural therapies have three categories:
1. Herbal products used in systematized system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha.
2. Herbal products used in ethno-medicine or indigenous medicine like HMS based on oral tradition.
3. Herbal products used in modern medicine, based on active chemical principles of the herbal products.

Despite significance development of rural health services, village people still use herbal folk medicines to a good extent for treatment of common ailments like cough, cold and fever, headache and body-ache, constipation and dysentery, burns, cuts and scalds, boils, ulcers, skin diseases and respiratory troubles and others.

fig1ab.jpg

Figs. 1A and 1B: Elephants and Deer in Jim-Corbet park at Uttarakhand(India).

Challenges

The hill districts of Uttarakhand have tremendous potential. The vast natural resources add to the state�s attractiveness as an investment destination, especially for tourism( Jim Corbett park, Uttarakhandis especially rich with elephantsand Dear (Fig. 1) and in agriculture and forest- based industries. Horses and mules are the backbone of the rural transport system in Uttarakhand (Fig.2). Sheep-rearing for wool can be good opportunity for alternative livelihood, whereas Yak which is used for tourism in few districts of Uttrakhand. Buffaloes are the main milch animals, contributing 62 per cent in milk production.(State Focus Paper 2006-07, NABARD). Attempts should, therefore, be made to explore the new possible species having medicinal importance especially for veterinary and to grow them in suitable areas so as to meet national demands. It is now well established that one major potential area, amongst some others where botanist can make a positive contribution, in the field of molecular medicines and drug research, is that of topological and topographical analyses and system analysis. Development of such analyses leads to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of action of biochemically important compounds, including their side effects.

image004.jpg

Fig. 2: Horses are the backbone of the rural transport system in Uttarakhand (India).

Discussion

Table includes the medicinal plants that have been widely used as veterinary ethno-medicine in Uttarakhand region.Such aromatic plants which occur locally in the Uttarakhand himalaya and their medicinal importance for veterinary. These do not either occur elsewhere or have not so far been exploited commercially.

������������������������� Table 1: Ethno-Medicinal Plants used as Veterinary Medicine.

S. No

Botanical Name

Local Name

Parts Used

�� Uses

Mode of treatment

1

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Moench.

Torighash

Wholeplant

For Sikka Rog

Two palmful whole plant decoction in water given two times for vigor

2

Cardamine impatiens, Linn.

�������� -

Wholeplant

For Tantrka in calf

 

One palmful whole plant decoction in one liter water given two times for vigor

3

Viola biflora, Linn.

Banpansa

Wholeplant

�� In calf for heart & faint problem

 

Two palmful whole plant two times a day for attack. Three/four parts of two palmful whole plant & a spoon honey given two times for heart & skinproblem

4

Violapatrinii, DC

���� -

�� Root

For liver

Two palmful root decoction in one liter water given two times for vigor

5

V.serpens, Wall.

��� -

�� Root

For Liver

Two palmful root decoction in one liter water given three times with honey

6

Hypericum cernum,

Vaya, Culi

Wholeplant

For Hoskins, For wound

 

Two palmful whole plant decoction in one liter water given two times for vigor

7

Linum usitatissinum,Linn.

Alsi

Wholeplant

For strength

Two palmful whole plant decoction in 1& 1/4 liter water given two times for strength

8

Melilotus alba, Lamk.

Banmethi

Wholeplant

For stomach problem and Indigestion

 

One palmful whole plant given three times in a day for vigor

9

Trifolium repens, Linn.

Garila

Wholeplant

ForSatrika

 

Four palmful whole plant given two times a day

10

Agrimonia pilosa, Ledeb.

Kafliya

Whole plant

For purification of blood

Half palmful whole plant decoctionin three/ four liter water given one fourth part with gur in morning

11

Fragaria vesca, Linn.

Pudalia Kafal

Leaf

To protect abortion

Two palmful leaves given daily

12

Potentilla argyrophylla,�������

Danti, Brajdanti

Leaf/Root

For stomach problem

One palmful leaves/two matured root decoction in 3/4 liter water given thrice in a day.

13

Rhamnus virgata, Roxb.

Chaitula

���� Fruit

In Leg swelling

Five matured fruit decoction in � liter water givendaily

14

Rosa moschata, Herrm.

Kunj pani

�� Fruit

For leucorrhea, bleeding, Pregnancy termination.

 

Two palmful fruit with one spoon honey given daily

15

Rubus paniculatus,Sm.

Kala Hisalu(Kadula)

�� Leaf

In pregnancy

Two palmful leaves decoction in � liter water given its one cup twice a day

16

R. lasiocarpus, Sm.

Kala Hisalu

Leaf

In pregnancy

 

Leaf is useful for cow specially in pregnancy pain

17

Bergenia ciliata, Moench.

Silfhora

Root

For Hydrophobia

Two palmful root decoction in � liter water given its one cup thrice a day

18

Ribes grossularia,Linn.

Caktu

Whole plant

For preventing abortion

One palmful whole plant given daily

19

Punica granatum, Linn.

Darim

Skull of fruit

As antimicrobials

One palmfulskull of fruit decoction in � liter water given its one cup three times a day withgur

20

Woodfordia floribunda, Salisb.

Dhow

Flower

As energy syrup

One palmful dry flower decoction in water is useful for animals

21

Centella asiatica, (Linn.)Urban

Brahmi

Leaf

For brain fever

Apply Paste of green leaveson forehead during fever

22

Cuminum cyminum, L.

Jeera

Seed

For indigestion

One palmful seed in � liter water given daily

23

Foeniculum vulgare, Mill.

Saup

Seed

For Hookworm

One palmful seed in 1/8 liter water givenbefore morning meal

24

Pimpinella diversifolia, Dc

Dhanjari

Seed

For Lactation

 

One palmful seedgiven daily

25

Abina cordifolia, Hook. F

Haldu

Bud& leaf

For Wound & fever

Applying paste of new bud on the wound. Decoction of leaves in � liter water given thrice a day in fever

26

Valeriana hardwichii, wall.

Samyo, Dhup

Root

For titaini

Four matured root decoctionin two liter water given � liter twice a day

27

Aesculus indica, Colebr.

Pangar

����� Fruit

In stomach problem

One palmful fruit decoctionin � liter water given with gur

28

Artemisia maritime,Linn.

�������� -

Bud/Leaf

For Indigestion

One palmful bud/leaves decoction in one liter water given one cup daily

29

A. nilagirica, Pampanini.

Patti,Kunj

Whole Plant

For urinary tract infection

One palmful whole body decoction in one liter water givenone cup with���������������������������������������������� gur

30

Artemisia parviflora, Roxb.

Patti, Dhopani

Leaf/ Bud

For round worm

One palmful leaves/ bud decoction in a liter water given 1/8 liter in one hour interval

31

A. sacrorum, Ladeb.

Kapar Patti,Jholpatti

Leaf/Bud

For hair fall

Onepalmful leaves & bud decoction in two literwater given one cuptwice a daily

32

Senecio chrysanthemoides, DC.

Ratpatia

Whole plant

For skin disease

Two palmful whole plant decoction in 3/4 liter water given one cup daily

33

S. rufinervis, DC.

������ -

�� Seed

For wound

Three palmful seed given twice a daily

34

G. pretense, Linn.

Chalmori

Whole plant

In fever, urine problem, eye problem

 

Two palmful whole plant decoction in 3 /4 liter water givenone spoon thrice daily

35

Tanacetum nubigenum, Wall.

������ -

Leaf/ Fruit

As energy syrup, anti microbes.

One palmful leaves/ fruit decoction in one liter water given one spoon with honey

36

Lobelia pyramidalis, Wall.

Bran tambacoo

Whole Plant

For liver disease

Two palmful whole bodydecoction in 3 / 4 liter water given one spoon with honey thrice a daily

37

Anagallis arvensis, Linn.

Vish Khaparia

Fruit/Leaf

As pain killer

 

Two palmful fruit/ leaves given daily

38

Primula denticulate, Smith.

Vish Khaparia

Fruit

In cough, useful for mammary glands

Two palmful flower given with gur

39

P. macrophylla, D. Don.

����� -

Whole Plant

As painkiller

 

This plant works as painkiller

40

Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wall.

Quiar, Indraw

Seed & bark

In fever, Gastric & dysentery

One palmful powder of bark/ seed decoction in one liter water given one cup with gur

41

Calotropis procera, R. Br.

Ank

Root

In indigestion

One palmful powder ofrootdecoction in one liter water given one cup twice a day

42

Gentiana tenella,(Roltb) H. Smith.

Kutuki, Katuwi

Fruit

In hysteria, In weakness

25g of bark of fruits decoction in one liter water givenone cup with honey per day

43

Swertia purpurascens, Wall.

Ciraita

Whole Plant

In fever, In weak appetite.

 

Two palmful whole plant decoction in one liter water given one cup thrice a day

44

Capsicum annum, Linn.

Khusane, Marac

Fruit

As oil massage.

One palmful fruit decoction in three liter water gives one cup twice a day

45

Datura metal, Linn.

Dhatura

Seed

As pain killer (for external use only)

25g roasted seed in one liter oil is used for massage

46

Hyoscyamus niger, Linn.

Bran juwan

Leaf & Seed

As pain killer

Paste of leaves and seed is used as ointment

47

Digitalis purpurea,Linn.

Prawasit Degitelis tilpushpi

Leaf

In burning

One palmful leaves is roast with oil is used as ointment

48

Verbascum thapsus, Linn.

Akalvir

Leaf

In bronchitis

One palmful leaves decoction in 3/4 liter water given one cup thrice a day

49

Clerodendrum infortunatum, Gaertn.

Aranyo

Bark

In Efra

Powdered bark decoction in 2 liter water given one cup thrice a day

50

Ajuga parviflora, Benth.

Ratpatia

Whole plant

In arthritis

 

One palmful whole plant decoction in 3/4 liter water given one cup daily

51

Mentha arvensis, Linn.

Pudina, Eliachi

Whole plant

In post pregnancy problems

Two palmful whole plant decoction in a liter water given � part thrice a day

52

Ocimum sanctum, Linn.

Tulsi

Whole plant

In fever

Two palmful whole planttwice a day

53

Origanum vulgare, Linn.

Jangali tulsi

Whole plant

Indigestion

Four palmful whole plant with fibrous food twice a day

54

Salvia lanata, Roxb.

Sania, Sunip

Whole plant

For vomiting, painkiller

Two palmful whole plant with gur and fibrous food thrice a day

55

Scutellaria angulosa, Benth.

Karuijhar

Whole plant

In acidity

One palmful whole plantdecoction in �literwater given one spoon with honey thrice a day

56

Thymus serpyllum, Linn.

Van ajmain

Whole plant

In chest pain

One palmful whole plant decoction in � liter water given one cup twice a day

57

Plantago major, Linn.

Vrantank

Leaf

In Injury, teeth problem, fever

Paste of leaves in water useful for injury & teeth pain. Two bunch of leaves decoction in one liter water given 1/6 part thrice a day for fever

58

P. orata, Forsk.

Esabgol

Seed

In dysentery

One palmful seed in � liter water makes a semisolid paste giventhrice a day

59

Boerhaavia diffusa, Linn.

Parnata

Leaf

In blood dysentery, In dropsy

 

Juice of leaves thrice a day

60

Achyranthes aspera, Linn.

Chirchira

Whole plant

For teeth problem

 

One palmful whole plant in � liter water is useful in teeth problem

61

A. bidentata, Blume.

Dansh

Root

As Laxative

 

One palmful root decoctionin one liter water given two times for vigor

62

Chenopodium album, Linn.

Bethuwa

Leaf/ seed

For worm

Two palmful seed is given beforebreakfast

63

Rheum emodi, Wall.

Dolu, Archa

Root

For blood purification, for energy

 

One matured root decoction in one liter water given three times for vigor

64

Rumex hastatus, D. Don

 

Bhilmora

Whole plant

For skin disease, In fever

One palmful whole plant decoction in 3 / 4 liter water given one cup thrice a day

65

Piper longum, L.

Pipal

fruit

In Low appetite, As oil massage

 

Powder of fruit is useful for low appetite. Oil with powder massage is useful

66

Cinnamomum tamala, Ness.

Kiriya, karkiriya, Dalchini

Leaf

In stomach problem, in gastric problem

Powder of Leaves and bark with half palmful fiber food is useful

67

Litsaea polyantha, Juss.

Cirira

Leaf

In injury

Powder of bark & leaves in cold water as ointment

68

L. umbrosa, Ness.

Circira

Leaf

In bone injury

 

Paste of leaves in water as ointment in bone injury

69

Viscum album, Linn.

Bana

Fruit

In pregnancy problem

Six fruits with milk twice a day

70

Emblica officinalis,Gaertn.

Aula, Awla

Fruit

In eye disease/ good health

Two palmful fruits powder with fibrous food

71

Euphorbiaprolifera, Buch. Ham.,ex.Don.

Duwila

Fruit

Used in dog bite

Powder of fruit is useful

72

Mallotus philippinensis, Muell. & Arg.

Roli, Kasela

Fruit

To protect from worm

Fruit extract with one palmful fibrous food is given once a day

73

Ricinus communis, Linn.

Erind

Leaf

For internal injury

Oil of this plant is useful. Use of leaves in heat therapy

74

Betula utilis,Don.

Bhuj, Bhojpatra

Seed

To protect from worm

Two small pinch is useful

75

Quercus dilatata, Lindl.

Banj

Bark

In dysentery

Two palmful powder of bark decoction in one liter watergiven one cup twice a day

76

Q. semecarpifolia, Sm.

���� -

Bark

In dysentery

Two palmful bark powder decoction in one cup water given twice a day

77

Salix elegans, Wall.

Garbainsh

Fruit

In rickets

Three palmful fruits decoction in one liter water given one cup thrice a day

78

Ephedra gerardiana, Wall.

Gidjing

Stem

In pain

One bunch of stem pieces decoction in 2 liter water given one cup in early morning

79

Juniperus communis ,Linn.

Jhora, khichiya

Fruit

In liver disease

Twelve fruits daily

80

Abies webbiana, Lindl.

Raisal barmi radha

Bud

In Cough

One palmful bud decoction in 3 liter water given thrice a day

81

Cassoa absus, Linn.

Banar, Chakwar

Seed

In urine problem

One palmful seeds decoction in � liter water given one cup thrice a day

82

Satyrium nepalense, D. Don.

��� -

Root

As tonic

Two palmful roots decoction in 3 / 4 liter water given � parts twice a day

83

Zingiber officinals���������

Banhaldi

Root

Internal injury,As anti worm

Paste of root

84

Cureumaangustifolia, Roxb.

Banhaldi

Root

In gastric problem, anti worm

Paste of root

85

Acorus calamus, Linn.

Banj

Root

Fever, pain

Two matured root with fibrous food given daily

86

Allium stracheyi,Baker.

Jambu

Whole Plant

For stomach problem

 

Two palmful whole plant given thrice a day

87

Allium wallichii, Kunth.

Jangali Lasun

Root

In infection

Two node given daily

88

Asparagus racemosus, willd.

Kairuwa

Bud

In liver problem & To enhance Lactation

One palmful bud given twice a day

89

Aloe vera, Linn.

Patquar

Leaf

Stomach problem

Juice of leaves given � cup a day

90

Adiantum venusthum,G. Don.

Hanshraj

Seed

ForChest problem and hair fall

One palmful seed given with fibrous food

91

Equisetum arvense, Linn.

Horsetel

Whole plant

For urinary problem

Half palmful whole plant decoction in one liter water given

92

Althaea officinalis, Linn.

Jangalihauli

Root

For termination of pregnancy

 

Three/ four matured root decoction in one liter water is given

93

Reinwardtia trigyna, Planch.

Pyuli

Root

In wound

One bunch of root decoction in � liter water given one cup in a gap of two days

94

Tagetes arecta, Linn.

Hazari

Fruit

In vomiting, In healing wound

One palmful fruit is given with fibrous food at the time of vomiting. Its external use is in filling wound

95

Calendula officinalis, Linn.

Ganda(Tokar)

Leaf

In bleeding

Juice of leaves is helping in bleeding

96

Atropa belladonna, Linn.

Dhatur Jahar

Leaf

In injury as pain killer

Paste of one palmful leaves burns in oil acts as ointment

97

Datura stramonium, Linn.

Dhatura

Leaf

In injury as pain killer

Paste of one palmful leaves acts as ointment

98

Urtica dioica, Linn.

Sisauna

Leaf

Skin disease, For lactation

One palmful leaves is given with fibrous food in 1h interval

99

Juglans regia, Linn.

Akhore

Leaf/ fruit

In stomach problem, As anti worm

Two palmful leaves or two green fruits decoction in 1 liter water is given one cup with two spoon honey thrice a day

100

Hedychium spicatum,Ham.ex. Smith

Kapur Kachari

Root

For fever & cough

 

Root is given with gur

101

Canna indica, Linn.

Kewara

Root

In disinterest, In afra

 

Powder of one bunch of root is given with gur

102

Anemona obtusiloba Don.

Kakaria

Leaf

In sinus

A cotton bud is made of Paste of leaves with Ghee for cleaning sinus

103

Delphinium denudatum, Wall

Nirwishi, Munel

Seed

Intics

One palmful seed decoction in � liter water is given

104

Aconitum balfouria, stapf.

Bishjahar

Root

In wound

One matured root burns in one liter oil gives a ointment

105

Paeonia emodi, Wall.

Bhoi Pawin

Root

In stomach problem

One matured root decoction in 3 / 4 liter water is given one cup with 100g gur thrice a day

106

Berberis aristata, DC

Kilmori

Root & stem

In fever, weakness

One palmful root/ stem decoction in � liter water given one cup daily

107

Fumaria parviflora, Lamk.

Pitpapara

Whole plant

In skin etching(disease)

One palmful whole plant decoction in one liter is given

108

Brassica napus, Linn.

Kali sarso

Seed

In poor appetite

Two palmful seed is given with fibrous food and gur twice a day

109

Geranium ocellatum, Camb.

Bhiljari

Whole plant

As insecticide

Four whole plant with fibrous food twice a day. Powder of whole plant is given as insecticide

110

Acacia catechu, Wild.

Khair

Stem

In Urine problem, dysentery

One palmful stem decoction in � liter water given one cup four times a day

111

Butea frondosa, Koen.

Dhank

Flower, Seed

As painkiller

Paste of flower and seed is given

 

 

��� Special emphasis is on R&D.

An integrated action plan has been drawn up for this purpose in coordination with the Government of India and other concerned agencies in the State and elsewhere in the country. R&D in the area of Medicinal Plants and commercial production of applications and formulations will be developed in conjunction with Research Institutions and reputed companies. A Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Export Zone has been set up covering seven districts of Uttarakhand and Specialized Herbal Parks are in the offing.

The salubrious climate, pollution free environment and the availability of a wide range of flora and fauna in the mountainous terrain, make Uttarakhand an ideal location for developing centres for alternative medicine and health care facilities. A significant portion of Uttarakhand is under forest cover (almost 70 percent). There is, thus, excellent potential for the development of forest resources based Industries in the State. In addition, there is ample scope to develop industries based on forest and agro-wastes such as lantana, pine needles, plant and vegetative fibres such as Rambans, etc.

 

Conclusion

Himalyan people have a close relationship with nature. Generally, they believe that diseases are caused by the supernatural powers and they treat them through natural products like plants, herbs, trees, soil etc. Himalayan veterinary medicine system is totally non-systematized. The person, prescribing these medicines has no so-called scientific knowledge about the disease.�� So, discoveries coming from diverse backgrounds laid down the broad canvas for drug research to follow. Most of the basic concepts and approaches to modern drug discovery research were established. These developments aroused worldwide interest and offered great hope and prospects.

References

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(3) Issar, R. K.(1981). Traditionally important medicinal plantsand folklore of Uttaranchal Himalaya for animal treatment. J. Sc. Res. Pl. Med., 2: 61-66.

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