Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1-32. 2009.

 

 

Wound Healing Plants of Jalgaon District of Maharashtra State, India

 

1M.Z. Chopda and 2R.T. Mahajan

 

1Post Graduate Department of Zoology

2Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology

Moolji Jaitha College, Jalgaon � 425001

 

Issued 04 January 2009

 

Abstract

Jalgaon District of Maharashtra state (India) has a great heritage and rich in various green and semi evergreen species. Record of 3347 species from 201 families appeared in earlier literature from Jalgaon District. A list of 283 wound healing plants of Indian origin is compiled; out of these 224 plants are native of Maharashtra, a 131 plants among them occurred in Jalgaon District, which are in practice by local herbalist, Vaidyas and non-registered medical practitioners and Mukhiya (Head) of tribal community. Taxonomical distribution showed 93.63% dicot and 6.37% monocot and a single aquatic plant. The investigation revealed that wound healing natural products usually localized in root (27% ) > leaves (20%) > stem > seed > whole plant > fruit > flower > rhizome > tuber > shoot > stamen >  grain > gall > filament and plant product like latex (46%), oil (40%) , gum and resin (7%)  as evident from this survey. Most of the remedies consisted of either single plant part or combination. Methods of preparation varies and they are species specific viz: plant parts applied as a paste, juice extracted from the fresh plant parts, powder made from fresh or dried plant parts, some fresh plant parts, and decoction. In this study the most dominant family was Leguminosae and roots were most frequently used for wound healing. Here an attempt has also been made to work out on plants belonging to Jalgaon District in order to exploit them for preparation of ointment that can be used both in human and domestic animals.

Keywords: Wound healing, Traditional Medicinal plants, Jalgaon District

Introduction

The Indian traditional system of medicine is based on pragmatic facts of the observations and the experience over millennia. More than 1200 diseases are mentioned in different classical texts. Traditional medicine, being a significant element in the cultural patrimony, still remains the main choice for a large majority of people for treating various diseases and ailments.  Management in various forms of diseases like Diabetes, Cardiovascular disorders, hepato-protective, antibacterial, antifungal and wound healing etc. are made with more than 1000 medicinal plants (89.93%); 58 minerals, metals, or ores (5.24%); and 54 animal and marine products (4.86%)1. Figure 1 depicts the process of wound healing phenomenon.

Figure 1. The process of wound healing pathogenesis.

As per modern medicine certain essential polypeptides of the low concentration present in animal serum, called Growth Factors6, which control cell proliferation. However, a recent study reveals that some of these growth factors may have serious untoward effects such as carcinogenesis7. Classical management of wounds follows various therapeutic steps, starting with an aseptic dressing and ending with the rehabilitation of the normal structure and function8. These therapeutic measures were aimed not only to accelerate the healing process but also to maintain the quality and aesthetics of the healing. As described in different literature, 70% of the wound healing drugs are of plant origin, 20% of mineral origin, and the remaining 10% consisting of animal products9. These drugs are stated to be effective in different conditions such as wounds, ulcers, sinuses, abscess, syphilitic ulcers, and maggots in wounds, septic wounds, and inflammatory changes of wounds, cellulitis, purulative ulcer, diabetic carbuncle, and fistula-in-ano. The plants are used as first aids, washing of wounds, extraction of pus, as coagulants and for infected wounds. Scientific investigations have been carried out to assess the wound healing properties of the some drugs. This paper is a review of some of the plant medicines used by the tribal community and rural people, possesses unique untold information about plants. This knowledge is being eternally handed down from generation to generation. The objective of this study is to interact with local traditional healers and document their knowledge on medicinal plants and their widespread uses.

Background of study

Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for as long as history has been recorded. China, India, and Egypt appear to have been the places which cradled the use of herbs, but herbalism was common in India. A great variety of plants are used for medicinal treatments. Either the dried plant, or a specific part of it (root, leaves, fruit, flowers, seeds), these recipes are prepared using different ingredients of non-plant origin such as water, salt, honey, etc. in modern way it is formulated into suitable preparations viz. tablets, pills, extracts, tinctures, lotions, ointments, creams, etc. The first generally accepted use of plants as healing agents was depicted in the cave paintings discovered in the Lascaux caves in France, which have been radiocarbon-dated 13,000 to 25,000 BC11. The first authentic record of Khandesh plants is to be found in the flora of the Bombay presidency 12. Species found in Ayuervedic and Unani systems of Medicine, together with those used as popular village remedies have been mentioned in Gazetteer of Bombay state13. Surveys on flora of Khandesh region were restricted only with Botanical or Taxonomical point of view (singh 2001) (Table 2)27 however our survey reports medicinal uses of the same flora.

Table 1.  Flora of Maharashatra state: Statistics.

Group

Families

Genera

Species

Subspecies

Verities

Sub varieties

Monocotyledons

34

256

913

03

39

01

Dicotyledons

167

841

2221

25

137

00

Total

201

1097

3134

28

176

01

 

On utilizing them properly, they may be used to control the diseases like, Jaundice, Diabetes, Malaria, Arthritis, Diarrhea, Hypertension, and Wound healing. Laticiferous plant Euphorbia nerifolia Linn reported as wound healer by Rasik (1996). Bhattarai (1997) lists 42 plant species used in wound treatment in Nepal, and of these eight are listed as haemostats. Admirable activity of Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. leaf on wound healing and inflammation in mice was observed by Subramoniam (2001). A review on wound healing plants documented by Biswas (2003) quote 164 plants. Splendid action of Tagetes erecta Linn leaves was established by Ghosh (2004). Aqueous and methanolic extract of  Vernonia arborea (HK) showed remarkable activity for wound healing (Manjunatha, 2005). Recently Muthu (2006) has been reported 16 remedies against wound used by Kancheepuram tribal community. Holy basil plant Ocimum sanctum Linn exhibits outstanding action as antioxidant and wound healing property (Shetty, 2007). Ethnomedicinal importance of flora of Dhule and Nandurbar Districts has been mentioned in literature14 gives number of plants for various diseases out of these 36 numbers of plants as wound healing. Parallel work with listing of wound healing plants of Indigenous origin has been carried out by us where we found 131 plants of them belonging to the Jalgaon District. This paper reports an ethnobiological study with the aim to identify medicinal plants used in the treatment of wounds. An attempt has been made to congregate scanty information available in literature. A perusal of reported literature on the Khandesh flora prompted us to exploit them as a national prosperity. 

Materials and Methods

Geographic Location of Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

Maharashtra encompasses an area of 3,07,713 km2 (9.4% of country) and is the third largest state15 in India. Maharashtra is bordered by the states of Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Andhra Pradesh to the southeast, Karnataka to the south, and Goa to the southwest. The state of Gujarat lies to the northwest, with the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli sandwiched in between. The Arabian Sea makes up Maharashtra's west coast  and lies at  Latitude : 20.00 N Longitude : 76.00 E  The total forest cover of Maharashatra is 61939 km2. This includes 28387 km2 of dense forest and 18478 km2 of open forest18. Of the total forest area of Maharashatra, 8196 km2 are under protected area (Figure 2)16,17,22  which includes 35 sanctuaries19, 5 National Parks20, and 26 Tiger reserve21. Jalgaon District in North Maharashatra with an Area 11757 km2and the forests in the district cover an area of 4,732.199 km2 of which 4,413.423 km2 and 318.776 km2 are under Forest and Revenue departments respectively. Of the total area 3,937.435 km2 constitute reserve forests and 794.764 km2 private forests23. Area under Irrigation 1, 21,000 hectares, Irrigation Projects Major-2 Medium-10 Minor-514 Imp. Projs.-2 - Upper Tapi and Hatnur. Languages/Dialects - Ahirani, Marathi. Folk-Arts Lavani, Tamasha, Gondhal. Weather Temperature- Max.-34.9 Deg. C. Min.-19.90 C. Rainfall-763.6 mm (Average), Main Crops Banana, cotton, sugarcane , oil seeds,  pulses,  Area under Horticulture 47424 hectares. The Jalgaon district is located 200-210N and 740-760 E. It is located in Northern part of Maharashtra State18. It is bounded on the north by Madhya Pradesh, on the east by Buldhana district, on the west by Nasik and Dhulia districts and on the south by Aurangabad district.  It is a part of Deccan Uplands of the Maharashtra State; it is distinguished from the rest of the upland districts by its westward aspect.

 

Figure 2. Location of Study area (Jalgaon District, Maharashatra, India).

 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

 

Plate 1.  Panoramic view of Satpuda hill (at background) along with villagers and author.

 

 

 

Plate 2.  Enquiry about Wound healing plants with aborigines of Yawal Tahsil of Jalgaon District.

 

Plate 3.  Conversations with traditional practitioner about Wound healing plants.

 

While the rest of the upland region is drained by the major rivers to the east, the Tapi and its tributaries drain the Jalgaon region to the west towards Arabian Sea. The landscape is typically that of the Deccan lavas with residual hill ranges and broad valleys, with trap dykes introducing a sharp local contrast as small chains of hillocks. Thus Jalgaon includes varied topographical features and landscapes, consisting of wild hills and forests, rich gardens and groves, stretch of barren plain, low rolling rocky hills and tensely gullied (bad land) topography near major river banks. Regionally, from east to west, parallel with the Tapi, are three well marked belts of country; in the centre the rich Tapi valley, in the north the high and wild Satpuda, and in the south and south-west bare ridges and rich well-watered valleys flanked by the Ajanta range. Jalgaon district is divided in to 15 Tahsils. Among the unsettled tribes of Khandesh, the largest in number are the Bhils, who are regarded as the aboriginals originally spread all over Rajputana, Malva, and Gujarat and Central India but now found mostly in Khandesh, parts of Gujarat, and the Vindhya hills. Jalgaon district is known for its advances in horticulture. Cultivation and production of banana and cotton, especially by resorting to drip irrigation, has created a role model for cultivators in other parts of India. Bananas grown in the district are exported outside the State and to other countries. Mehrun village is famous for its unique bor (jubjube) 24.  In this study data were collected through general conversation with the local traditional vaidyas, tribal communities and rural peoples. Surveyed information includes medicinal plants with their local names and parts used. The plants were listed by following book �The flora of Presidency of Bombay�12.

Result and discussion

The list is compiled on the basis of (i) Textual data (ii) References and Cross-references37, 38 (iii) Herbalist / non-medical practitioners (iv) Internet and web-sites. The plants used in the management of wounds as described in different literature are listed in Table 1 with local name, botanical name, family name, parts used.

Table 2.  Medicinal plants of Wound Healing mentioned in different classical texts.

Sr. no.

Name of the plant

Habit

Family

Common

 name

Part used

1.       

Abies webbiana Lindl

T

Pinaceae

Talisa

L

2.       

Abrus precalorius linn

C

Leguminosae

Gunja,Kunch

SD

3.       

Acacia arebica Linn

T

Mimosaceae

Babul

ST,L,FU,SD

4.       

Acacia catechu Willd

T

Mimosaceae

Khadira

ST

5.       

Acacia chundra Roxb

T

Leguminosae

Khadir

ST, WH

6.       

Acacia ferneiana Willd

T

Leguminosae

Irimeda

ST

7.       

Acaylpha indica

H

Euphorbiaceae

Khokali

Leaves,bark

8.       

Achyranthus aspera linn

H

Amaranthaceae

Apamarga

WH

9.       

Achyranthus bdentata Blure

H

Amaranthaceae

Raktapuspi

WH

10.   

Acorus calamus Linn

H

Araceae

Bacha

RH

11.   

Adathoda vasica Nees

S

Acanthaceac

Basak

L

12.   

Adiantum, lunulatum Burm

H

Polypopdiaceae

Hansapdi

L

13.   

Aegle mermelos Corr

T

Rutaceae

Bilwa

L, ST

14.   

Agrimonia pilosa  Ledeb

S

Rosaceae

Belur,

WH

15.   

Albizzia lebbeck Benth

T

Leguminosae

Shirisa 

ST

16.   

Alstonia schlolaris Roxb

T

Apocynaceae

Saptapama

L, ST, ST

17.   

Amomum subulatum Roxb

T

Zingiberaceae

Bhadraila

SD

18.   

Anacardium occidentale Linn

H

Anacardiaceae

Batad

RT, ST, FU

19.   

Anaphalis triplinervis Sims

H

Asteraceae

Anans

FL

20.   

Andropogon muricantus Retz

H

Graminae

Virana

RT

21.   

Andropogon squarnosus Hook.f.

H

Graminae

Bena

RT

22.   

Angelica glauca Edgw

T

Umbellifarae

Chorak

RT

23.   

Annona squemosa Linn

T

Annonaceae

sitaphal

RT, L,FU,SD

24.   

Anogeisus latifolia Wall

S

Comberetaceae

Dhava

ST

25.   

Anthocephalus cadamba Miq      

T

Rubiaceae

Kadamba

ST

26.   

Aquilaria agalocha Roxbg

T

Thymelaeaceae

Aguru

LX

27.   

Argemone maxicana Linn

H

Papaveraceae

Katuparni

RT,  LX

28.   

Argyreiae speciosa Roxb

C

Convulvulaceae

Samudrapalaka

L

29.   

Artemisia lciniata Willd

S

Asteraceae

Khampa

L, FU, FL, ST

30.   

Artemisia vulgaris Linn

S

Asteraceae

Damnak

WH

31.   

Artocorpus integrafolia Linn

T

Moraceae

Panash

RT, ST, FU

32.   

Asclepias curasavica Linn

H

Asclepiadaceae

Raktaphul

RT, L

33.   

Asparagus gonocladus Linn

S

Liliaceae

Satmuli

RT

34.   

Asparagus racemosa Willd

C

Liliaceae

Satavri

RT

35.   

Azadirachta indica A Juss

T

Meliaceae

Nimba

L,OL

36.   

Balanites roxburghii Planch

T

Simaronbaceae

Hingana

ST

37.   

Baliospermum monatanum Muell Arg.

S

Euphorbiceae

Danti

L

38.   

Basia longlifolia Linn.

T

Sapotaceae

Jalaja

SD

39.   

Bauhinia purpurea Linn

T

Leguminosae

Lai-kovidar

SB, FL, FU

40.   

Berberis aristata D.C.

H

Berberidaceae

Daruhald

RT,ST

41.   

Berberis asiatica Roxb

H

Berberidaceae

Sumul

RT

42.   

Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.

T

Betulaceae

In Birch

ST

43.   

Biophytum sensitivum Linn

H

Gerandaceae

Lajalu

SD

44.   

Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.

H

Nyctaginaceae

Punarnava

WH

45.   

Bombusa arudinacea Willd

T

Graminae

Vansha lochan

ST, SH

46.   

Boralia hispida Linn

H

Rubiaceae

Madanghati

RT

47.   

Boschniakia himalaika Hook.f.

S

Scrophulariaceae

Ganelu

WH

48.   

Boswellia serrata Roxb

T

Bursaraceae

Salai

L

49.   

Bryophyllum calycinum Salib

H

Crassulaceae

Pattharchur

L

50.   

Caesalpinia bonducella F.

T

Leguminosae

Karanja

SD

51.   

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

S

Leguminosae

kuchandan

SD

52.   

Calendula officinalis Linn.

H

Asteraceae

Marigold

FL

53.   

Callophylum inophylumLinn

T

Guttiferae

Sultanchampa

RT

54.   

Calotropis gigantean Linn.

S

Asciepidiaceae

Rajarka

LX

55.   

Calotropis procera Ait.

S

Asclepidiaceae

Akanda

RT, ST

56.   

Canabis sativa Linn

H

Cannabinaceae

Bhang

L

57.   

Capparis aphylla Roth

T

Capparideceae

Karira

RT, ST

58.   

Capparis sepiaria Linn.

T

Capparideceae

Kalikara

RT, ST

59.   

Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn

S

Celastraceae

Lataphatki

SD

60.   

Carica papaya

T

Caricaceae

Papaya

Latex

61.   

Carthamus tinctorius Linn

S

Asteraceae

Kusum

SD

62.   

Casia auriculata Linn

S

Caesalpinaceae

Arbur

ST, F,L, SD

63.   

Cayratia camosa

C

Vitaceae

Ambatvel

RT

64.   

Cedrela toona Roxb.

H

Leguminosae

Tuni

SD

65.   

Cedrus deodara Roxb. Loud.

T

Annonaceae

Devdaru

L

66.   

Celastrus panniculatus Willd

C

Celastraceae

Jotismti

SD

67.   

Celsia coromandeliona Vahl

H

Scrophulariceae

Bhutakeshi

WH

68.   

Centilla asiatica Linn

H

Umbeliferaceae

Mandukparni

WH, SD

69.   

Chaslia chartacea Craqib

S

Rubiaceae

Vellakuainji

RT

70.   

Chenopodium album Linn.

H

Chenopodiaceae

Pigweed

L

71.   

Chloroxylon swietiana DC

T

Rutaceae

Bhirra

L

72.   

Cinommomum tamala N& E

T

Lauraceae

Patra

ST

73.   

Cirsium verutum D.Don Spreng

S

Asteraceae

Kandara

RT

74.   

Cisampleos pareira Linn.

T

Menispermaceae

Aknadi

RT

75.   

Citrullus colocynthis schard

C

Cucurbitaceae

Indrabaruni

RT, FU

76.   

Citrus decumoona Linn.

S

Rutaceae

Baranimbu

L, SD

77.   

Citrus medica Linn.

S

Rutaceae

Matulunga

FU

78.   

Clerodendron  serratumSpreng

T

Verbenaceae

Bharangi

RT, L

79.   

Clitoria terentea Linn

H

Leguminosae

Aparajita

RT, L, SD

80.   

Coccinia grandis Linn

C

Cucurbitaceae

Kundari

WH

81.   

Codonopsis ovatabenth

H

Campnulaceae

 Bastard ginseng,

RT

82.   

Coleus vettiveroides Benth

T

Labiatae

Valakam

WH

83.   

Coriandar sativum Linn

H

Umbeliferae

Dhaniya

FU

84.   

Coscinum fenerstratum W

C

Menispermaceae

Kuldi

RT

85.   

Crocus sativus Linn.

S

Iridaceae

Kumkuma

FL

86.   

Cuccumis trigonus

C

Cucurbitaceae

Pongari

RT

87.   

Curcuma aromatica Salib

H

Zinziberaceae

Jangali halad

RT

88.   

Curcuma longa Linn.

H

Zingiberaceae

Haridra

RH

89.   

Curcuma zedoria Rosc.

H

Zingiberaceae

Ekangi

TU

90.   

Cynodon dactylon Linn

H

Graminae

Durva

WH ,RT

91.   

Cyprus rotundus Linn

H

Cyperaceae

Motha/Mustak

RT

92.   

Datura fastuosa Linn.

H

Solanaceae

Dhutura

L

93.   

Desmodium gangeticum D.C.

H

Leguminosae

Shalaparni

WH

94.   

Desmotricum fimbriatum Lindl.

H

Orchidaceae

Jivanti

RT

95.   

Dipterocanthus prostratus Ness

H

Acanthaceae

-

RT

96.   

Dolichos biflorus Linn.

H

Leguminosae

Kulattha

SD

97.   

Echinopus echinatus

H

Asteraceae

Utakanta

RT

98.   

Eclipta alba    Hassk

H

Asteraceae

Bhringaraj

WH ,L, RT

99.   

Elephantopus scaber Linn

H

Asteraceae

Gobhi, Punjaki

RT

100.              

Eletraia cardamomum Maton.

C

Zingiberaceae

Elaich

SD

101.              

Embelia ribes Burm.f.

C

Myrsinaceae

Bidanga

FU

102.              

Emlica officinalis Geartn

T

Euphorbiaceae

Amlaki

FU,  L

103.              

Ephedra vulgaris Hook.f.

C

Gnetaceae

Somlata

ST

104.              

Erythrina indica Lam

T

Leguminosae

Paribhadra

L, ST

105.              

Erythrina variegate Linn.

T

Leguminosae

Badisa

L

106.              

Eucalyptus globus Labill

T

Myrtaceae

Karpura

OL

107.              

Euphorbia hirta Linn

H

Euphorbiceae

Dhudhi

RT

108.              

Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.

H

Euphorbiaceae

Snuhi

LX

109.              

Euphorbia pilosa Linn.

S

Euphorbiaceae

Chuplya

LX

110.              

Euphorbia thymifolia R.Br.

H

Euphorbiaceae

Dugdhika

WH

111.              

Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.

C

Umbelliferae

Shankhapuspi

FU

112.              

Feronia elephantum Correa

T

Rutaceae

Kapirath

L

113.              

Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke

S

Umbellierae

Hingu

GU

114.              

Ficus amottiana Miq

T

Moraceae

Paraspipal

L, ST

115.              

Ficus bengalensis Linn.

T

Moraceae

Vad

ST

116.              

Ficus glomerata Roxb

T

Moraceae

Gular

WH , RT

117.              

Ficus hispida Linn.f.

T

Moraceae

Kakodambara

ST

118.              

Ficus lacor Buch. Ham.

T

Moraceae

Plaksha

ST

119.              

Ficus religiosa  Linn

T

Moraceae

Pipal

ST ,SH, L

120.              

Ficus retusa   Linn

T

Moraceae

Kuni

RT, L, ST

121.              

Gloriosa superba Linn.

C

Liliaceae

Langloli

RT

122.              

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

S

Leguminosae

Jastimadhu,

RT, L

123.              

Gmellina arboria Roxb

T

Verbenaceae

Shivam

RT, L

124.              

Gmellina eliptica Sm

S

Verbenaceae

-

RT

125.              

Grawia hirsuteVahl

S

Tiliaceae

-

RT

126.              

Grewia tenax Forsk.

T

Tiliaceae

Gangu kanger

WH

127.              

Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl.

T

Tiliaceae

Dhamina

ST

128.              

Gymnema sylvestreR.Br.

C

Asclepiadaceae

Meshsringi

L

129.              

Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith

H

Zingiberaceae

Sathi

RT

130.              

Heliotropium   indicum Linn

S

Boranginaceae

Hastisanda

L

131.              

Heliotropium eichwaldi Stead

S

Boranginaceae

Nilkatte

L

132.              

Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

C

Asclepiadaceae

Anantamul

RT

133.              

Hollarrhena antidysentrica Wall

T

Apocynaceae

Kutaj

RT, ST, SD

134.              

Hordeum vulgare Linn.

H

Graminae

Yava

GR

135.              

Hydnocorpus laurifolias

T

Violaceae

Kowl

SD, OL

136.              

Hydrolea zeylanica Vhal.

S

Hydrophyllaceae

Ishalamgla

RT

137.              

Ichnocarpus frutescens  R.Br.

S

Apocynaceae

Shyama

RT

138.              

Indigophera aspalathoides Vahl Ex D.C.

T

Leguminosae

Ingudi

SD

139.              

Ipomea paniculata R.Br.

C

Convolvulaceae

Kushmanda

RT

140.              

Ipomea turpethum R.Br.

H

Convolvulaceae

Trivirita

RT

141.              

Iris germanica Linn.

S

Irideae

Padmakeshar

ST

142.              

Jasminum auriculatum Vahl.

C

Oleaceae

Juthika

FL

143.              

Jasminum grandiflorumLinn

C

Oleaceae

Chameli

WH

144.              

Jasminum officinalis Linn.

C

Oleaceae

Jati

RT

145.              

Jasminum sambac Ait.

C

Oleaceae

Mogra

ST, L, SD

146.              

Jatropha curcas Linn

S

Euphorbiaceae

Mogali erand

L

147.              

Jatropha gosypifolia Linn.

S

Oleaceae

Ratnajot

RT, ST, L, SD

148.              

Kaempheria rotunda

S

Zinziberaceae

Bhuichampa

WH

149.              

Klenhovia hospital Linn

S

Streculiaceae

Berora

L

150.              

Lagenaria vulgaris Seringe.

C

Cucurbitaceae

Ikshaku

SD

151.              

Lantana camera Linn

S

Verbenaceae

Kuri

WH

152.              

Leea  aequata Linn

S

Vitaceae

Leea

RT

153.              

Lilium gigantium Wall

H

Liliaceae

Sunset plant

L

154.              

Linum usitatissimum Linn

H

Linaceae

Alasi

SD, OL

155.              

Lippia nodiflora Mich.

H

Verbenaceae

Jalapippai

FU

156.              

Litsea citrate Lam

T

Lauraceae

Garbijaur

ST

157.              

Loranthus asper Desr.

C

Loranthaceae

Bandaka

WH

158.              

Loranthus longiflorus Desr

S

Loranthaceae

Vanda

L, FL

159.              

Luffa acutangula Linn

C

Cucurbitaceae

Kritamul

SD

160.              

Luvunga scandens Buch. Ham.

H

Rutaceae

Kakoli

RT

161.              

Lycopus europus Linn

C

Labiate

Jalnin

L

162.              

Lygodium flexuosum Linn

H

Schizaeceae

Rajhans

RT

163.              

Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel

T

Sapotaceae

Moha

WH

164.              

Mallotus philippinensis Muell.Arg.

T

Euphorbiaceae

Kampillaka

SD, FU

165.              

Melastoma malabathricum Linn

S

Melastomaceae

Malabar melastome

RT

166.              

Melia azedarach Linn

T

Meliaceae

Bakain

ST, ST

167.              

Meriandra strobilifera      Benth

T

Labiatae

Kafur

L

168.              

Mertynia diandra Glox.

H

Mertyneceae

Baghnakhi

FU, FL

169.              

Mesua ferrea Linn.

S

Guttiferae

Nagkesar

SM

170.              

Mimosa pudica Linn.

R

Mimosaceae

Lajjalu

WH

171.              

Mimusops elengi Linn.

T

Sapotaceae

Bakul

ST

172.              

Morinda citrifolia Linn

T

Rubiaceae

Ach,Aal

L

173.              

Moringa oleifera Lamk

T

Moringaceae

Sajina

RT

174.              

Mucuna pruriens Bak.

C

Leguminosae

Kapikacchhu

RT

175.              

Murryaya koenginii spreng

S

Rutaceae

Kadipatta

RT

176.              

Musa paradisiaca Linn.

S

Musaceae

Kadali

ST

177.              

Myrica  nagi Thumb.

T

Myricaceae

Katphala

ST

178.              

Nardostachys jatamansi D.C.

H

Valerianaceae

Jatamansi

RT

179.              

Nelsonia canescens

H

Acanthaceae

blue pussy leaf

RT

180.              

Nelumbium speciosum Willd.

C

Nymphaeaceae

Kamal

RT

181.              

Nelumbo nucifera Willd.

C

Nymphaeaceae

Pundariya

ST

182.              

Nerium indicum Mill.

S

Apocynaceae

Karabi

RT

183.              

Nymphoea  stellata Willd.

C

Nymphaeaceae

Nilotapala

RT

184.              

Nymphoea lotus stellata Willd.

C

Nymphaeaceae

Shapla

RT

185.              

Ochradenus baccatus Del

T

Resedaceae

Kalliram

L

186.              

Odina woodier Roxb.

T

Anacardiaceae

Jingira

ST

187.              

Oledelandia biflora Linn.

T

Rubiaceae

Khetpapra

WH

188.              

Oroxulum indicum vent

T

Bignonaceae

Sonpatha

RT ,SD

189.              

Oryza sativa Linn.

H

Graminae

Shetashalitand

SD

190.              

Oscimum sanctum Linn

H

Labiaceae

Tulsi

L

191.              

Papaver somiferum Linn.

H

Papaveraceae

Ahiphena

SD

192.              

Pavetta indicm

T

Rubiaceae

Jarum-jarum

RT

193.              

Phaseolus trilobus Ait.

H

Leguminosae

Mudga

RT, WH

194.              

Phragmites maxima Blatter & Mc Cann

H

Graminae

Nalmula

RT

195.              

Picorrhiza kurroa Royle ex  Benth.

H

Scrophulariaceae

Katuki

RH

196.              

Pinus gradiyana Wall

T

Pinaceae

Rhi

SD

197.              

Pinus longifolia Roxb

T

Pinaceae

Cheer

OL

198.              

Piper auranticum Linn.

C

Piparaceae

Renuka

FU

199.              

Piper chava Hunter.

C

Piparaceae

Chavika

FU

200.              

Piper longum Linn.

C

Piparaceae

Pipul

RT

201.              

Piper nigrum Linn.

C

Piparaceae

Marich

FU

202.              

Pisum sativum Linn.

C

Verbenaceae

Harenu

L

203.              

Plantago lanciolata Linn

T

Plantagenaceae

Bal tanga

L

204.              

Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern

H

Asteraceae

Rasna

L

205.              

Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

C

Plumbaginaceae

Chita

RT

206.              

Pongamia glabra Vent.

T

Leguminosae

Karanja

SD, L

207.              

Portulaca quadrifida Linn

H

Portulaceae

Lonia

L

208.              

Premna integrifolia Linn.

S

Verbenaceae

Ganiari

RT

209.              

Prunus amygdalus Batsch

T

Rosaceae

Almond

WH

210.              

Prunus cerasus Linn.

T

Rosaceae

Elabaluka

SD

211.              

Prunus mahaleb Linn.

S

Rosaceae

Priyangu

RT

212.              

Prunus puddum Roxb.

T

Rosaceae

Padmakastha

ST

213.              

Psidium guajavaLinn

H

Myrtaceae

Amrud

L

214.              

Psoralia corylifolia Linn.

C

Leguminosae

Bakuchi

SD

215.              

Pteredium aquilinum Khun

H

Polypopdiaceae

Bracken

RT

216.              

Pterocarpus santalinus L.f.

T

Papilionaceae

Raktachandan

ST

217.              

Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb

S

Leguminoceae

Bijasar

L

218.              

Randia dumentorum Linn.

S

Rubiaceae

Madan

ST

219.              

Rannunculus scleratus Linn.

S

Rannunculaceae

Kandira

WH

220.              

Rauwolfia serpentina Bent

S

Apocynaceae

Chota chandra

RT, L

221.              

Resantia indica

H

Celastraceae

-

RT

222.              

Rhinacanthus nasutus K

T

Acanthaceae

Palakjuhi

RT, L

223.              

Rhus succdeania Linn.

H

Anacardiaceae

Karkatashringi

GL

224.              

Rosa chinensisJacq

S

Rosaceae

Sada gulab

FU

225.              

Rosa multiflora Herm

S

Rosaceae

Kujai

FU

226.              

Rubia cordifolia Linn.

S

Rubiaceae

Manjistha

RT

227.              

Rumex crispa Linn.

S

Aristolochiaceae

Betas

WH

228.              

Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

S

Salicaceae

Jalabetas

ST, FL

229.              

Salmalia malabarica Schott &Endl

S

Bombacaceae

Shimul

ST

230.              

Salvia moorcroftiana Wall

S

Labiatae

Sage species

FL

231.              

Salvia officinalis Linn

S

Labiatae

Sage

WH

232.              

Santalum albam Linn.

T

Santalanaceae

Swetchandana

ST

233.              

Saraca indica Linn.

T

Leguminosae

Asoka

ST

234.              

Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke

H

Asteraceae

Kur

RT

235.              

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.

T

Anacardaceae

Bhallataka

RT

236.              

Sesasum indicum Linn

H

Pedaliaceae

Til

L, SD, OL

237.              

Shorea robusta Gareth

T

Dipterocarpaceae

Sal

ST, SD, RS

238.              

Sida acuta Burn

S

Malvaceae

Boriora

RT

239.              

Sida cordifolia Linn

H

Malvaceae

Bala

RT

240.              

Sida spinosa Linn.

S

Malvaceae

Chakule

RT

241.              

Solena heterophylla Lour.

S

Cucurbitaceae

Bankundri

L

242.              

Soymida febrifuga A. Juss

T

Meliaceae

Rohera

ST

243.              

Spaeranthus indicus Linn.

H

Asteraceae

Mundi

RT

244.              

Spirogyra elongata

A

Algae

Shaibal

FI

245.              

Stfordia fruticosa Kurz.

S

Lytheraceae

Dhataki

FL

246.              

Strebulus asper Lour.

S

Moraceae

Shoera

RT

247.              

Strychnos nux vomica Linn

T

Loganiaceae

Visha-mukti

L

248.              

Swertia chirata Buch.Ham.

H

Gentinaceae

Chireta

ST, L

249.              

Symplocos racemosa Ro

T

Symplocaceae

Luddi/Lodhraka

ST

250.              

Syzygium cumini  Skeels

T

Myrtaceae

Jambu,Jamun

ST, FU

251.              

Tagetes erecta Linn

H

Asteraceae

Bhuidri

FL, L

252.              

Tamarix gallica Linn

S

Tamaraceae

Jhau

WH

253.              

Tarenna asiatica Linn.  Alston

S

Rubiaceae

Kommichittu

L

254.              

Tecoma radicans JuS

C

Bignonaceae

Trumpet Creeper

RT

255.              

Tephrosia purpurea pers

H

Leguminosae

Sarapunkha

WH

256.              

Terminalia arjuna Bedd

T

Combretaceae

Kahu

ST

257.              

Terminalia chebula Retz.

T

Combreraceae

Haritki

FU

258.              

 Terminaliraia belerica Roxb.

T

Combreraceae

Bibhitaka

FU

259.              

Thespesia populnea Soland ex correa

T

Malvaceae

Palashpipul

FU, L, RT

260.              

Thuja orientalis Linn

T

Cuprasasae

Vidya

ST

261.              

Tinospora tomentosa Colebr.

T

Menispermaceae

Padmagulancha

ST

262.              

Trechyspermum ammiLinn.

H

Umbelliferae

Ajwain,

SD

263.              

Tribulus terretris Linn.

R

Zygophyllaceae

Gokshura

FU

264.              

Tricodesma indicum R.Br.

C

Cucurbitaceae

Surasa

RT

265.              

Tricosanthes dioica Roxb.

C

Cucurbitaceae

Palta

L, ST

266.              

Tridex Procumbens Linn.

H

Asteraceae

Ekdandi

L

267.              

Tylophora fasciculata H

H

Asclepiadaceae

Gundra

L

268.              

Typha elephantine Linn

T

Typhaceae

Cat tails

FU

269.              

Vateria indica Linn.

T

Dipterocarpaceae

Sarja

LX

270.              

Veronia anthelmintic Willd.

S

Asteraceae

Somraj

SD

271.              

Veronia teris Wall

H

Asteraceae

Banda

WH

272.              

Veronica beccalunga Linn

H

Scrophulariceae

Ashwakandika

WH

273.              

Vernonia arborea Hk

T

Asteraceae

-

L

274.              

Viscum album Linn

C

Loranthaceae

Pitabringi

WH

275.              

Vitex negundo Linn.

S

Verbeneceae

Nishinda

L

276.              

Wedelia calendulacea Less

H

Asteraceae

Bhringaraj

L

277.              

Widelia wallichi Los

H

Asteraceae

-

WH

278.              

Witahnia somnifera Dunal.

S

Solanaceae

Ashwagandha

TU, RT

279.              

Xanthium stumarium

S

Asteraceae

Chote gokhru

RT

280.              

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

H

Zingiberaceae

Sunthi

RH

281.              

Ziziphus jujube  Linn

T

Rhamnaceae

Bor

RT

282.              

Ziziphus mauritiana Linn

T

Rhamnaceae

Bor

RT

283.              

Ziziphus vulgaris  Linn

T

Rhamnaceae

Bor

ST

 

H = Herbs, S = Shrubs, T = Tree, C = Climber, R = Runners, A = Aquatic,  L = Leaves, SD = Seeds, ST = Stem, FU = Fruit, WH = Whole plant, RH = Rhizome, RT = Root, FL = Flower, LX = Latex, OL = Oil, TU = Tuber, GU = Gum, SH = Shoot, GR = Grain, SM = Stamen, GL = Gall, RS = Resin, FI = Filament,

 

The present investigation comprises geographical distribution of wound healing plants throughout India was 283 of which 79.15% was found in Maharashatra and 46.28% observed in Jalgaon District. 283 plant species of ethnomedicinal plants, distributed in 236 genera belonging to 97 families. For each species botanical name, family, local name, parts used, is provided. Traditional healers are using these plants to cure diseases related to skin problems, cold, fever, cough, headache, diarrhea, fertility problems, toothache, stomach ache, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, dysentery, small pox, bone fractures, earache, hair loss and poison (snake, scorpion and insect) bites especially  wounds. Zingiberaceae was the dominant monocot family followed by Poaceae family. Trees (93 species) were found to be the most used plants (Figure 3) followed by Herbs (87 species), shrubs (67 species) and climbers (40 species) in descending order.

Figure 3. Distributions of wound healing plants habit wise.

Only one aquatic plant, 93.63% of dicotyledons and 6.34% of monocotyledons, plants are of wound healing in nature. The most dominant families in the study were Leguminosae (23 species) (Figure 4), Asteraceae (20 species), Euphorbiceae (10 species), Moraceae and Rubiaceae (09 species), Cucurbitaceae, Verbenaceae, Zingiberaceae (08 species), Poaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae (07 species), Asclepiadaceae, Oleaceae and Umbellifarae (06 species), Apocynaceae and Labiatae (05 species) Acanthaceac, Comberetaceae,  Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Myrsinaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Piparaceae and Scrophulariaceae (04 species), Celastraceae, Convulvulaceae Dipterocarpaceae, Loranthaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapotaceae,  and Tiliaceae (03 species),  Other families with less number are listed below: Amaranthaceae, Annonaceae, Berberidaceae, Bignonaceae, Boranginaceae, Capparideceae, Guttiferae, Lauraceae, Papaveraceae, Pedaliaceae, Polypopdiaceae, Solanaceae, and Vitaceae (2 species), whereas 48 families have single species. Different parts of medicinal plants were used as medicine by the local traditional healers.

Figure 4. Familiwise distribution of wound healing plants.

Arebic number represents number of plant species

Mostly root was used for wound healing followed by leaves (Figure 5A). Part used are in following order stem > seed > whole plant > fruit > flower > rhizome > tuber > shoot > stamen > grain > gall > filament.  

Figure 5A.  Distribution of part used of wound healing plants.

In addition to plant parts, plant products used by adivasi neighborhood, as under latex > oil > resin and gum (Figure 5B). 

Figure 5B. Distribution of plant product of wound healing plants.

The scientific approaches for the study of traditional plant-based remedies for wound healing will provide us an important platform for rigorous testing and evaluation of their clinical efficacy based on animal models.

Table 3  Wound healing plants belonging to North Maharashatra region.

Sr. no.

Name of the plant

Habit

Family

Common

 name

Part used

1.       

Abrus precalorius linn

C

Leguminosae

Gunja,Kunch

SD

2.       

Acacia arebica (Linn)

T

Mimosaceae

Babul

ST,L,FU,SD

3.       

Acacia ferneiana Willd

T

Leguminosae

Irimeda

ST

4.       

Achyranthus aspera linn

H

Amaranthaceae

Apamarga

WH

5.       

Achyranthus bdentata Blure

H

Amaranthaceae

Raktapuspi

WH

6.       

Acorus calamus Linn

H

Araceae

Bacha

RH

7.       

Adathoda vasica Nees

S

Acanthaceac

Basak

L

8.       

Adiantum, subulatum Burm

H

Polypopdiaceae

Hansapdi

L

9.       

Aegle mermelos Corr

T

Rutaceae

Bilwa

L, ST

10.   

Albizzia lebbeck Benth

T

Leguminosae

Shirisa 

ST

11.   

Alstonia schlolaris (Roxb)

T

Apocynaceae

Saptapama

L, ST, ST

12.   

Anacardium occidentale (L)

H

Anacardiaceae

Batad

RT, ST, FU

13.   

Annona squemosa (Linn)

T

Annonaceae

sitaphal

RT, L,FU,SD

14.   

Anogeisus latifolia Wall

S

Comberetaceae

Dhava

ST

15.   

Anthocephalus cadamba       

T

Rubiaceae

Kadamba

ST

16.   

Argemone maxicana (Linn)

H

Papaveraceae

Katuparni

RT,  LX

17.   

Asparagus racemosa Willd

C

Liliaceae

Satavri

RT

18.   

Azadirachta indica (Linn)

T

Meliaceae

Nimba

L,OL

19.   

Balanites roxburghii Planch

T

Simaronbaceae

Hingana

ST

20.   

Baliospermum monatanum Muell

S

Euphorbiceae

Danti

L

21.   

Bauhinia purpurea (Linn)

T

Leguminosae

Lai-kovidar

SB, FL, FU

22.   

Biophytum sensitivum (Linn)

H

Gerandaceae

Lajalu

SD

23.   

Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.

H

Nyctaginaceae

Punarnava

WH

24.   

Bombusa arudinacea

T

Graminae

Vansha lochan

ST, SH

25.   

Boswellia serrata

T

Bursaraceae

Salai

L

26.   

Bryophyllum calliciniu (Linn)

H

Crassulaceae

Pattharchur

L

27.   

Caesalpinia bonducella f.

T

Leguminosae

Karanja

SD

28.   

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

S

Leguminosae

kuchandan

SD

29.   

Calendula officinalis Linn.

H

Asteraceae

Marigold

FL

30.   

Callophylum inophylum

T

Guttiferae

Sultanchampa

RT

31.   

Calotropis gigantean Linn.

S

Asciepidiaceae

Rajarka

LX

32.   

Canabis sativa (Linn)

H

Cannabinaceae

Bhang

L

33.   

Carthamus tinctorius (Linn)

S

Asteraceae

Kusum

SD

34.   

Celastrus panniculatus Willd

C

Celastraceae

Jotismti

SD

35.   

Centilla asiatica (Linn)

H

Umbeliferaceae

Mandukparni

WH, SD

36.   

Citrullus colocynthis schard

C

Cucurbitaceae

Indrabaruni

RT, FU

37.   

Citrus medica Linn.

S

Rutaceae

Matulunga

FU

38.   

Clerodendron  serratum

T

Verbenaceae

Bharangi

RT, L

39.   

Clitoria terentea (Linn)

H

Leguminosae

Aparajita

RT, L, SD

40.   

Coccinia grand (Linn)

C

Cucurbitaceae

Kundari

WH

41.   

Coriandar sativum (Linn)

H

Umbeliferae

Dhaniya

FU

42.   

Curcuma aromatica (Salib)

H

Zinziberaceae

Jangali halad

RT

43.   

Curcuma longa Linn.

H

Zingiberaceae

Haridra

RH

44.   

Cynodon dactylon (Linn)

H

Graminae

Durva

WH ,RT

45.   

Cyprus rotundus (Linn)

H

Cyperaceae

Motha/Mustak

RT

46.   

Datura fastuosa Linn.

H

Solanaceae

Dhutura

L

47.   

Desmodium gangeticum D.C.

H

Leguminosae

Shalaparni

WH

48.   

Dolichos biflorus Linn.

H

Leguminosae

Kulattha

SD

49.   

Echinopus echinatus

H

Asteraceae

Utakanta

RT

50.   

Ehlipta alba    (Linn)

H

Asteraceae

Bhringaraj

WH ,L, RT

51.   

Elephantopus scaber

H

Asteraceae

Gobhi, Punjaki

RT

52.   

Embelia ribes Burm.f.

C

Myrsinaceae

Bidanga

FU

53.   

Emlica officinalis Linn.

T

Euphorbiaceae

Amlaki

FU,  L

54.   

Erythrina indica (Lam)

T

Leguminosae

Paribhadra

L, ST

55.   

Erythrina variegate Linn.

T