Ethnobotany of Palas Valley, Pakistan

by

Saqib, Z1 and Sultan, A2

zafeersaqib@yahoo.com

1 Department of Biological Sciences Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad

2 National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad

 

Abstract

 

This study represents first comprehensive ethnobotanical survey in Palas valley, Pakistan and is also an attempt to sum up the preexisting ethnobotanical information. A total of 139 ethnobotanically important plant species are being reported from the study area belonging to a total of 72 plant families. The most important families in this regard were Rosaceae (20 species), Asteraceae (9 species), Lamiaceae and Polygonaceae (5 species each). Herbs (59 species) were found to be the most used life forms followed by trees (40 species), shrubs (36 species) and Climbers (4 species) in descending order. Most frequently utilized portions of plants include Fruit (43 species), Wood (30 species), Root (24 species), Leaves (21 species), Whole Plant (16 species), Branch (15 species), Bark (8), Seed (8 species) and Flower (5 species).

 

Most of the plants are utilized as medicine for humans (68 species). Only 3 species could be recorded for their use as veterinary medicine (although there may be many more). There were more than 68 plant species, which are utilized as food. The cultivated crop plants were, however, not included in the list. Fruit species included 38 plants and there were 29 plants that were important as food other than fruits. Most of these were found to be utilized as potherbs. A limited storage of the food plants was also noticed. There were

29 fuel species, 2 torchwood species, 28 fodder species and 10 timber species. Agricultural tools and handles were found to be made from 13 different species. Those employed for hedges, fencing and thatching included 7 species. Five species were used as spices, three for tea and 28 species were recorded for miscellaneous i.e., other than those mentioned above. Currently there are 10 major species that are brought to market for sale these include Bunium persicum, Diospyros lotus, Juglans regia,  Morchella esculenta, Podophyllum emodi, Saussurea costus, Valeriana sp., Viola sp. Vernonia anthelmentica, and Ziziphus oxyphylla.

 

Market plants especially Valeriana jatamansi, Saussurea costus, Paeonia emodi and Podophyllum emodi are under severe pressure due to ethnobotanical collections. High summer pastures are the focus area for collection of most of the plant species and additionally intense grazing has posed a serious threat to these areas.

 

Awareness program in the area about the importance of the indigenous flora, sustainable plants collection and conservation of important medicinal plants would be desirable. The local community should be actively involved in conservation practices. Rotational grazing and reducing the number of livestock will help reduce pressure on pastures. Cultivation of medicinal plants and other plants of economic importance will create new openings for the uplift of poor locals and will also reduce pressures on wild population. A long-term ethnobotanical programme that may address the issues will be a great demand in future.


Introduction

Palas valley represents Pakistan’s most important remaining tract of west Himalayan Forests and represents a unique social and traditional system, built upon a seasonal resettlement (Rafiq 1996). Palas harbor a population of about 60524 individuals in a total of 10 Union Councils (UCs) and has an area of about 1300 square kilometers and elevation ranges from 700-5200 masl. The Palas forests are a source of material of day to day use like wood for construction, logging, furniture, heating, medicine and trade.

 

Kohistani (1994 In: Rafiq 1994) compiled a list of local names of 134 plant species. 91 plants were mentioned their scientific names and purpose of use for 109 plants was documented. Part used for 111 plants was also given.

 

Rafiq (1995) documented ethnobotanical use of 96 plant species along with notes on their altitudinal distribution, origin and their conservation status. To describe conservation status she used categories of vulnerable, endangered, rare, common and frequent (the records adopted from her are shown with *).

 

Shinwari (2003a) documented the local use methodology of more than 150 plant species from two villages (Bar Ghabair and Shuki Sair) but only up to the local nomenclature. Introduction of fodder crops was recommended to overcome the fodder shortage in the area.

 

Shinwari (2003b) studied the enhancement of earnings of non timber forest products in Palas.

 

This paper is an output from first comprehensive survey through area and is an attempt to gather information regarding the ethnobotanical use of flora in Palas valley in addition to rectifying the results of previous studies.

 

Methodology

The available literature regarding ethnobotanical research was reviewed before the field visits started. Visits were made to the valley from September 2003 May 2004 to collect the field data. Voucher specimens were collected, their local names and usage was documented through interviews with locals. The plants were taken to Herbarium, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad (ISL) for identification. Nomenclature used in this report follows Nasir and Ali (1972). Transect walks were made throughout the area to collect ethnobotanical data.

 

Results

Data collected regarding the ethnobotanical survey of the area is summarized in Annex 1 (records adopted from Rafiq (1995) are shown with *) and briefly discussed below.

 

Plant resources of Palas valley

The chorological spectrum of species show a high percentage of species with a distribution restricted to adjoining areas. A significant proportion of species are confined to the Northern mountains of Pakistan, Kashmir and east Afghanistan. Only one third of flora has wider distribution in Northern Hemisphere (Rafiq 1995, 1996).

 

These facts give special identity to Palas flora. A wide variety of plants are there but this report is confined only to the species common in use is by the locals.

 

People of the valley seem to have developed a strong relation to the native flora and there is a rich culture to utilize the flora in one way or the other, for their personal requirements. The plants are frequently utilized for fuel, fodder, timber, food, medicine, potherbs and many other ways. This paper includes 139 species belonging to 72 families that are frequently in local use. The brief details of plants, their local use and their local names are presented in Annex 1.

 

Food plants

The food plants may be categorized into those cultivated and wild plants. Cultivated plants include crop plants that form a substantial portion of the daily food requirement and fruit orchards. Wild food covers a fraction of food requirements and collected in their natural habitat by the locals.

 

The cultivated crops include maize as major crop followed by wheat (cultivated at lower elevations). Many legumes are also cultivated as intercrop with maize that not only serve as food but also add to the fertility of soil. Other species that are cultivated include squashes, cucumbers, chilies, tomatoes, potato, okra and brinjals.

 

The food plants in Palas valley include wild fruits, potherbs, brewages, spices, cash plants and dry fruits that supply a fraction of the food requirements of the people. Though it seems to have little economic importance, yet it forms an integral part of the local economy and culture.

 

The availability of wild food varies in the different seasons. In spring a lot of wild herbs are collected that serve as a food item for the people. These are not only utilized during the spring but also dried for use in later months especially in winter, when the food supply is scarce. The most frequently used wild vegetables include Allium humile Kunth (Palon), Amaranthus hybridus (Ganhar), Bistorta amplexicaulis (Rain), Chenopodium album L. (Konro), Cichorium intybus L.(Shar Shareen), Datura stramonium L. (Soweer), Ficus palmata (Phagoi), Nasturtium officinale (Tarmeera), Plantago sp. (Shalet), Portulaca oleracea, (Pichil), Rhammnella gilgitica (Makotch), Taraxacum officinale Weber. (Kaymat gul*/Pakoir), Trillidium govanianum (Trepath), Urtica dioica (Joim) and Viola sp. (Lilyo). Most of these vegetables are collected in spring or summer and preserved by drying and kept for further use in winter. In spring the forest bottom flourishes with the costly ‘Guchi’ (Morchella esculenta) that is a very delicious food and mostly collected for marketing.

 

The wild fruits of include Ficus palmata, Rubus sp., Celtis caucasica (Tagha), Olea cuspidata (Kao), Juglans regia (Atchoy), and Ziziphus oxyphylla (Sezen), Crataegus songarica, (Shenthal), Cotoneaster bacillaris,.(Loni), Pyrus pashia.(Tangore), Berberis brandisiana (Shugloo), Corylus jacquemontii (Urni), Diospyros lotus (Umlok), Elaeagnus parviflora (Ghowein), Fragaria indica (Kikoloh Mukbursa), Fragaria nubicola.(Mukbursa), Rhammnella gilgitica (Makotch) Ribes sp. (Hargul), Rubus niveus, (Zekeeny), Podophyllum emodi, (Shingoy) and Morus sp.(Marrotch), Punica granatum, (Danon), Taxus wallichiana (Chodan), Viburnum cotinifolium (Aoon), Vitis jacquemontii (Magrath) provide subsistence food, spices and a source of precious vitamins to the local communities, especially coming to the forest for resource collection or livestock herding. The cultivated species include Malus pumila (Palow), Prunus armeniaca (Jarowait), Prunus domestica (Alocha) and Prunus persica (Arh). Many of these products e.g. morels, fruits of walnuts, jujube are collected and sold in the local market, thus providing income to the poor community.

 

Herbal Medicine

Medicinal plants continue to be extensively used as a major source of drugs for the treatment of many health disorders all over the world. About 400-600 medicinal plant species out of a total of 5700 are estimated to exist in Pakistan. It is estimated that up to early 1970, 84% of Pakistani population was dependent on traditional medicines while an estimated 80% of the rural population of Pakistan still depends on traditional medicines for their primary healthcare needs.  According to an estimate 90% of the country’s medicinal herbs are imported (Atta-ur-Rahman and Choudhary, 2000).

 

In recent years there has been consistent growth in the demand for plant-based drugs and products from a variety of species. This has given rise to large-scale collection and habitat degradation. It has resulted in scarcity of a number of valuable medicinal plant species, and their wide range of chemical and genetic diversity will diminish if extraction from natural habitats continues at the present rate.

 

Palas is rich in medicinal plants. There has been a considerable trend in use of plants as a source of medicine in near past but it is going to decline now. The preliminary reason for decline in use of herbal medicine is introduction of allopathic medicines. Traditional medicine, however, has not lost its importance totally. Most frequently utilized medicinal plants include: Saussurea costus (Minyal), Valeriana sp. (Mushkbala), Angelica glauca (Chur), Ajuga bracteosa (Buti), Rheum webbianum (Chotyal) and Skimmia anquetilia (Namer). It is believed that smoke from leaves of Skimmia repels evil spirits.

 

Medicinal plants form a valuable source of income for the local people. The principal species that are collected commercially are Valeriana, Podophyllum, Saussurea costus (Minyal), and Viola (Lilio).

 

Construction Material

The people live a semi-nomadic life style and their houses vary according to the prevailing conditions and duration of stay. For example the houses in the villages are mostly made of mud and stones wall having bunkers inside. In high mountain meadows the houses are totally made of wood logs. A transitional stage includes the stone walls along with wooden frames incorporated in between. In general a house consumes a lot of timber wood. The order of preferences for using a certain timber varies as a function of availability/accessibility of wood.

 

Settlements at summer pastures almost exclusively made of yew. Cedrus deodara forms the major timber at lower locations along with Blue pine.  For smaller cross beams, Parrotiopsis, Olea, Juglans, Quercus and others are used. As thatching material the bushes like Plectranthus rugosus, Indigofera sp., Sophora sp., and ferns in the descending order of preference locally.

 

Fuel Wood

Fuel wood is one of the most important basic needs in the area. Trend in using any other kind of fuel like dung cakes was not found in the area. Although, the collectors prefer deadwood but cut alive branches or small trees if deadwood is scarce. It is exclusively fulfilled from the forests. The most preferred wood in the area is oak followed by Olea, Yew, willow, mulberries and walnuts etc. Besides these each and every plant which is otherwise useless is generally exposed to burning as fuel wood.

 

Cash plants

‘Guchis’ (Morchella esculenta) are generally collected by locals from the forest, and sold in the market with handsome earning. Similarly the walnuts are also sold in the market for better reward. Other species that are brought to market include some medicinal plants. Amlok (Diospyros lotus) and Sezen (Ziziphus oxyphylla) are also taken to the market for sale. Kal Ziri (Vernonia anthelmentica) and Hayon (Bunium persicum) are commonly brought spices for selling.

 

Agricultural tools and handles:

Most of the parts of plough other than yokes are made of oaks. Celtis (chukibaeoon) wood is preferred for making yokes. For sticks and handles etc., Parrotiopsis (‘Pashot’) and Cotoneaster (‘Loni’) are generally preferred.

 

Fodder species

Since the people of Palas are transhumant pastoralists, livestock keeping is the major economic resource forming an integral part of the traditional tribal community. It not only provides food in the form of animal fat, milk, and its products but also a source of cash income for the local people. A large number of plant species are used as feed by the domestic like sheep, goats, cattle, and donkeys. Free grazing is practiced to a great extent in the area. People collect fodder in both arboresent and herbaceous forms during winter. The fodder includes both cultivated and wild species. Principally the fodder is collected for use in winter months. Grasses form the major source of collected fodder and are harvested from the margins of agricultural fields and wasteland and from forests at steeper slopes during fall.

 

The fodder grasses together with maize and wheat stalks, gathered after the grain has been harvested, are stored and used during the winter. Fodder is stored for winter in piles known as ‘Tope’, which consist of two bundles of grass, tied together at one end and impended over a branch of tree. The grass species that are stored as fodder, although not shown in annex 1, include Apluda mutica, Aristida adscenscionis, Bromus pectinatus, Chrysopogon gryllus, Cymbopogon jawarancusa, Dichanthium annulatum, Digitaria sp., Festuca sp., Heteropogon contortus, Imperata cylindrica, Poa sp., Setaria sp., and Themeda anathera.

 

Plants with Miscellaneous Use

The plants that were classified in this category included the plants used for cleaning of utensils (like Senecio chrysanthemoides), green pesticides (like Aconogonum alpinum), etc. The leaves of Juniperus macropoda (Chilley) are boiled in water and this water is used to treat milk pots with a view that the production of butter increases this way. The fruit of Cucurbita moschata (Shan ko Tok) is dried and used to make pots for milk and water, similarly Acer sp. (Chain) wood is used to make utensils for everyday use.  These activities should be encouraged and properly managed by the local people for better use of resources for benefit of the local people and protection of ethnobotanical culture. This could turn into a useful cottage industry in the area.

 

Discussion

The mountain environment has emerged as one of the most significant challenges to human understanding and organizational ability in 20th century. Over the last several hundred years, and in particular in the current century, the human impact on mountain environment has increased considerably. These interventions have both stabilizing and disturbing effects on the mountain environments.

 

In any mountain subsistence-agricultural system, the demands on the forest are numerous and fairly self evident: fuelwood, undoubtedly, and construction timber, house shingles, timber for house and farm utensils, and, of no less importance to the villages, fodder, thatch, and animal bedding. To these must be added medicinal herbs, nuts, fruits, mushrooms, and other secondary products.

 

According to Bandyopadhyay (1993) population growth in the 20 century has lead to a "downward spiral of environmental degradation under the condition of a high population density in the Himalayan region”. In case of Palas, livestock grazing is the main problem. There is a geometric increase in livestock with an arithmetic increase in population. Khan (2002) reported that livestock population in the range area was 817.55 livestock units (LU) against the required stocking density of 82.5 LU at rangeland that represents a high grazing pressure. The most prone areas to such disturbance are the sub-alpine and alpine zones, which are main supply of ethnobotanically important flora. Here the livestock density increases due to localized shift of animals from lower areas during summers (Fig. 1). As soon as snow melts these areas are occupied by man and his animals and remain under constant grazing pressures till fall. There is already a decline in the extent and quality of high elevation pastures and consequent habitat/species loss resulting in decline of many species and changed species dynamics in plant communities of this zone. Livestock population levels need to be reduced or some system of rotational grazing has to be introduced.

 

 

Fig. 1: Livestock density in various seasons during transhumance

 

Non sustainable collections of few medicinal plants pose a great threat to the flora of Palas. These plants include Valeriana jatamansi (‘Mushkbala’), Saussurea costus (‘Manial’), Paeonia emodi (‘Mamekh’) and Podophyllum emodi (‘Shinrgo’). These plants may face a local extinction in future if constantly being exploited at such rates.

 

There are some plants, which are not over harvested but have market value. These include:

Acorus calamus, Adiantum venustum, Ajuga bracteosa, Artemisia vulgaris, Berberis, Bergenia ciliata, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Caltha alba, Cichorium intybus, Colchicum luteum, Bunium persicum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Diospyros lotus, Ephedra intermedia, Geranium wallichianum, Hedera nepalensis, Hyoscyamus niger, Hypericum perforatum, Origanum vulgare, Rheum and Thymus linearis. These plants could provide an alternative/ additional income for the local people. Surveys and analyses of the degree and extent of the subsistence etc for these plants should be conducted prior to encouraging more intensive commercial exploitation. The cultivation of such ‘commercial’ plants would definitely create new opportunities for locals and could help reduce the pressure on wild population. Marketing analyses should be performed and better linkages should be developed among the locals and networks already dealing with these products.

 

An awareness program in the area about the importance of the indigenous flora, sustainable plants collection and conservation of important medicinal plants would be desirable. The local community should be involved in conservation practices.

 

Too little is documented about many areas that may affect ecosystem management strategy in the study area, like - population fluctuations, coexistence, carrying capacity, interspecific interactions or harvest rates of ethnobotanical species. These issues must be addressed in addition to case studies of future for better management and integrity of Palas ecosystem that is a great asset.

 

References

 

Bandyopadhyay, J. (1993). Understanding Environment-Poverty Relationship in the fragile Himalayan region. An introductory framework. In: ICIMOD – Development of poor mountain areas. Ed. Maheh Banskota and Pitamber Sharma, Proceedings of an international Forum, Beijing, March 22 – 27, 1993.

Khan, S. (2002). Design an action plan for livestock keeping and management practices in two pastures. Consultancy No 17. Palas Conservation and Development Project, Palas, Kohistan.

Kohistani, R. (1994). A preliminary ethnobotanical checklist. Plants with socioeconomic value in Palas. In Rafiq (1994) A preliminary botanical inventory and ethnobotanical checklist. Palas Valley, District Kohistan, NWFP. A report submitted to Himalayan Jungle Project (HJP).

Nasir, E. and S. I. Ali (eds.). (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 1028 pp. Fakhri Press, Karachi.

Rafiq, R.A. (1994). A preliminary botanical inventory and ethnobotanical checklist. Palas Valley, District Kohistan, NWFP. A report submitted to Himalayan Jungle Project (HJP).

Rafiq, R.A. (1995). The flora of Palas valley and plant conservation priorities. Report on the botanical studies in Palas valley (1992-1995). Report prepared for Himalayan Jungle Project, Palas Valley, Kohistan.

Rafiq, R.A. (1996). Taxonomical, Chorological and Phytosociological Studies on the Vegetation of Palas Valley. Ph. D. Dissertation Botany Department, National History Museum, Vienna, Austria

Shinwari, Z. K. (2003a). Study Existing use Regime of Key Floral Species, Identify Issues and Threats. Consultancy No 5. Palas Conservation and Development Project, Palas, Kohistan.

Shinwari, Z.K. (2003b). Document the proposed Enhancement of earnings of Non Timber Forest Products. Consultancy No 15. Palas Conservation and Development Project, Palas, Kohistan.


 

Annex 1

 

Botanical Name:           Abies pindrow Royle

Family:             Pinaceae

Local Name:                 Rein

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Trunk, Branches

Folk use:                      The plant is used as timber, beams for bridges and roofs and fuel wood in the area. The trunks are also used to make water storage tanks and as channel for water flow.

 

Botanical Name:           Acacia modesta Wall.

Family:             Mimosaceae

Local Name:                 Palos

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Leaves, Gums

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used as fodder. Gum is stimulant and given as cooked meal with ‘Desi ghee’, Poppy seeds and almonds to women after child birth.

 

Botanical Name:           Acer caesium Wall

Family:             Aceraceae

Local Name:                 Chain

Habit:                           Small Tree

Part Used:                    Wood

Folk use:                      The plant is used as fuel wood and making utensils.

 

Botanical Name:           Acer cappadocicum Gled.

Family:             Aceraceae

Local Name:                 Chin

Habit:                           Small Tree

Part Used:                    Wood

Folk use:                      The plant is used as fuel wood and making utensils.

 

Botanical Name:           Achillea millefolium L.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Raon

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Used in treatment of wounds

 

Botanical Name:           Aconitum laeve Royle

Family:             Ranunculaceae

Local Name:                 Maniree

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Aconogonum alpina (All.) Schur

Family:             Polygonaceae

Local Name:                 Pul-pulak

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Used as fish poison.

 

Botanical Name:           Adiantum venustum D. Don

Family:                         Adaintaceae

Local Name:                 Sumbul

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Aesculus indica (Wall. ex. Cambl.) Hk.f.         

Family:             Hippocastinaceae

Local Name:                 Ashanr

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves and Fruit

Folk Use:                     Wood is used as timber, furniture, agricultural tools and house hold utensils. Leaves are used as fodder while fruits serve for treating colic in horses and for stamina in cattle.

 

Botanical Name:           Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle

Family:             Simarubaceae

Local Name:                 Lagan

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Gum resin

Folk Use:                     Wood is used as a fuel. Leaves although not preferred by livestock, used as fodder. Gum resin is mixed with milk to treat dysentery.

 

Botanical Name:           Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex. Benth

Family:                         Lmiaceae

Local Name:                 Buti

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used to purify blood

 

Botanical Name:           Ajuga. parviflora Beth

Family:                         Lamiaceae

Local Name:                 Buti

Folk Use:                     Used to purify blood

 

Botanical Name:           Allium humile Kunth

Family:             Alliaceae

Local Name:                 Palon

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Amaranthus hybridus L.

Family:             Amaranthaceae

Local Name:                 Ganhar

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf, seeds

Folk Use:                     Both seeds and leaves are cooked as food. Seeds are also used to make bread.

 

Botanical Name:           Angelica glauca Edgew

Family:             Apiaceae

Local Name:                 Chur

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Used in treatment of diarrhea. Sometimes added in snuff to make it stronger. Also used to attract honeybees*

 

Botanical Name:           Arnebia benthami (Wall. ex. G.Don.) I.M. Johnston

Family:             Boraginaceae

Local Name:                 Ratrati

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine, dye*

 

Botanical Name:           Artemisia brevifolia Wall. ex. DC

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Azhanr

Habit:                          

Part Used:                   

Folk Use:                    

 

Botanical Name:           Artemisia scoparia L.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Jao

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Plant

Folk Use:                     Used as medicine against malarial fever. Also used to make brooms.

 

Botanical Name:           Astragalus subumbellatus Kl.

Family:             Paplionaceae

Local Name:                 Mazkoro

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Branches, root*

Folk Use:                     Branches are used as a toothbrush (‘miswak’). Roots are used for medicinal purposes*.  The extract of roots is taken to purify blood.

 

Botanical Name:           Berberis brandisiana Ahrendt

Family:             Berberidaceae

Local Name:                 Shugloo

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, Fruits, Bark

Folk Use:                     Leaves decoction is useful in dysentery and sore throat. Fruits are edible. Root and stem bark is tonic and is frequently utilized for healing of wounds and arthritis.

 

Botanical Name:           Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb.

Family:                         Saxifragaceae

Local Name:                 Koarat

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Root is powdered and utilized as medicine. This plant is extracted at commercial scale.

 

Botanical Name:           Betula utilis D. Don

Family:             Betulaceae

Local Name:                 Yojh

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    whole plant

Folk use:                      Wood is used for making agricultural tools and also valued as a timber wood. Branches are used as fuel. Bark can be removed as a paper that is used to pack butter and ‘ghee’. Leaves are utilized as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Bistorta amplexicaulis (D. Don) Green

Family:             Polygonaceae

Local Name:                 Rain

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf, root*

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used as a vegetable. Root is medicinal*.

 

Botanical Name:           Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedt.

Family:             Apiaceae

Local Name:                 Hayon

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Used as spice and a remedy for colic.

 

Botanical Name:           Caltha alba Jacq. ex. Camb

Family:             Ranunculaceae

Local Name:                 Thoktokoe*, Makhanpat

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Cannabis sativa L.

Family:             Canabinaceae

Local Name:                 Bhang

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, Flowering tops, whole plant, Seeds

Folk Use:                     Paste made from fresh leaves is used to kill lice. Flowering tops are sedative, anodyne and narcotic. Sometimes relished by the horses and mules. Given to equine in case of stomachache.

 

Botanical Name:           Cardamine macrophylla Willd.

Family:             Apiaceae

Local Name:                 Kaur

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Herb

Folk Use:                     Vegetable*.

 

Botanical Name:           Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex. Lamb.) G. Don

Family:             Pinaceae

Local Name:                 Faloojh

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, gum/resin

Folk Use:                     This is a very valuable timber species in the area and majority of houses have utilized this wood as construction material. The gum/resin is chewed by youngsters as a ‘chewing gum’. Torchwood obtained from this tree is called ‘chowb’: as compared to ‘lahee’ of Pinus wallichiana this torchwood produces less smoke but extinguishes earlier than ‘lahee’.

 

Botanical Name:           Celtis caucasica Willd.

Family:             Ulmaceae

Local Name:                 Chukki beoon

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Fruits

Folk Use:                     wood is used for making agricultural tools and for fuel purposes. Leaves are used as fodder while fruit is used in colic and allergy.

 

Botanical Name:           Chenopodium album L.

Family:                         Chenopodiaceae

Local Name:                 Konro

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Principally utilized as food plant also used as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Cichorium intybus L.

Family:                         Astraceae

Local Name:                 Shar Shareen

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Young shoots

Folk Use:                     Cooked as food.

 

Botanical Name:           Cirsium falconeri (Hk.f.) Petrak

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Jowch

Habit:                           Tall herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Corydalis govaniana Wall. ex. Tent.

Family:                         Papveraceae

Local Name:                 Mamere

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Used in case of ophthalmic diseases

 

Botanical Name:           Corylus jacquemontii Decne.

Family:             Corylaceae

Local Name:                 Urni

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Fruit, seed*

Folk Use:                     Fruits are edible. Seeds are used as medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall. ex Lindl.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Loni

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     fruit is edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Cotoneaster nummularia Fish & Mey.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Loni

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Stem and branches are used for making walking sticks, agricultural tools and for fencing.

 

Botanical Name:           Crataegus songarica C. Koch.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Sheteel

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Whole plant, Fruits

Folk Use:                     Leaves used as fodder, wood for fuel requirements. Fruits are edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.           

Family:             Cuscutaceae

Local Name:                 Ooloe

Habit:                           Parasitic climber

Part Used:                    whole plant

Folk Use:                     Used as anti-lice and for treating sores.

 

Botanical Name:           Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Family:                         Papilionaceae

Local Name:                 Tali

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as fuel wood

 

Botanical Name:           Daphne oleoides Schreb.

Family:             Thymelaeaceae

Local Name:                 Kutilal

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    wood, Fruits

Folk Use:                     Fuel wood. Fruit is edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Datisca cannabina L.

Family:             Datiscaceae

Local Name:                 Kalbeer

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used to cure toothache and gum diseases.

 

Botanical Name:           Datura stramonium L.

Family:                         Solanaceae

Local Name:                 Soweer

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Young leaves, seeds

Folk Use:                     Seeds are used against urinary complaints.

 

Botanical Name:           Debregeasia salicifolia (D. Don) Rendle.

Family:             Urticaceae

Local Name:                 Chewr

Habit:                           A water course shrub

Part Used:                    Branches

Folk Use:                     It is used as fuel wood. Branches are used as material for fencing and thatching.

 

Botanical Name:           Desmodium elegans D.C.

Family:             Papilionaceae

Local Name:                 Shay-muth

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, Branches

Folk Use:                     Leaves serve as fodder for goats while branches are used as fuel purpose.

 

Botanical Name:           Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.

Family:             Dioscoraceae

Local Name:                 Chalyon

Habit:                           Climber

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicinal. The fruit is used by young children as toy.

 

Botanical Name:           Diospyros lotus L.

Family:             Ebenaceae

Local Name:                 Umlok

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Fruit, wood, leaves

Local Uses:                  The wood is used as fuel. Fruits are edible which are carminative, and causes flatulence. Leaves are used as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

Family:             Sapindaceae

Local Name:                 Schownt

Habit:                           A shrubby plant of exposed dry habitat.

Part Used:                    Leaves, seeds, wood

Local Uses:                  It is used in swelling, burns, thatching and fencing. Shoots are used to make brooms.

 

Botanical Name:           Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall.

Family:             Elagnaceae

Local Name:                 Ghowein

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Wood, Fruits

Local Uses:                  Fuel wood. Fruits are edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Ephedra gerardiana var. gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf

Family:             Ephedraceae

Local Name:                 Soon

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Shrub

Local Uses:                  Given to goats in case of cough. Ash is used in making snuff.

 

Botanical Name:           Euphorbia wallichii Hk. f.

Family:             Euphorbiaceae

Local Name:                 Titree

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root*

Folk Use:                     Roots are used as  medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Ficus palmata Forssk.

Family:             Moraceae

Local Name:                 Phagoi

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Fruit, Latex

Folk Use:                     Fruits are edible and laxative. Young fruits and leaves are also cooked as food. Wood is used as fuel and leaves as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex. G. Don.) Maxim.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Shwansh

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                   

Folk Use:                     Medicine*

 

Botanical Name:           Fragaria indica Andr.

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Kikoloh Mukbursa

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex. Lacaita.

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Mukbursa

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (Wall. ex G. Don) DC.

Family:             Oleaceae

Local Name:                 Kasudar

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Leaves and branches

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used as fodder. Also utilized as fuel. Leaves are also reported to be medicinal*.

 

Botanical Name:           Galium aparine L.

Family:             Rubiaceae

Local Name:                 Loh

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Herb cooked in ‘desi ghee’(milk fat) and used to heal local injuries

 

Botanical Name:           Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet

Family:             Geraniaceae

Local Name:                 Ratan jok

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine

 

Botanical Name:           Geum elatum Wall.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Toktoko

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaf

Folk Use:                     Medicinal*

 

Botanical Name:           Gymnosporia royleana Wall. Lawson.           

Family:             Celastraceae

Local Name:                 Phaykar

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Used as fodder fuel wood.

 

Botanical Name:           Hedera nepalensis K. Koch

Family:                         Araliaceae

Local Name:                 Harbumbar

Habit:                           Climber

Part Used:                    Leaves, fruit

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used as fodder and fruit is medicinal.

 

Botanical Name:           Hypericum perforatum L.

Family:                         Guttiferaceae

Local Name:                 Shawnsh

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Beverage

 

Botanical Name:           Impatiens glandulifera Royle

Family:                         Balsaminaceae

Local Name:                 Koindaru*/Kandroi/Bhantil

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Seeds

Folk Use:                     Food*.

 

Botanical Name:           Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex. Brand.

Family:             Papilionaceae

Local Name:                 Kasti

Habit:                           A medium sized shrub

Part Used:                    Shoots, branches

Local Uses:                  Shoots serve as fodder for goats (not preferred). Young branches are twisted into ropes (‘greel’), also used to make brooms and as fencing, thatching and roofing material. Ash is used for making snuff. Roots have been reported to have medicinal properties*.

 

Botanical Name:           Jasminum humile L.

Family:             Oleaceae

Local Name:                 Tubkoi

Habit:                           Climbing shrub

Part Used:                    Root

Local Uses:                  Root decoction is used for curing ringworms.

 

Botanical Name:           Jasminum leptophyllum Rubina Rafiq

Family:             Oleaceae

Local Name:                 Nik

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, Branches

Local Uses:                  Used as fumigant against fleas*. Also used against lice in cattle. In old times the leaves were crushed, added to water and this water was poured over rocks heated by fire to break them, as there was no dynamite available at that time.

 

Botanical Name:           Juglans regia L.

Family:             Juglandaceae

Local Name:                 Khakhaye*/ Atchoy/ Akhrot

Habit:                           Wild/cultivated deciduous tree

Part Used:                    Nuts, bark, leaves, and wood

Local Uses:                  Root bark (Dandasa) is used for cleaning and sparkling teeth. Leaves are also used to color lips. Nuts edible. Decoction of leaves is given in case of itch.

 

Botanical Name:           Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Chukni

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine, ‘chewing gum’*

 

Botanical Name:           Malus pumila Mill.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Palow

Habit:                           A cultivated fruit tree with many varieties

Part Used:                    Fruit, flowers, leaves, wood

Folk Use:                     Valuable commercial fruit. Wood is hard and sometimes used for agricultural tools, branches serves as fuel wood and leaves as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Malva sylvestris L.

Family:                         Malvaceae

Local Name:                 Shanee

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Cooked as food, often cultivated.

 

Botanical Name:           Melia azedarach L.

Family:             Meliaceae

Local Name:                 Lagan

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Fruit

Folk Use:                     Used as timber wood. Leaves are used as fodder. Fruits grind and fed to the goats as carminative. Leaves grind and used to cure fever and as purifier.

 

Botanical Name:           Mentha royleana Benth.

Family:             Lamiaceae

Local Name:                 Phebil

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Plant

Folk Use:                     Dried leaves are crushed, mixed with table salt and used for abdominal pain.

 

Botanical Name:           Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers ex. Fr

Family:             Halveliaceae

Local Name:                 Guchi

Habit:                           Fungi

Part Used:                    Plant

Folk Use:                     An important market item. Used as food.

 

Botanical Name:           Morus alba L.

Family:             Moraceae

Local Name:                 Marrotch

Habit:                           A cultivated or wild deciduous tree

Part Used:                    Fruits, leaves, branches, trunk

Folk Use:                     Fruits are eaten both fresh and dry.  Baskets are made from branches. Leaves used as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Morus nigra L.

Family:                         Moraceae

Local Name:                 Marrotch

Habit:                           A cultivated or wild deciduous tree

Part Used:                    Leaves, fruits, branches, wood

Folk Use:                     Fruits are eaten both fresh and dry.  Baskets are made from branches. Leaves used as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Myrsine africana L.

Family:             Myrsinaceae

Local Name:                

Habit:                           A medium sized shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, fruits

Folk Use:                    

 

Botanical Name:           Myrtis communis L.

Family:             Myrtaceae

Local Name:                 Aoob/Manoo

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as fragrance in tea.

 

Botanical Name:           Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Family:                         Brassicaceae

Local Name:                 Tarmeera.

Habit:                           Water course herb

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Used as potherb.

 

Botanical Name:           Nerium indicum Mill.

Family:             Apocyanaceae

Local Name:                 Phudr

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves, branches

Folk Use:                     Used as fumigant against fleas. Branches used as thatching material and sometimes as toothbrush (‘miswak’)

 

Botanical Name:           Olea ferruginea Royle

Family:             Oleaceae

Local Name:                 Kao

Habit:                           Medium sized tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Bark

Folk Use:                     Wood is used for making sticks, agricultural tools, firewood and as timber. Leaves used as fodder. Leaves decoction is used for toothache and bark is used to cure fever. Young branches used to make ropes (‘Greel’).

 

Botanical Name:           Oxalis corniculata L.

Family:                         Oxalidaceae

Local Name:                 Chukee

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as flavoring agent.

 

Botanical Name:           Paeonia emodi Wall. ex. Hk. f.

Family:             Paeoniaceae

Local Name:                 Mamekh

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Given to livestock in case of fever. Also served to bulls as tonic.

 

Botanical Name:           Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne.) Rehder

Family:             Hamamelidaceae

Local Name:                 Pashot

Habit:                           Small tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Branches

Folk Use:                     Wood is used for making agricultural tools and sticks. Leaves are                                              utilized as fodder while branches serve as fuel wood

 

Botanical Name:           Pedicularis sp.

Family:             Scrophulariaceae

Local Name:                 Malphatoi*

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                   

Folk Use:                    

 

Botanical Name:           Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss.

Family:             Pinaceae

Local Name:                 Katcral

Habit:                           Tall tree

Part Used:                    Whole tree.

Folk Use:                     Timber wood used in bridges, building houses, fuelwood.

 

Botanical Name:           Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson

Family:             Pinaceae

Local Name:                 Choee

Habit:                           Tall tree of

Part Used:                    Whole tree

folk Use:                       Valuable timber wood, used for house building, making furniture, making bridges. Also used as torchwood called ‘lahee’.

 

Botanical Name:           Pistacia chinensis subsp. integerrima Bunge

Family:             Anacardiaceae

Local Name:                 Kakoh

Habit:                           Medium sized tree

Part Used:                    Wood, Leaves, Bark

Folk Use:                     Wood used as fuel. Leaves serve as fodder for cattle .Tonic, antiseptic. Bark is used for curing wounds.

 

Botanical Name:           Plantago lanceolata L.

Family:                         Plantaginaceae

Local Name:                 Shalet

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as potherb

 

Botanical Name:           Plantago major L.

Family:                         Plantaginaceae

Local Name:                 Shalet

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as potherb

 

Botanical Name:           Plectranthus rugosus Wall ex. Bth

Family:                         Lamiaceae

Local Name:                 Salzal

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Given to cattle to increase milk yield and also used to repel fleas.

 

Botanical Name:           Podophyllum emodi Wall.

Family:                         Podophyllaceae

Local Name:                 Shingoy

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit, Root

Folk Use:                     Fruit is edible. Root is used in medicines, so this plant is collected at                               commercial basis.

 

Botanical Name:           Polygonum paronychioides C.A. Mey. ex. Hohen.

Family:             Polygonaceae

Local Name:                 Bankay

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Herb

Folk Use:                     Medicinal

 

Botanical Name:           a. Populus caspica Bornm.

                                    b. Populus ciliata Wall.

Family:             Salicaceae

Local Name:                 Turuk

Habit:                           Tall cultivated tree especially on roadsides

Part Used:                    Leaves, wood

Folk Use:                     Used as fuel wood, ornamental, shade tree, used for making shelters for tobacco drying. Leaves serve as fodder for goats and sheep.

 

Botanical Name:           Portulaca oleracea L.

Family:                         Portulacaceae

Local Name:                 Pichil

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Plant

Folk Use:                     Used as potherb

 

Botanical Name:           Prunus armeniaca L.

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Jaroait

Habit:                           A cultivated fruit tree

Part Used:                    Fruits, wood, leaves, seeds

Folk Use:                     Fruits and seeds are eaten both fresh and dry. Leaves serve as fresh fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steud.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Bhareet

Habit:                           A medium sized tree.

Part Used:                    Fruit, wood, leaves

Folk Use:                     firewood, fodder and medicine.

 

Botanical Name:           Prunus domestica L.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Alucha

Habit:                           A medium sized cultivated fruit tree with many varieties

Part Used:                    Fruit, wood, leaves

Folk Use:                     Fruit pulp is used in chutneys. Wood is used for burning. Leaves are used as fresh fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Shaftalu

Habit:                           A small sized wild/cultivated fruit tree with many varieties

Part Used:                    Fruit, leaves and wood

Folk Use:                     Fruits edible, fuel wood, leaves serve as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Pteridium aquilinum (L) Kuhn.

Family:                         Pteridaceae

Local Name:                 Hatoye

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fronds

Folk Use:                     Fronds cooked as food. Also used as thatching material.

 

Botanical Name:           Punica granatum L.

Family:             Punicaceae

Local Name:                 Danon

Habit:                           A wild/cultivated fruit yielding small bush like tree

Part Used:                    Fruit, bark, leaves

Folk Use:                     fruit is edible. Leaves and fruit pericarp used in dysentery, whooping cough, it is laxative. Seeds are dried and condiments and used as spices. Bark of stem used to cure fever.

 

Botanical Name:           Pyrus communis L.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Nashpati

Habit:                           Cultivated tree with many varieties

Part Used:                    Fruits, wood

Folk Use:                     Fruits are edible and have a commercial value. Wood is used for burning purposes.

 

Botanical Name:           Pyrus pashia Ham ex. D.Don.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Tangore

Habit:                           A wild fruit tree

Part Used:                    Fruits, wood

Folk Use:                     Fruits are edible also used as Fuel wood.

 

Botanical Name:           Quercus baloot Griffith

Family:                         Fagaceae

Local Name:                 Bani

Habit:                           A slow growing tree

Part Used:                    Wood

Folk Use:                     Timber, fuel wood, Wood is also used for making agricultural tools specially ploughs and handles. Fruit is called ‘geroli’ that is roasted over fire and used as dry fruit.

 

Botanical Name:           Quercus floribunda Lindl. ex A. Camus

Family:             Fagaceae

Local Name:                 Jareend

Habit:                           A slow growing tree

Part Used:                    Wood and nuts

Folk Use:                     Fuel wood species. Seeds are edible used in diarrhea, indigestion and asthma. Children play marbles with seeds. Wood is used in agricultural tools, handles of plough, axes, gun buts, and walking sticks.

 

Botanical Name:           Rhammnella gilgitica Mansf. & Melch.

Family:             Rhamnaceae

Local Name:                 Makotch

Habit:                           Shrub to small tree

Part Used:                    Leaves, fruit

Folk Use:                     Leaves are cooked as food. Fruit is edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Rheum webbianum Royle

Family:             Polygonaceae

Local Name:                 Chotyal

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Used as laxative.

 

Botanical Name:           Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne.

Family:             Grossulariaceae

Local Name:                 Kim Hargul

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Ribes orientale Desf.

Family:             Grossulariaceae

Local Name:                 Lhil Hargul

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Food

 

Botanical Name:           Ricinus communis L.

Family:             Euphorbiaceae

Local Name:                 Jamal ghota

Habit:                           A perennial herbaceous shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     The whole plant is poisonous and used as purgative in cattle. Poultice of leaves is applied to swellings.

 

Botanical Name:           Rosa brunonii Lindl.

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Train

Habit:                           Climbing shrub

Part Used:                    Flowers, branches

Folk Use:                     Used in fencing and hedges. Small pieces of branches are used to check the butter produced, while blowing the milk.

 

Botanical Name:           Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Shegay

Habit:                           Climbing to prostrate shrub.

Part Used:                    Flowers.

Folk Use:                     Used in medicine*.

 

Botanical Name:           Rubus ellipticus Smith

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Sra Karwara, Bagana

Habit:                           A climbing shrub

Part Used:                    Fruits and leaves

Folk Use:                     Leaves serve as fodder for goats, hedge plant.

 

Botanical Name:           Rubus niveus Hk.f.

Family:                         Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Zekeeny

Habit:                           A prostate to climbing shrub

Part Used:                    Fruits and leaves

Folk Use:                     Leaves are used to cure cough and fever. Fruits are edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Rumex nepalensis Spreng

Family:                         Polygonaceae

Local Name:                 Hobobal

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Used as laxative.

 

Botanical Name:           Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

Family:                         Salicaceae

Local Name:                 Beown

Habit:                           A deciduous tree along water courses

Part Used:                    Whole tree

Folk Use:                     Fuel wood, used in making smoking pipes, newly sprouted leaves are used to treat fever.

 

Botanical Name:           Sambucus wightiana Wall. ex. Wight & Arn.

Family:             Sambucaceae

Local Name:                 Ghandalee

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Used as laxative

 

Botanical Name:           Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Minyal, Kuth

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Used to treat pains especially arthritis. 

 

Botanical Name:           Sedum ewersii Ledeb.

Family:                         Crassulaceae

Local Name:                 Pichil

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Flowers

Folk Use:                     Used to treat goats, in case of illness due to overtake of salt.

 

Botanical Name:           Senecio chrysanthemoides DC.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Gup/Kalay di Jar

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Used as fodder and also to clean the utensils.

 

Botanical Name:           Skimmia anquetilia N.P. Taylor & Airy shaw.

Family:             Rutaceae

Local Name:                 Namer

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     It is believed that smoke from leaves repel evil spirits. Also used in curing small pox

 

Botanical Name:           Solanum nigrum L.

Family:                         Solanaceae

Local Name:                 Kach Mako

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Fruit is edible. Medicinal

 

Botanical Name:           Solanum surattense Brum. f

Family:                         Solanaceae

Local Name:                 Kor

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Fruit, roots

Folk Use:                     Medicinal

 

Botanical Name:           Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Karhee

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Utilized as fodder.

 

Botanical Name:           Sorbus lanata (D. Don) S. Schauer

Family:             Rosaceae

Local Name:                 Gurtu

Habit:                           Small tree

Part Used:                    Fruit

Folk Use:                     Fruit is edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Taraxacum officinale Weber.

Family:                         Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Kaymat gul*/Pakoir

Habit:                          

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Root is said to have medicinal properties*. The herb is cooked as                                              food.

 

Botanical Name:           Taxus wallichiana Zucc

Family:             Taxaceae

Local Name:                 Chodan

Habit:                           Tree

Part Used:                    Bark, fruit

Folk Use:                     Bark is locally used to make tea. Fruit is edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Thalictrum cultratum Wall

Family:                         Ranunculaceae

Local Name:                 Mamera

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Medicinal

 

Botanical Name:           Thymus linearis Benth

Family:             Lamiaceae

Local Name:                 Ispirki

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Herb

Folk Use:                     Used to make tea

 

Botanical Name:           Trillidium govanianum (Royle) Kunth

Family:             Trillidiaceae

Local Name:                 Trepath

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Leaves

Folk Use:                     Cooked as food

 

Botanical Name:           Urtica dioica L.

Family:             Urticaceae

Local Name:                 Joim

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Young leaves. root

Folk Use:                     Young leaves are cooked as food also dried for later use. Roots are reported to have medicinal properties*.

 

Botanical Name:           Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Family:                         Velerianaceae

Local Name:                 Mushkbala

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine, commercially exploited.

 

Botanical Name:           Valeriana stracheyi Clarke

Family:             Valerianaceae

Local Name:                 Mushkbalee, Koindaru*

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Root

Folk Use:                     Medicine

 

Botanical Name:           Verbascum thapsus L.

Family:                         Scrophulariaceae

Local Name:                 Khar dag

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Roots

Folk Use:                     Medicinal

 

Botanical Name:           Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don

Family:             Caprifoliaceae

Local Name:                 Aoon

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruits, branches

Local Uses:                  Fruits are edible, branches serve as fuel wood.

 

Botanical Name:           Viburnum nervosum D. Don.

Family:             Caprifoliaceae

Local Name:                 Juglote/ Jhul

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Fruits, branches

Local Uses:                  The fruits are edible, branches serve as fuelwood.

 

Botanical Name:           Viola sp.

Family:                         Violaceae

Local Name:                 Lilyo

Habit:                           Herb

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Folk Use:                     Leaves are cooked as food. Flowers collected at commercial scale. Decoction of flowers is useful in coughs and colds. Roots are thought useful in jaundice.

 

Botanical Name:           Vitis jacquemontii Parker

Family:             Vitaceae

Local Name:                 Magrath

Habit:                           A perennial wild climber, sometimes covering rocks or a tree

Part Used:                    Fruit

Local Uses:                  Fruit edible.

 

Botanical Name:           Wikstroemia canescens Meissn.

Family:             Thymeliaceae

Local Name:                 Kathan

Habit:                           Shrub

Part Used:                    Branches

Folk Use:                     Used are used to make ropes (‘greel’).

 

Botanical Name:           Xanthium strumarium L.

Family:             Asteraceae

Local Name:                 Markandi                                

Habit:                           Shrub                          

Part Used:                    Leaves            

Folk Use:                     Leaves decoction is recommended in malarial fever.

 

Botanical Name:           Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Family:             Rutaceae

Local Name:                 Timbar

Habit:                           A medium sized spiny shrub

Part Used:                    Bark, fruit, stem, seeds

Folk Use:                     Fruit used in case of stomachache, toothache and as a carminative, used in. Seeds are used as condiment, flavoring agent. Young shoots are useful in gum diseases, also used as toothbrushes (‘Miswak’). Stem and branches are used to make walking sticks.

 

Botanical Name:           Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Family:             Rhamnaceae

Local Name:                 Sezen                          

Habit:                           Tree                            

Part Used:                    Wood, leaves, roots, bark, fruits                                  

Folk Use:                     Used as fuel wood and fodder for goats. Fruit decoction. Root bark macerated in milk is given along with honey in diarrhea and dysentery. 

 

Botanical Name:           Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew.

Family:             Rhamnaceae

Local Name:                 Sezen                          

Habit:                           Shurb                          

Part Used:                    Fruits, Root

Folk Use:                     Fruits are edible. Roots are used in curing jaundice.

 

 


Acknowledgements

 

This study was funded and supported by Palas Conservation and Development Project (PCDP), Kohistan, NWFP. The PCDP aims to safeguard biodiversity in Palas by enabling the local communities to tackle the linked causes of poverty and incipient natural resource degradation, through an integrated and participatory approach to conservation and development.

 

Special thanks are due to Dr.Rizwana Aleem and Dr. Mir Ajab Khan (Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad) for their valuable help in identification of many plants collected from the study area.